Distinctly scaly Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
Stem type:
Spore colour:
Cap type:
Fungus colour:
Normal size:
Location:
Flesh:
Class:
Order:
Family:
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Total mushrooms fount: 62

Inedible
Tricholomopsis rutilans (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Sing. syn. Tricholoma rutilans (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Kummer. Plums and Custard, Tricolome rutilant, Pleurote rutilant, R?tlicher Holzritterling, B?rsonyos pereszke (fapereszke), Agarico rutilante, Koningsmantel. Cap 4?12cm across, convex to bell-shaped when expanded often with a low broad umbo, yellow densely covered in reddish-purple downy tufts or scales, more densely covered at the centre. Stem 35?55 x 10?15mm, yellow covered in fine downy purplish scales like the cap but to a much lesser extent; no mycelial strands. Flesh pale yellow or cream. Taste watery, smell like rotten wood. Gills rich egg-yellow. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, voluminous, 20?30um wide. Spore print white. Spores ellipsoid, 6?8.5 x 4?5um. Habitat on and around conifer stumps. Season late summer to late autumn. Very common. Considered edible by some but not recommended. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma vaccinum (Pers. ex Fr.) Kummer. Tricolome ?cailleux, Tricolome de vache, Zottiger Ritterling, Szak?llas pereszke, Agarico vaccino, Ruige ridderzwam, Scaly Knight. Cap 4?7cm across, slightly umbonate, flesh-brown, darker towards the centre, disrupting into woolly scales. Stem 30?45 x 8?12mm, fibrous, paler than cap. Flesh pallid to rosy, often hollow in stem. Taste bitter, smell mealy. Gills white at first, later pallid flesh-colour. Spore print white. Spores ovate, 5?7 x 4?5um. Habitat conifer woods. Season late summer to late autumn. Uncommon. Inedible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Tricholoma squarrulosum Bres. syn. T. atrosquamosum var. squarrulosum (Bres.) Pearson & Dennis. Schuppenritterling, Pikkelyest?nk? pereszke, Spikkelsteelridder. Cap 4?5cm across, flattened convex, grey-brown, darker towards the centre, covered in blackish-brown scales. Stem 40?50 x 5?8mm, greyish covered in fine blackish-brown scales. Flesh whitish to grey. Smell mealy. Gills whitish grey often slightly flesh-coloured. Spore print white. Spores pip-shaped, 7?8 x 4?5um. Habitat conifer woods. Season autumn. Rare. Edible with caution. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Tricholoma pardinum Qu??l. P?rducpereszke (pereszke). Cap 5-15cm across, convex becoming flatter; whitish with pale-gray to dark-gray scales; dry with hairy scales. Gills notched or adnexed, close, moderately broad; whitish very occasionally flushed pinkish. Stem 50-150 x 10-20mm, firm, solid, sometimes enlarged at the base; white, sometimes tinged gray; dry, smooth. Flesh thick, firm; white. Odor mealy. Taste mealy. Spores ellipsoid, smooth, 8-10 x 5.5-6.5??. Deposit white. Habitat singly, scattered, or in groups on the ground in mixed and deciduous woods, especially under fir. Sporadically common and abundant, otherwise infrequent. Found in Europe and widely distributed in northern North America. Season August-October. Poisonous.
