Convex to shield shaped Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
Stem type:
Spore colour:
Cap type:
Fungus colour:
Normal size:
Location:
Flesh:
Class:
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Total mushrooms fount: 808

Edible
Russula cessans Pearson Cap 3-8cm across, soon flattened; deep crimson to purplish red, often darker at the center; smooth, dry; peels halfway. Gills fairly close; pale ochre. Stem 30-50 x 10-20mm, equal; white. Flesh white. Odor not distinctive. Taste mild. Spores broadly ovoid, 8-9 x 7-8-; warts 0.6-1-, high, many connectives forming a partial reticulum. Deposit deep ochre (G). Habitat under eastern white pine. Found in New Jersey. Season September-November. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous) Comment This collection agrees very well with the original description of Pearson and other British authors. Recent descriptions by European authors seem to include a much wider range of cap colors; they are possibly describing a mixture of species.
Edible
Russula caerulea (Pers.) Fr. Buckelt?ubling, P?pos galambgomba, Russule bleue, Humpback Brittlegill Cap 3?8cm across, almost conical at first, later with a pointed to broad umbo (rarely absent), livid violet, dark livid, dark wine-coloured or chestnut, hardly sticky when wet, fairly fleshy, one quarter to two thirds peeling; margin finally furrowed. Stem 40?90 x 10?20mm, white, narrow, club-shaped, firm. Flesh white. Taste mild but cap skin bitter. Gills adnexed to almost free, pale ochre, somewhat closely spaced at first. Spore print palish ochre (G). Spores ovoid, with warts or spines up to 1?1.2? high, some isolated, others joined in chains or by a few fine lines to form at most a rather scanty network with 0?2 meshes, 8?10 x 7?9?. Cap surface without cystidia, but scattered hyphae with sparse incrustations staining in fuchsin. Habitat under pine and frequent where these occur. Season summer to autumn. Occasional. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Found In Europe.
Edible
Russula brunneoviolacea Crawshay Braunvioletter T-ubling, Russule brun-violet Cap 3-7cm across, flattened convex, later with a depression, livid violet, livid purple or dark wine-coloured, or browner, somewhat brittle, three-quarters peeling; margin becoming furrowed. Stem 30-60 x 7-15mm, white, with brown stains, cylindrical or narrow club-shaped, soft, brittle. Flesh white. Taste mild. Gills almost free, cream. Spore print cream (C-E). Spores ovoid with spines 1-2.2- high, only a few connected by fine lines, 7-9 x 6-7.5-. Cap surface hyphae tapering; cap cystidia cylindrical to club-shaped with 0-3 septa. Habitat under broad-leaved trees especially oak. Season summer to early autumn. Occasional. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous) Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Russula amoenolens Romagnesi. Cap 3-10cm across, globose then expanded depressed, margin striate-tuberculate; deep grayish yellow to brown, often spotted with darker reddish brown; viscid when wet; cuticle thin, peels one-quarter to one-half the radius. Gills actuate, rather crowded; pale yellow ochre. Stem 35-70 x 10-27mm, firm, soon hollow, brittle; yellowish white, soon stained strongly yellowish brown at base. Odor rancid, cheesy. Taste oily, unpleasant, slowly very hot. Spores ellipsoid, 6-8.5 x 4.5-7-; warts up to 1- high, with few connectives, rarely a partial reticulum. Deposit pale orange-yellow (C-D). Habitat in mixed woods. Found in northeastern North America. Season July-October. Not edible
Edible
