Other Mushrooms identifications

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Spore colour:
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Total mushrooms fount: 338

Tremella mesenterica Retz. ex Hook, syn Tremella lutescens Fr. Yellow Brain Fungus, Tr?melle m?sent?rique, Goldgelber Zitterling, Aranyos rezg?gomba, Tremella arancione, Gele trilzwam. Fruit body 2?10cm across, comprising soft, flabby, gelatinous lobes and folds, golden-yellow to orange, drying dark orange, horny, and brittle. Spores white, broadly ovate to subglobose, 7?10 x 6?10?. Basidia resembling hot cross buns when seen from above. Habitat on dead deciduous branches, sometimes still attached to the tree. Season all year, especially late autumn. Frequent. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe. Note some specimens found in America were white, this needs further investigation.
Tremella foliacea Fries Fodros rezg?gomba. Known as Brown Witches? Butter. The fungus is an irregular gelatinous arrangement of lobes and cups fused at the base 5-15 cm wide. The colour is brown to reddish-ochre, lighter when fresh and young. Spores dull cream-yellowish, 8-11 x 6-9um nearly spherical. Smell and taste slight. Growing on hardwood twigs and logs in autumn right up to winter; Found in both Europe and North America . Said to be edible but I advise not eating it. The pictures were sent to me by Lorand Barth? in Hungary the second one was taken by Edit Szilv?sy to both of them I am most grateful.
Thelephora terrestris (Ehrh.) Fr. Earthfan, T?l?phore terrestre, Erdledepilz, Talajlak? szem?lcsgomba (szem?lcs?sgomba), Franjezwam. Fruit body 3?6cm across, fan-shaped, vertical to horizontal, forming large clustered groups, reddish- to chocolate-brown, darkening to almost black with age, covered in radiating fibres, becoming paler and fringed at the margin. Lower or fertile surface clay-brown to pallid, irregularly wrinkled. Spores purple-brown, angular and warted, 8?9 x 6?7?. Habitat in conifer woods or heaths, usually on sandy soil. Season late summer to early winter. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Thelephora palmata (Scop.) Fr. Stinkende Lederkoralle B?d?s szem?lcs?sgomba (szem?lcsgomba), b?d?s b?r-korallgomba. Fruit body 2?5cm high, 1?3cm across, comprising several erect, flattened, palmate purple-brown branches arising from a common stem 10?15 x 2?5mm. Flesh leathery. Smell fetid or strongly of garlic. Spores reddish-brown, angular and spiny, 8?11 x 7?8?. Habitat on the ground near conifers. Season late summer to late autumn. Rare. Easily recognized by the strong smell. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Stereum gausapatum (Fr.) Fr. syn. Stereum spadiceum (Fr.) Fr. Brauner Schichtpilz Nemezes r?teggomba Bleeding Oak Crust. Fruit body resupinate or forming small tiered brackets 1?4cm across, tough and leathery, thin-fleshed; upper surface zoned ochre-brown to greyish, finely hairy, margin white. Fertile or lower surface pallid to dark chestnut, smooth, bleeding red if cut when fresh. Spores white, oblong, amyloid, 7?8 x 3?3.5um. Habitat on stumps, logs and fallen branches of deciduous trees, especially oak. Season all year. Common. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Sphaerobolus stellatus Tode syn. S. carpobolus (L.) Schroet. syn. Carpobolus stellatus (Mich.) Desm. Kugelwerfer Shooting Star. Fruit body 1.5?2.5mm across, initially globose and whitish becoming more ochraceous and splitting above into 5?9 minute orange-coloured rays, exposing the peridiole as a brownish ball containing the spores. This is projected over a range of up to 5.5 metres (14 feet) to disperse the spores by the sudden reversal of the receptacle which then appears as a translucent white sphere sitting on the star-shaped outer wall. Spores oblong, 7.5?10 x 3.5?5um. Habitat on sticks, sawdust, dung and other organic debris. Season autumn. Occasional but possibly often overlooked. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Sparassis crispa Wulf. ex Fr. Cauliflower or Brain Fungus, Sparassis Cr?pu, Clavaire Cr?pue, Krause Glucke, Fodros k?posztagomba, Creste di gallo, Grote Sponszwam. Fruit body 20?50cm across, subglobose, cauliflower-like, comprising numerous flattened, crisped lobes on a short thick rooting stem, pale ochraceous to buff, darkening with age. Smell sweetish, pleasant. Spores whitish to pale yellow, pip-shaped, 5?7 x 4?5um. Habitat at the base of conifer trees or near by. Season autumn. Occasional. Edible and delicious when young and fresh; must be thoroughly cleaned. Distribution, America and Europe.