Edible
Tricholoma orirubens Qu?l. syn. T. horribile Rea. Tricolome ? marge rougissante, R?tlicher Erdritterling, R?zs?slemez? pereszke, Blozende ridderzwam. Cap 4?8cm across, conical then expanded with an acute umbo, dark grey often paler at the margin, covered in black cottony or felty scales. Stem 40?80 x 10?15mm, white becoming flecked with red often marked green or blue at the base, arising from pale sulphur yellow mycelium. Flesh white, eventually reddening. Taste not distinctive, smell strongly of meal. Gills white to greyish when young, then often turning pink and sometimes spotted. Spore print white. Spores broadly ovate to subglobose, 4?6.5 x 3?4.5um. Habitat in deciduous, or less frequently, coniferous woods. Season autumn. Rare. Edible with caution. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Tricholoma atrosquamosum (Chev.) Sacc. syn. T. terreum var. atrosquamosum (Chev.) Schwarzschuppiger Ritterling, Feketepikkelyes (pikkelyest?nk?) pereszke, Massee, Zwartschubbige ridderzwam, Dark Scaled Knight. Cap 4?12cm across, flattened convex with a slight umbo, grey or pale clay densely covered in blackish-grey pointed scales. Stem 30?80 x 10?20mm, paler than the cap, greyish with blackish scales. Flesh greyish. Taste slightly mealy, smell aromatic or peppery. Gills white to grey with black dotted edge. Spore print white. Spores 4.5?9 x 3?6um. Habitat in coniferous and deciduous woods. Season autumn. Rare. Edible -caution. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Suillus variegatus (Fr.) O. Kuntze syn. Boletus variegatus Fr. Sandr-hrling, Semmelpilz, Tarka feny-tin-ru (-tin-ru), Bolet mouchet-, C-pe tachet- ou verget-, Velvet Bolete. Cap 6-13cm, rusty tawny or ochraceous to olivaceous, speckled with darker, small, flattened scales, initially slightly downy becoming slightly greasy with age, tacky in wet weather. Stem 50-90 x 15-20mm, ochre, more yellow towards apex, flushed rust-colour below. Flesh pale lemon in cap, more deeply coloured in stem base, sometimes tinged with blue throughout or above the tubes. Taste slight, smell strongly fungusy. Tubes dark buff. Pores subangular and compound, ochre with olivaceous tint at first becoming more cinnamon. Spore print snuff-brown. Spores subfusoid-elongate to ellipsoid, 9-11 x 3-4um. Habitat with conifers. Season late summer. Occasional. Edible. Found In Europe and north America.
Inedible
Pholiota squarrosa (M-ller ex Fr.) Kummer syn. Dryophila squarrosa (M-ller ex Fr.) Qu-l. Shaggy Scalycap, Pholiote squarreuse, Sparriger Sch-ppling, T-sk-s t-kegomba, Schubbige bundelzwam. Cap 3-10(15)cm across, convex becoming flattened, the margin remaining inrolled, pale straw-yellow densely covered in coarse red-brown, upturned scales, not viscid. Stem 50-120 x 10-15mm, smooth and pale yellow above torn membranous ring, covered in red-brown recurved scales below and darkening at the base. Flesh tough, pale yellowish becoming red-brown in stem base. Taste and smell radishy. Gills crowded, pale yellow at first later cinnamon. Pleurocystidia clavate with mucronate apex. Spore print rust brown. Spores oval, smooth, 5.5-9 x 3.5-5um. Habitat in dense clusters at the base of deciduous and very occasionally coniferous trees. Season autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Pholiota flammans (Fr.) Kummer Freuersch-ppling L-ngsz-n- t-kegomba (l-nggomba) Pholiote flamboyante Flaming Scalycap. Cap 2-8cm across, convex then expanded, tawny yellow covered in recurved lemon- to sulphur-yellow scales, margin incurved. Stem 40-80 x 4-10mm, bright yellow with concolorous cottony ring near the apex, densely covered in concolorous scales below. Flesh pale yellow. Gills pale yellow darkening to rusty yellow with age. Pleurocystidia lanceolate with pointed apex, staining deeply in cotton blue in lactic acid. Spore print rusty. Spores elliptic, 4-4.5 x 2-2.5um. Habitat singly or in tufts on conifer stumps or fallen trunks. Season late summer to autumn. Rare, more frequent in mountains. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Pholiota aurivella (Fr.) Kummer Rozsdas?rga (s?rga) t?kegomba. Cap 4-15cm across, bell-shaped to convex with a broad umbo; ochre-orange to tawny; sticky to slimy with large flattened spot-like scales, which may disappear or become somewhat sticky when wet. Gills adnate, close, moderately broad; pale yellowish becoming tawny brown. Stem 50-80 x 5-15mm, dry, solid, central or off-center; yellowish to yellow-brown; dry and cottony above the ring, hairy and with down-curving scales toward the base. Veil partial veil leaves evanescent ring or zone on upper stalk; white. Flesh firm; yellow. Odor sweet. Taste slight. Spores ellipsoid, smooth, with pore at apex, 7-9.5 x 4.5-6?. Deposit rusty brownish. Caulocystidia absent; pleurocystidia present. Habitat in clusters on living trunks and logs of hardwoods and conifers. Found Europe and in North America except the Southeast. Season June-November. Not edible.