Russula albonigra (Krombh.) Fr. syn. R. anthracina Romagn. Schwarzweisser T?ubling, Sz?nv?lt? galambgomba, Russule blanc-noir. Cap 7?12cm across, flattened convex, later with a depression or saucer shaped, dirty white, very soon blackish brown to black, firm, slightly sticky, soon dry, somewhat thin-fleshed, three-quarters peeling; margin inrolled. Stem 30?60 x 15?30mm, concolorous with cap. Flesh white, blackening on exposure to air, or on bruising. Taste mild to slightly hot, slightly bitter. Gills slightly decurrent, narrow, arc-shaped, somewhat closely spaced, interspersed with numerous shorter ones, whitish to buff. All parts blacken on bruising or with age. Spore print white (A). Spores ovoid-elliptic, with small warts up to 0.4μ high, joined by fine lines to form a fairly well-developed network, 7?9 x 7?8μ. Cap surface of prostrate hyphae, 2?6μ wide; cystidia absent. Habitat under conifers and broad-leaved trees. Season summer to autumn. Occasional. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Russula aeruginea Lindblad ex Fr. Gr-ner Birkent-ubling, F-z-ld galambgomba, Russule vert-de-gris, Green Brittlegill. Cap 4-9cm across, convex then flattening or depressed, grass-green, sometimes with yellowish or brownish tinges, without any violaceous tints, often with rusty spots, centre usually darker, smooth or radially veined, peeling halfway; margin often furrowed. Stem 40-80 X 7-20mm, white, fairly firm. Flesh white. Taste mild to slightly hot. Gills almost free, usually forking, yellowish-buff. Spore print cream (D-E). Spores elliptic, with rounded warts up to 0.6μ high, some joined by fine lines to form a very incomplete network with 0-2 meshes, 6-10 X 5-7μ. Cap surface hyphae with rectangular, not inflated, supporting cells; cystidia cylindrical to spindle-shaped, without septa. Habitat under birch. Season summer to early autumn. Frequent. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Russula adusta (Pers. ex Fr.) Fr. Rauchbrauner Schwarzt-ubling S-t-ted- galambgomba Russule br-l-e Winecork Brittlegill resembles R. densifolia but the taste is mild and the flesh only becomes slightly pinkish in the first half-hour after exposure, sometimes remaining so in the cap, but in the stem becoming pale smoky grey and not dark grey or blackish. Cap 5-17cm across, sticky when moist. Stem 40-110 x 10-30mm. Smell of old wine casks. The oval spores (7-9 x 6-8μ) have only very small warts, rarely exceeding 0.2-0.3μ high, which are joined by very fine lines to form a well-developed but partial network with numerous small meshes. Cap hyphae narrow, 2-4μ wide. Habitat under pines. Season early summer to late autumn. Uncommon. Edible - poor -avoid. Found in north America and Europe.
Edible
Rozites caperatus (Pers. ex Fr.) Karst. syn. Pholiota caperata (Pers. ex Fr.) Kummer syn. Cortinarius caperatus (Pers. ex Fr.) Fr. Reifpilz R?ncos feny?gomba Roziote rid?, Pholiote aux ch?vres The Gypsy. Cap 5?10cm across, convex then expanded and umbonate, ochre-buff to ochre-brown, covered in silky white cobwebby fibrils, more densely at the centre. Stem 40?70 x 10?15mm, slightly swollen at the base or bulbous, whitish; ring whitish, narrow, spreading. Flesh whitish tinged ochre. Taste and smell mild and pleasant. Gills pale clay. Spore print ochre-brown. Spores elliptic, finely warted, 10?13 x 8?9um. Habitat on damp acid soils, usually in open situations amongst conifers and heather. Season autumn. Rare in Europe, more common in the USA. Edible, in America it is said to be choice. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Rhodotus palmatus (Bull. ex Fr.) Maire syn. Pleurotus palmatus (Bull. ex Fr.) Qu-l. R-tlicher Adernseitling R-zs-s t-nkgomba. Cap 5-10cm across, convex then flattened, horizontal, clear pink at first later peach to apricot-coloured, distinctly wrinkled, margin inrolled; pellicle gelatinous, thick and tough, entirely separable. Stem 30-70 x 10-15mm, white to pinkish, covered in white fibrils, curved. Flesh whitish tinged pink to orange. Taste bitter, smell pleasant. Gills paler than the cap, interconnected. Spore print pinkish. Spores subglobose, finely warted, 5-7um in diameter. Habitat on elm logs or beams. Season early autumn to winter. At one time rare, but due to the abundance of dead elms now becoming quite frequent. