Convex to shield shaped Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
Stem type:
Spore colour:
Cap type:
Fungus colour:
Normal size:
Location:
Flesh:
Class:
Order:
Family:
Text:

Total mushrooms fount: 808

Choice
The meadow mushroom, Agaricus campestris, is a beautiful white mushroom that is closely related to the cultivated "button mushrooms" (Agaricus bisporus) sold in North American grocery stores. In most areas it is a fall mushroom and, as its common and Latin names suggest, it comes up in meadows, fields, and grassy areas, after rains. It is recognized by its habitat, its pink gills (covered up by a thin white membrane when the mushroom is young) which become chocolate brown as the mushroom matures, its quickly collapsing white ring, and the fact that it does not discolor yellow when bruised. Description: Ecology: Saprobic; growing alone, gregariously, or sometimes in fairy rings, in meadows, fields, lawns, and grassy areas; late fall to early winter (occasionally in summer; sometimes year-long in California); widely distributed and common in North America. Cap: 3-11 cm; convex to broadly convex, occasionally nearly flat; whitish; smooth and glossy to fibrous to nearly wooly or scaly. Gills: Free from the stem; deep pink becoming brown and then dark chocolate brown in maturity; crowded; covered with a thin white partial veil when in the button stage. Stem: 2-6 cm long; 1-2.5 cm thick; more or less equal; sometimes tapering slightly to base; with a quickly collapsing white ring; not bruising yellow. Flesh: Thick and white throughout; not bruising yellow anywhere, even in the base of the stem; very rarely discoloring a pinkish wine color in wet weather. Odor and Taste: Pleasant. Chemical Reactions: Cap surface not yellowing with KOH. Spore Print: Dark chocolate brown. Microscopic Features: Spores: 5.5-10 x 4-7 µ; elliptical. Cheilocystidia to 10 µ wide. Universal veil hyphae (on cap surface and stem base) without inflated elements. The North American forms of this mushroom are apparently numerous--and several closely related (identical?) species have been described, including Agaricus andrewii (cheilocystidia 11-18.5 µ wide; universal veil hyphae with inflated elements) and Agaricus solidipes (spores up to 12 µ long; cheilocystidia absent). See also Agaricus porphyrocephalus.
Edible
Boletus aereus, described by some as the Queen Bolete but just lately given the normal name Bronze Bolete in Britain and Ireland, is a most sought-after edible mushroom. It is merely as good as its famous close relative, Boletus edulis (Cep or Cent Bun Bolete) but its flesh is quite firmer. In the pub marketplaces of France, for example, these excellent boletes can be purchased as well as Boletus edulis and Boletus reticulatus, and customers are evenly happy with whichever of the meaty mushroom varieties can be found. A exceptional find in Ireland and Britain, where it is restricted to southern parts mainly, Boletus aereus is a lot more prevalent in southern European countries. Commonly bought at the sides, beside strolls or in clearings in oak and beech woodlands, Boletus aereus will berry just a little than boletus edulis later, which looks later than the summertime Bolete relatively, Boletus reticulatus. Most boletes, and certainly every one of the common ones within Britain and Ireland, are ectomycorrhizal fungi. Which means that they form mutualistic romantic relationships with the main systems of trees and shrubs or shrubs. The fungi help the tree to obtain moisture and essential minerals from the soil, and in exchange the main system of the tree gives energy-rich nutrients, the merchandise of photosynthesis, to the fungal mycelium. Although most trees and shrubs may survive without their mycorrhizal companions, boletes (and a great many other varieties of forest-floor fungi) cannot endure without trees; subsequently these so-called 'obligately mycorrhizal' fungi do not happen in wide open grassland. The medical name Boletus aerus started in Jean Baptiste Francois Pierre Bulliard's 1789 descriotipon of the varieties. Synonyms of Boletus aereus includeBoletus mamorensis Redeuilh. The universal name Boletus comes from the Greek bolos, indicating lump of clay; the foundation of the precise epithet aereus is Latin and means copper or bronze (in shade) - hence the normal name Bronze Bolete. Some individuals make reference to it as the Dark colored Porcini or the Dark Cover Bolete. Boletus aereus, the dark cep or bronze bolete, is a highly prized and much sought-after edible mushroom in the family Boletaceae. Dark cigar brown, bay to dark sepia, often dark brick-coloured near the margin, minutely cracking making the surface roughly textured, slightly downy at first then smooth. Stem 60-80 x 11-12mm, robust, covered with network which is brown near apex, clay pink or buff around the middle and rusty below. Flesh white, unchanging or becoming dirty vinaceous when bruised. Taste pleasant, smell strong and earthy. Boletus aereus comes with an earthy smell and a pleasurable mild taste. Habitat with broad-leaved trees, especially beech and oak. To Oct in Britain and Ireland august, this bolete are available from Oct to Feb in a few elements of southern European countries. ( Season summer to autumn ) Rare. Edible. Distribution, America and Europe. Cap: First downy but becoming gentle with a finely damaged or granular surface soon, the dark-brown to dark