Inedible
Pholiota alnicola (Fr.) Sing. syn. Flammula alnicola (Fr.) Kummer syn. Dryophila alnicola (Fr.) Qu?l. Erlen-Sch?ppling S?rga t?kegomba Alder Scalycap. Cap 2?6(11)cm across, convex to flattened, smooth and greasy, bright lemon-yellow at first becoming flushed olivaceous at the margin, remains of veil often adhering to the margin. Stem 20?80 x 5?10mm, pale lemon-yellow above the remains of the veil becoming rusty-brown towards the base, not viscid. Flesh yellow in cap, rusty towards the stem base. Taste mild to slightly bitter, smell pleasant and sweet. Gills pale yellow at first becoming cinnamon. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, hyaline, hair-like, clavate. Spore print rusty brown. Spores oval, smooth, 8.5?11.5 x 5?5.5um. Habitat solitary or in small clusters on deciduous wood, especially alder, willow and birch. Season autumn. Uncommon. Inedible. Distribution, America and Europe. Note the two forms that I have collected seem to differ in form and will need to be rechecked.
Choice
Macrolepiota rhacodes (Vitt.) Sing. Lepiota rhacodes (Vitt.) Qu?l. New syn. Chlorophyllum rhacdes, Shaggy Parasol, L?piote D?guenill?e, R?tender Schirmpilz, Safranschirmpilz, Pirul? ?zl?bgomba, Lepiota villosa, Knolparasolzwam. Cap 5?15cm across, ovate then expanding to almost flat, disrupting into broad, pallid, often slightly reflexed scales on a fibrous background, giving the cap a shaggy, torn appearance. Stem 100?150?10?15mm, thickened towards the bulb which is usually oblique, whitish tinged dirty pinkish-brown, bruising reddish brown when fresh; ring double, membranous, movable on the stem. Flesh white becoming orange to carmine red on cutting. Taste pleasant, smell strongly aromatic. Gills white, tinged reddish in older specimens, bruising reddish. Spore print white. Spores elliptic with germ-pore, dextrinoid, 10?12?6?7m. Habitat woods and shrubberies of all kinds, often with conifers. Season summer to late autumn. Frequent. Edible but may cause gastric upsets in some people. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Macrolepiota mastoidea (Fr.) Sing. Syn. Macrolepiota gracilenta syn. Lepiota mastioidea (Fr.) Kummer, L. umbonata (Schum.) Schroet. L?piote Mamelonn?e, Spitzbuckliger Schirmpilz, Karcs? nagy?zl?bgomba (?zl?bgomba), Tepelparasolzwam, Slender Parasol. Cap 8?12cm across, subglobose at first expanding flattened convex with a distinct acute umbo, white to cream-ochre covered in minute pale ochraceous granular scales. Stem 80?100?8?15mm, white with small, densely crowded, yellowish-brown granular scales, slightly swollen at the base; ring white and thick. Flesh thin, white. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills white. Spore print white. Spores elliptic, 12?16 x 8?9.5um. Habitat in open woodland. Season autumn. Uncommon. Edible ? good. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Macrolepiota konradii (Huijsman ex. Orton) Moser syn. Lepiota konradii Huijsman ex. Orton syn. L. gracilenta (Krombh.) Qu?l. s. Rea syn. L. excoriata var. konradii Huijsman. L?piote gr?le, Feinschuppiger Schirmpilz, Barnagy?r?s nagy?zl?bgomba (?zl?bgomba), Lepiota di Konrad. Cap 7?12cm across, ovate then slightly umbonate becoming expanded and even depressed, the brownish cuticle breaking up into large adnate scales exposing the white flesh beneath. Stem 100?150 x 8?12mm, bulbous, tapering upwards, whitish covered in small brownish scales. Smell pleasant. Gills white. Spore print white. Spores ovoid with an apical germ-pore, 13?17 x 8?10um. Habitat pasture, heaths and open woodland. Season late summer to late autumn. Rare. Edible with caution as there are poisonous white mushrooms. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Lepiota friesii L?piote ? ?cailles aigu?s Spitzschuppiger Schirmpilz Lepiota aspera Pers. Syn. Cystoplepiota aspera (Pers.) Bon syn. Lepiota friesii (Lasch) Qu?l. syn. L. acutesquamosa var. furcata K?hn. T?sk?s ?zl?bgomba. Cap 5?10cm across, ovoid at first then obtusely conical or bell-shaped, dark brown at the centre elsewhere the surface breaking up into dark brown scales. Stem 30?50 x 5?10mm, pallid often with a few dark brown scales at the extreme base; ring whitish, cottony, often adhering to the cap margin. Flesh white. Gills free, crowded and forked near the stem, white. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, subglobose, hyaline, 8?23m in diameter. Spore print white. Spores narrowly fusoid, dextrinoid, 6?8 x 3?4um. Tips of the scales on the cap surface formed of brownish spherical cells. Habitat in deciduous woods. Season autumn. Occasional. Edibility unknown -avoid. A confused species, Europe and almost certainly America .