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Psathyrella hydrophila (Bull. ex M?rat) Maire syn. Hypholoma hydrophilum (Bull. ex M?rat) Qu?l. W?ssriger Saumilz Hypholome hydrophile Barna porhany?sgomba. Cap 2?3cm across, convex becoming flattened, tan to dark chestnut or date-brown drying paler often with a tan flush at the centre, margin appendiculate with remnants of the fibrillose veil. Stem 40?100 x 5?10mm, white flushed with cap colour below, fragile. Flesh thin, whitish. Taste bitter, smell not distinctive. Gills crowded, clay-brown becoming chocolate brown with age. Cystidia thin-walled, hyaline, fusiform. Spore print dark brown. Spores elliptic, 4.5?7 x 3?4um. Habitat in dense tufts in damp deciduous woodland. Season late spring to late autumn. Common. Edible ? bitter and not worthwhile -avoid. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Psathyrella candolleana (Fr.) Maire. Pale Brittlestem, Behangener Faserling Hypholome de De Candolle, Feh?r porhany?sgomba. Cap 2?6cm across, bell-shaped becoming flattened, pale ochraceous-brown when moist drying almost white or flushed with brown, margin often appearing toothed with remnants of veil. Stem 40?80 x 4?8mm, white, hollow, fragile. Flesh thin, white. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills greyish lilac darkening to chocolate brown. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, hyaline, finger-shaped or cylindric. Spore print dark brown. Spores elliptical or ovate, 6?8 x 3.5?4.5um. Habitat on or near deciduous trees, stumps or cut timbers. Season spring to late autumn. Frequent. Edibility unknown -avoid. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Polyporus brumalis Fr. T?li likacsosgomba. Fruit body annual. Cap 1.5-10cm across, circular, convex or depressed with an inrolled margin; yellow-brown to reddish brown or blackish brown; dry, densely hairy when young, becoming almost smooth. Tubes 1-3mm deep, slightly decurrent. Pores 2-3 per mm, circular to angular; whitish. Stem 20-60 x 1-5mm, central or off center; grayish or brownish; minutely hairy or smooth. Flesh 1-2mm thick; white. Spores cylindrical to sausage-shaped, smooth, 5-7 x 1.5-2.5?. Deposit white. Habitat on dead hardwoods, especially birch. Common. Found in eastern North America, west to the Great Plains, and occasionally in the Pacific Northwest. Season June-October. Not edible.
Edible
Pluteus salicinus (Pers. ex Fr.) Kummer Grauer Dachpilz Plut?e du saule Sz?rke csengetty?gomba Willow Shield. Cap 2?5cm across, convex then flattened and slightly umbonate, bluish- or greenish-grey darker at the centre, faintly striate when moist. Stem 30?50 x 2?6mm, white, sometimes becoming tinged with cap colour at the base. Flesh white with greyish tinge. Gills white then pink. Pleurocystidia fusiform with slightly thickened walls and an apical crown of hooked processes. Spore print pink. Spores elliptic, 8?9 x 6?7um. Habitat on deciduous wood. Season spring to autumn. Frequent. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Pluteus leoninus (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Kummer s. Lange L?wengelber Dachpilz Plut?e couleur de lion Lion Shield S?rga csengetty?gomba. Cap 4?6cm across, convex to flattened and slightly umbonate, minutely velvety, deep yellow to bright golden, striate at the margin. Stem 50?75 x 3?10mm, whitish becoming flushed yellow from the base up. Flesh thin, whitish turning brownish in stem base. Gills pale pink, often edged with yellow. Pleurocystidia fusiform. Spore print pink. Spores subglobose, 6.5?7.5 x 5?6um. Cap cuticle flamentous. Habitat on wood of deciduous trees. Season autumn. Rare. Edibility unknown ?avoid. Distribution, America and Europe. The photograph taken in the field was by Geoffrey Kibby.
Edible
Pleurotus dryinus (Pers. ex Fr.) Kummer, Pih?s laskagomba. Cap 5-15cm across, convex then slowly expanding, margin inrolled; white to cream; surface dry, felty-hairy to slightly scaly. Gills decurrent, crowded, narrow, often cross-veined on the stem; white. Stem 50-100 x 10-30mm, lateral to just off-center; white; felty, with a slight membranous ring at apex when young, soon vanishing or leaving fragments on cap margin. Flesh firm; white. Odor pleasant. Taste pleasant. Spores cylindrical, 9-12 x 3.5-4?. Deposit white. Habitat on deciduous timber. Found in Europe and throughout most of northern North America. Season July-October. Edible.