sepia-brown hats of Boletus aereus range between 7 to 20cm size at maturity. The cover margin is a far more reddish brownish than the centre often. When cut, the cover flesh remains white or very gradually converts somewhat purplish usually. Spores: Spores olivaceous snuff-brown, subfusiform, 13,5 - 16 x 4 - 5 µm. Pores and tubes: Tubes white to cream, finally sulphur-yellow. Pores similarly coloured but bruising vinaceous on handling and often flushed rust with age. The pipes of Boletus aereus (seen when the cover is damaged or chopped up) are white or pale cream, becoming smart sulphur yellow at maturity; they terminate in really small creamy white skin pores that become rust-coloured (see remaining) with years. When bruised or cut, the skin pores and pipes of Boletus aereus swiftly do not change shade, but after the right time they create a vinaceous tinge. Stem: A fine brown online structure (reticulum) is obvious on the pale darkish track record of the stem surface, darkest on the apex with the bottom and usually relatively paler and pinker near to the inflamed centre of the stem. Sometimes clavate (club-shaped) but more regularly barrel-shaped, the stem of Boletus aereus is 5 to 12cm high or more to 8cm in size at its widest point. The stem flesh is white and incredibly organization. Habitat & Ecological role: Boletus aereus develops on garden soil beneath broadleaf trees and shrubs, beech and oaks notably. Similar species Boletus edulis has a pale stem with a white reticulum; its dark brown cover has a whitish marginal region. Tylopilus felleus has a darker stem reticulum and a pinkish tinge to its skin pores; it has an extremely bitter taste.
Poisonous/Suspect
Cortinarius (Telamonia) bulliardii (Fr.) Fr. Zinnoberroter Gürtelfuss Vöröslábú pókhálósgomba Cortinaire de Bulliard Hotfoot Webcap Cap 4–8cm across, convex then expanded, deep red-brown to chestnut drying ochre-buff. Stem 50–100 x 10–15mm, whitish near apex becoming rust towards the base and covered in reddish fibres. Flesh whitish, sometimes reddish at stem base. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills violaceous at first, soon rusty. Spore print rust. Spores elliptic, rough, 8–10 x 5–6µ. Habitat deciduous wood, especially beech. Season autumn. Rare. Edibility Suspect – avoid as many Cortinarius contain toxins. Found In Europe. edibility: Poisonous/Suspect fungus colour: Red or redish or pink normal size: 5-15cm cap type: Convex to shield shaped stem type: Bulbous base of stem spore colour: Rusty brown habitat: Grows in woods, Grows on the ground
Choice
Agaricus andrewii Freeman False Meadow Mushroom Cap 2-6cm across, convex then flattened, but with inrolled margin until fully mature; pure white, to cream when old; smooth, silky-fibrillose, margin of cap with floccose remnants of white veil. Gills free, crowded, broad; bright pink when young, then soon chocolate brown, and finally black. Stem 25-50 x 10-15mm, equal to tapered at the base; white; fibrillose to woolly below the faint evanescent ring zone. Flesh firm; white. Odor very pleasant. Taste very pleasant. Spores broadly ellipsoid, 7-8 x 4-5µ. Deposit purplish brown. Marginal cystidia sparse, prominent and turnip-shaped to club-shaped. Habitat As yet the exact distribution of this species is uncertain because of confusion with Agaricus campestris. However, it would appear to be widespread at least in eastern north America as far south as North Carolina. Season late September-November. Edible and choice, it has doubtless been mistakenly collected many times as Agaricus campestris. Comment The more familiar Agaricus campestris lacks any marginal cystidia and may not be as common in America as is usually supposed. Apart from the microscopic differences, Agaricus andrewii would appear to differ hardly at all macroscopically, except that it seems to have a more consistently smooth and purer white cap than Agaricus campestris. ---- Ecology: Saprobic; growing alone, gregariously, or sometimes in fairy rings, in meadows, fields, lawns, and grassy areas; late fall to early winter (occasionally in summer; sometimes year-long in California); widely distributed and common in North America. Cap: 3-11 cm; convex to broadly convex, occasionally nearly flat; whitish; smooth and glossy to fibrous to nearly wooly or scaly. Gills: Free from the stem; deep pink becoming brown and then dark chocolate brown in maturity; crowded; covered with a thin white partial veil when in the button stage. Stem: 2-6 cm long; 1-2.5 cm thick; more or less equal; sometimes tapering slightly to base; with a quickly collapsing white ring; not bruising yellow. Flesh: Thick and white throughout; not bruising yellow anywhere, even in the base of the stem; very rarely discoloring a pinkish wine color in wet weather. Odor and Taste: Pleasant. Chemical Reactions: Cap surface not yellowing with KOH. Spore Print: Dark chocolate brown. Microscopic Features: Spores: 5.5-10 x 4-7 µ; elliptical. Cheilocystidia to 10 µ wide. Universal veil hyphae (on cap surface and stem base) without inflated elements. The North American forms of this mushroom are apparently numerous--and several closely related (identical?) species have been described, including Agaricus andrewii (cheilocystidia 11-18.5 µ wide; universal veil hyphae with inflated elements) and Agaricus solidipes (spores up to 12 µ long; cheilocystidia absent). See also Agaricus porphyrocephalus.