Edible
Hygrophorus chrysodon (Fr.) Fr. syn. Limacium chrysodon (Fr.) Kummer. Hygrophore dent d'or, Goldzahn-Schneckling, S?rgapelyh? csigagomba, Igroforo a denti di'oro. Cap 3-8cm across, convex expanding to flatter and knobby with an inrolled margin; whitish; sticky when wet, shiny when dry, with many tiny, cottony yellow scales, mostly at the margin. Gills decurrent, distant, moderately broad, waxy; white with yellow edges. Stem 40-70 x 10-15mm; white, covered in minute yellow scales, usually at the top; sticky. Flesh thick; white, sometimes with a reddish tinge. Odor fungusy. Taste mild or slightly bitter. Spores ellipsoid, 7-9 x 4-5.5?. Deposit white. Habitat singly to scattered on soil in coniferous and mixed deciduous woods. Found in Europe and widely distributed in North America. Season July January. Edible. Comment Easily recognized by its yellow scales.
Poisonous/Suspect
Cortinarius (Cortinarius) bolaris (Pers. ex Fr.) Fr. Rotschuppiger Dickfuss V?r?spikkelyes p?kh?l?sgomba Cortinaire teint en rouge Dappled Webcap Cap 3?5cm across, convex, covered in tiny adpressed pinkish to brick-red scales on a paler white, yellowish or reddish ground. Stem 25?40 x 12?20mm, whitish at the apex, covered in tiny fibrous reddish scales below, and bruising reddish or red-brown like cap; arising from orange-red mycelium. Flesh white in cap, ochraceous or yellowish in stem, becoming sulphur-yellow especially in stem base when cut, finally deep red or red-brown. Smell none or faint and pleasant. Gills pale yellowish-cream, later pallid cinnamon. Spore print rusty cinnamon. Spores broadly ovate to subglobose, punctate rough, 6?7.5 x 4.5?5.5?. Habitat deciduous woods, especially beech. Season late summer to late autumn. Uncommon. Poisonous. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Albatrellus pes-caprae (Pers. wx Fr.) Pouzar syn. Polyporus pes-caprae Pers. ex Fr. Barnah?t? zsemlegomba. Cap grey-brown or orange-brown, scaly 6-10cm. Pores white tending to run down the stem (decurrent). Stem often excentric swollen 3-7x1-2.5cm. Flesh white or yellowish, smell slight. On the ground under broad-leaved trees. Edible.
Inedible
Tricholomopsis formosa (Murr.) Singer Cap 5-8cm across, convex to flat with an incurved margin; background color dark buff; covered with dark, brick-red, recurved scales. Gills adnate, crowded, edges fringed; whitish to yellowish. Stem 60-80 x 10-20mm, sometimes curved in age; dark brick red; hairy-scaly like the cap, longitudinally furrowed in age. Flesh firm. Odor unpleasant. Taste disagreeable. Spores pip-shaped, thin-walled, 6-7.2 x 4-5.7?. Deposit white. Pleurocystidia absent; cheilocystidia present. Habitat on pine sawdust. Frequent. Found in Florida arid the Gulf Coast. Season July-November. Edibility not known -avoid.
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