Inedible
Pholiota lenta (Fr.) Singer Fak? t?kegomba. Cap 3-8cm across, convex-hemispherical, becoming more expanded in age; whitish to pinkish buff or smoky gray, with a slightly darker disc; sticky to slimy, with scattered white hairy scales of veil remnants. Gills adnate or with a decurrent tooth, close, narrow to medium-broad, edges even to fringed; white becoming grayish brown. Stem 30-100 x 4-12mm, solid or spongy, sub-bulbous; white above, brownish below; finely hairy. Veil copious, cortinate; white; leaves an evanescent ring. Flesh firm; white. Odor slight, radishy. Taste mild. Spores ellipsoid to oblong, smooth, tiny pore at apex, 5.5-7 x 3.5-4.5?. Deposit cigar brown. Pleurocystidia abundant. Habitat on humus debris in mixed woods. Found in Europe and eastern North America and California. Season July-December. Not edible.
Inedible
Pholiota highlandensis (Pk.) Smith & Hesler Cap 2-5cm across, broadly convex becoming flatter and somewhat depressed, sometimes with a low umbo; yellowy orange to cinnamon reddish brown with a paler margin, fading to ochraceous-buff colors; smooth except for veil remnants on the margin, hygrophanous. Gills adnate, close, broad, edges even or eroded; pallid or pale yellowish becoming cinnamon brown. Stem 20-40 x 3-6mm; top portion whitish to yellowish becoming dingy brown, lower portion pallid then brownish (darker than the top), with patches of pale yellow or buff veil remnants. Flesh thin; yellow. Odor not distinctive. Taste slightly disagreeable or none. Spores ellipsoid to oval, smooth, distinct pore at apex, 6-8 x 4-4.5?. Deposit cinnamon brown. Habitat on burned-over soil or charred wood. Found in many parts of North America, though apparently not in the Northeast. Season April-November. Not edible.
Inedible
Pholiota flavida (Fr.) Singer Cap 3-7cm across, convex expanding to almost flat, with an incurved margin with some faint veil remnants; yellow to dingy, watery yellow-ochre or tawny; thinly sticky and smooth. Gills adnate to adnexed, close, narrow to moderately broad, edges even; pallid, becoming pale rusty brown in age. Stem 50-110 x 5-15mm, solid, slightly tapering to the base; pallid above fine hairy zone of evanescent yellowish veil, dark rust-brown from base upward; grooved and finely hairy in lower part. Flesh thick, firm, yellowish. Odor faintly fragrant. Taste mild. Spores oval to subellipsoid, smooth, distinct pore at apex, 7-9 x 4-5-. Deposit cigar brown. No pleurocystidia; cheilocystidia versiform and caulocystidia similar. Habitat in large clusters on logs and stumps and at the base of coniferous and hardwood trees. Found in Europe Maine and the Pacific Northwest of America. Season August-November. Not edible.
Poisonous/Suspect
Phaeolepiota aurea (Matt. ex Fr.) Maire ex Konrad & Maublanc Aranys-rga t-kegomba. Cap 2-15cm across, obtuse to convex, becoming flatter with a central umbo and the margin often hung with veil remnants; orange-tan to golden brown; dry, granular to powdery. Gills adnate to free, close, broad; pale yellow becoming tawny to orange-brown. Stem 40-150 x 10-40mm expanded toward the base; orange to buff or similar to cap; smooth above the ring, powdery or granular below. Veil partial veil sheathing stalk; same color as cap; granular underneath, smooth above; leaving persistent flaring to drooping ring. Flesh thick; pale or yellowish. Spores ellipsoid, smooth to minutely roughened, 10-14 x 5-6-. Deposit yellowish brown to orange-buff. Habitat in groups or clusters on compost, rich soil, humus, or leaf litter under coniferous or deciduous trees. Quite rare but sometimes abundant. Found in Alaska and the Pacific Northwest. Season September-October. Not edible because it is mildly poisonous to some people. The field photograph was taken by Geoffrey Kibby.
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