Poisonous/Suspect
Tylopilus felleus (Fr.) Karst. syn Boletus felleus Fr. Bitter Boletus, Bolet de fiel, Bolet amer, Bolet chicotin, Gallenr?hrling, Epe?z? tin?ru, Boleto felleo, porcino di fiele, Bittere boleet. Cap 6?12cm, fulvous to snuff-brown, slightly downy at first, smooth with age. Stem 70?100 x 20?30 (60 at base) creamy ochre, lighter at apex, covered in a coarse snuff-brown network. Flesh soft, white to cream, clay-pink beneath cap cuticle. Taste very bitter, like bile, smell slightly unpleasant. Tubes slightly salmon or coral. Pores similarly coloured, bruising brownish. Spore print clay-pink to vinaceous. Spores subfusoid, 11?15?4?5m. Habitat coniferous and deciduous woodland. Season late summer to autumn. Occasional. Not edible due to very bitter taste. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma virgatum (Fr. ex Fr.) Kummer. Tricolome verget?, Brennender Erdritterling, Cs?p?s pereszke, Tricoloma vergato, Scherpe ridderzwam, Ashen Knight. Cap 3?7cm across, convex with a low broad umbo, brownish-black or greyish initially with violaceous tints, streaked with very fine black fibrils. Stem 50?90 x 10?18mm, white and smooth, often flushed grey. Flesh white to greyish. Taste bitter and peppery, smell musty. Gills greyish tinged flesh-colour, often browning at the edges. Spore print white. Spores 6.5?8 x 5?6um. Habitat deciduous and coniferous woods. Season autumn. Uncommon. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma ustaloides Romagn. Kastanienbrauner Ritterling, Gesztenyebarna pereszke. Cap 4?9cm across, hemispherical to convex, chestnut brown, paler towards the inrolled margin, viscid. Stem 60?100 x 8?15mm, white at the apex, rusty-brown and speckled towards the base; a fragile and very short-lived cortina is sometimes present near the top of the stem in young specimens. Flesh white. Taste and smell strongly of meal. Gills whitish becoming spotted with rust. Spore print white. Spores 6?7 x 4?5um. Habitat deciduous woods. Season autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Tricholoma ustale (Fr. ex Fr.) Kummer. Tricolome br?l?, Brandiger Ritterling, Szenesed? (feketed?) pereszke, Beukridderzwam, Burnt Knight. Cap 4?8cm across, convex then expanded, viscid in wet weather, chestnut brown, paler at margin, blackening with age. Stem 30?60 x 10?15mm, fibrous, reddish-brown, apex paler. Flesh whitish, sometimes reddening slightly. Taste slightly bitter, smell not distinctive. Gills white, becoming rust-spotted, edges blackening with age. Spore print white. Spores elliptic-ovate, 5.5?7 x 4?5um. Habitat deciduous woods, especially beech. Season late summer to late autumn. Rare. Poisonous. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Tricholoma terreum (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Kummer. Tricolome couleur de terre, Petit-gris, Saint-Martin, Graubl?ttriger Erdritterling, Feny?pereszke, Agarico color di terra, cavarese, Donkergrijze ridderzwam, Grey Knight. Cap 4?7cm across, convex with a low broad umbo, light to dark grey, downy to felty. Stem 30?80 x 10?15mm, white and silky smooth. Flesh whitish grey. Taste pleasant, not mealy, smell not distinctive. Gills emarginate, distant, whitish to grey. Spore print white. Spores 6?7 x 3.5?4.5um Habitat in woods, especially with conifers. Season late summer to late autumn. Uncommon. Edible with caution. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma sulphureum (Bull. ex Fr.) Kummer syn. T. bufonium (Pers. ex Fr.) Gillet. Tricolome soufr?, Schwefelritterling, B?d?s pereszke, Agarico zolfino, Narcisridderzwam, Sulphur Knight Gas Agaric. Cap 3?8cm across, convex with an indistinct umbo, sulphur-yellow often tinged reddish-brown or olivaceous. Stem 25?40 x 6?10mm, sulphur-yellow covered in reddish-brown fibres. Flesh bright sulphur-yellow. Taste mealy, smell strongly of gas-tar. Gills bright sulphur-yellow. Spore print white. Spores 9?12 x 5?6um. Habitat in deciduous woods, less frequently with conifers. Season autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma sejunctum (Sow. ex Fr.) Qu?l. Jaunet, Braungelber Ritterling, Z?ldess?rga pereszke, Streephoedridderzwam, Deceiving Knight. Cap 4?10cm across, conico-convex then expanded, yellowish-green more brown or greyish-brown towards the centre, radially streaky, moist. Stem 50?80 x 10?30mm, white flushed yellowish. Flesh white, yellowing below the cap cuticle in older specimens. Taste mealy. Gills whitish. Spore print white. Spores 5?7 x 4?5um. Habitat deciduous woods. Season autumn. Uncommon. Non edible ? nauseating. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Tricholoma scalpturatum (Fr.) Qu?l. Gillet syn. Tricholoma argyraceum (Bull. ex St. Amans) syn. T. chrysites (Fr.) Gillet Silbergrauer Erdritterling S?rgul? pereszke Tricolome grav? Yellowing Knight. Cap 4?8cm across, pale grey or grey-brown to almost white, the cuticle often breaking into felty scales leaving the cap even paler in colour, often tinged yellowish-brown at the centre. Stem 40?80 x 6?12mm, white often faintly flushed with the cap colour. Flesh white in cap, greyish in stem. Taste and smell mealy. Gills emarginate, white becoming spotted with yellow especially when old and beginning to decay. Spore print white. Spores 5?6 x 3?4um. Habitat in pine or beech woods. Season early summer to late autumn. Occasional. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Found In Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma saponaceum (Fr.) Kummer. Soapy Knight or Soap Tricholoma, Tricolome ? odeur de savon, Seifenritterling, Szappanszag? pereszke, Agarico saponaceo, Zeepzwam. Cap 5?10cm across, convex at first then expanded with a broad umbo, grey-brown often with rusty or olivaceous tints, darker at the centre. Stem 50?100 x 10?30mm, white with reddish or olivaceous tints. Flesh white becoming more or less pink. Taste mushroomy, smell of soap. Gills rather distant, whitish sometimes with greenish tints or finally spotted reddish. Spore print white. Spores elliptical, 5?6 x 3.5?4um. Habitat in troops in deciduous or coniferous woods. Season late summer to late autumn. Occasional. Edible ? poor. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe. Note the first pictures shows a rather red form that will probably become a seperate variety, in fact this species contains a rather divers group of mushrooms that may well be split in the future. Comment Tricholoma saponaceum var. ardosiacum Bres. differs from the type in having a much darker, bluish-gray, almost black cap and sometimes gray or brown scales on the stem (the last of our pictures).
Poisonous/Suspect
Tricholoma psammopus (Kalchbr.) Qu?l. Schwammiger Ritterling, V?r?sfeny? pereszke, Larix-ridderzwam, Larch Knight. Cap 3?8cm across, convex then expanded, yellowish-brown to pale tan. Stem 40?80 x 10?15mm, apex whitish, becoming densely covered in minute reddish-brown cottony scales towards the base. Flesh yellowish-brown. Taste bitter, smell none. Gills white at first then straw-yellow becoming rust-spotted. Spore print white. Spores 6?7 x 4?5um. Habitat under larch. Season autumn. Uncommon. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma lascivum (Fr.) Gillet. Unversch?mter Ritterling, ?mely?t? (szem?rmetlen) pereszke, Vuilwitte ridderzwam, Aromatic Knight. Cap 4?7cm across, convex then flattened and finally slightly depressed, dirty whitish to pallid tan, silky smooth. Stem 75?110 x 10?15mm, white discolouring pale brownish. Flesh white. Taste sweet and mealy, smell pleasant, sweet-scented. Gills crowded, whitish then cream. Spore print white. Spores elliptic, 6?7 x 3.5?4m. Habitat deciduous woods. Season autumn. Uncommon. Suspect ? avoid. Found In Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma imbricatum (Fr. ex Fr.) Kummer. Tricolome Imbriqu?, Feinschuppiger Ritterling, Apr?pikkely? pereszke, Fijnschubbige ridderzwam, Matt Knight. Cap 3?9cm across, conico-convex, smooth at first then minutely scaly, dull brown or reddish brown. Stem 35?45 x 10?12mm, whitish at apex, concolorous with cap below. Flesh white. Taste slightly bitter. Gills whitish becoming spotted reddish-brown. Spore print white. Spores 5?8.5 x 4?5.5um. Habitat in coniferous woods, especially with pines. Season autumn. Occasional. Edible ?not recommended. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma fulvum (DC. ex Fr.) Sacc. syn. T. flavobrunneum (Fr. ex Pers.) Kummer. Tricolome brun et jaune, Gelbbl?ttriger Ritterling, S?rgalemez? pereszke, Tricoloma giallo-bruno, Berkeridderzwam, Birch Knight. Cap 4-8cm across, expanded convex with a slight umbo, brown to reddish-brown and finely streaky. Stem 30-70 x 8-14mm, concolorous with the cap, fibrous. Flesh whitish in cap, yellow in stem. Taste mild, smell mealy. Gills yellowish becoming spotted brownish with age. Spore print white. Spores elliptical, 5-7 x 3-4.5um. Habitat in deciduous or mixed woods, usually with birches. Season autumn. Commmon. Edible ? poor. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe. Wikipedia: Edible.
Edible
Tricholoma columbetta (Fr.) Kummer. Tricolome columbette, Columbette, Weisseidiger Ritterling, Galambpereszke, Colombetta, Witte duifridderzwam, Blue Spot Knight. Cap 5?10cm across, convex then expanding, silky white sometimes with greenish, pinkish or violet-blue spots when old. Stem 40?100 x 10?20mm, rooting, white sometimes blue-green at base. Flesh white, firm. Taste none, smell not distinctive. Gills white, crowded. Spore print white. Spores oval, 5.5?7 x 3.5?5um. Habitat deciduous and coniferous woods. Season late summer to early autumn. Occasional. Edible ? good but somewhat fibrous. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Tricholoma acerbum (Bull. ex Fr.) Qu?l. Tricolome acerbe, Gerippter Ritterling, Keser? pereszke, Agarico acerbo, Krulzoomridderzwam, Bitter Knight. Cap 7?12cm across, convex, margin strongly incurved, and usually ribbed, yellowish-buff to tan. Stem 30?70 x 20?30mm, bulbous and often pointed at base, apex covered in densely crowded minute yellowish granular scales, becoming yellowish-buff below. Flesh thick, white. Taste peppery and bitter, but sometimes mild, smell fruity. Gills crowded, whitish to yellowish at first becoming spotted reddish-brown. Spore print white. Spores subglobose to ovate. 4?6 x 3?4um. Habitat mixed woodland. Season autumn. Rare. Slightly poisonous although eaten in some places after parboiling; of poor quality. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Suillus luteus (Fr.) S. F. Gray syn. Boletus luteus Fr. Slippery Jack, Bolet Jaune, Nonnette voil-e, Bolet annulaire, Butterpilz, Barna gy-r-stin-ru (-tin-ru), Boleto giallo, Bruine Ringboleet. Cap 5-10cm, chestnut to sepia covered in brown gluten, becoming more rust-coloured with age, shiny on drying. Stem 50-100 x 20-30mm, pale straw-coloured at apex rapidly discoloured with darkening glandular dots, with a large white to cream ring which darkens to sepia, white below becoming vinaceous brown with age. Flesh white, often vinaceous at base of stem. Taste and smell not distinctive. Tubes lemon-yellow to straw-colour. Pores round, similarly coloured, becoming flushed sienna. Spore print clay to ochraceous. Spores subfusiform to elongate ellipsoid, 7-10 x 3-3.5um. Habitat with conifers, usually Scots pine. Season autumn. Common. Edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
1
2
3
4
...
39
40
41