Serpula lacrymans (Fr.) Karst. syn. Merulius lacrymans Schum. Dry Rot Fungus, Hausschwamm, K?nnyez? h?zigomba, Huiszwam. Fruit body 5?50cm across, usually resupinate but occasionally forming brackets on vertical substrates, arising from whitish, pinkish, lilac or grey mycelium. Flesh 2?12mm thick, greyish-white, spongy-fleshy. Pores rusty-yellow becoming more yellowish towards the thick, white sterile margin. Spores rust-brown, elliptic, 8?10 x 5?6um. The fungus gives off a distinctive damp rotten smell. Habitat on worked wood in buildings although the fruit bodies of the fungus may also appear on non-organic substrates such as plaster or brickwork. Season all year. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe. Infection of wood occurs when it has become sodden for some long time following prolonged damp due to leaking roofs or pipes, either by spores or by vegetative mycelium spreading through brickwork. On germination of the spores the mycelia exhibit two distinct modes of growth. Firstly, numerous fine hyphae penetrate the wood, producing enzymes which break down the wood and enable the fungus to absorb nutrients; as the wood dries it cracks into cubical blocks and eventually disintegrates into brown powder. It is the second mode of growth which is most easily detected since it takes the form of thick mycelial cords and cottony sheets spreading over brickwork, metal, etc. enabling the fungus to travel over areas from which it cannot derive nutrients. The fruit bodies arise from these mycelial cords. Thios phoyograph was lent to me by Alan and Patie Outen.
Scleroderma verrucosum (Bull.) Pers. Braunwarziger Kartoffelbovist, Nyeles ?ltrifla, Scl?roderme verruqueux, Scaly Earthball. Fruit body 2.5?5cm across, subglobose often flattened on top, tapering into a long, thick stem-like base which is usually prominently ribbed, yellowish to brown covered in small brownish scales, the thin leathery wall breaking open irregularly above when mature. Gleba olive-brown. Spores dark brown, globose covered in spines or warts, 10?14um in diameter. Habitat on sandy soil in woods or heaths. Season summer to late autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Scleroderma citrinum Pers. syn. S. aurantium (Vaill.) Pers. syn. S. vulgare Horn. Common Earthball, cl-roderme vulgaire, Scl-roderme orang-, Kartoffelbovist, R-t (k-z-ns-ges) -ltrifla, Scleroderma commune, tartufo falso, Aardappelbovist. Fruit body 2-10cm across, subglobose, attached to the substrate by cord-like mycelial threads, wall dirty yellow to ochre-brown, thick and tough, coarsely scaly, breaking open irregularly to liberate the spores. Gleba purplish-black at first patterned by whitish veins, powdery when mature. Spores brown, globose, with a net-like ornamentation, 9-13m in diameter. Habitat on mossy or peaty ground on heaths or in rich woodland, especially on sandy soil. Season late summer to early winter. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe. This species is sometimes parasitized by Boletus parasiticus.
Scleroderma cepa (Vaill.) Pers. Fruit body 1.5-9cm across, subglobose, flattened, or lobed; no stem or almost none, attached by a thick mass of tough, hairy mycelium. Peridium (outer skin) 1-3mm thick; when fresh, hard, quite tough; white in cross-section, becoming reddish or pinkish brown when cut. Surface whitish when young, becoming straw-colored to yellowish brown or leather brown, turning deep pinky-brown if rubbed; smooth becoming very finely cracked and scaly, especially on the top where exposed to light. Spore mass white and firm when young, soon becoming black or purple-black, then paler or browner and powdery. Odor none. Spores globose, spiny but not reticulate, 7-10 x 7-10-. Habitat singly, scattered, or in groups under deciduous and coniferous trees in woods, in gardens, and along roadsides. Common. Found widely distributed in North America. Season July-October. Poisonous.
Scleroderma areolatum Ehr. syn. S. lycoperdoides Schwein. Netzbovist Pikkelyes (leop-rd) -ltrifla Leopard Earthball. Fruit body 1-3(4)cm across, subglobose, tapering into a thick rooting stalk which passes into a few strong mycelial strands, yellowish-brown covered in smooth very dark scales surrounded by a ring giving a dotted, reticulate pattern when the scales have been worn off, opening by an irregular slit or pore. Gleba deep purplish-brown. Spores dark brown, globose, 9-14m in diameter, covered in spines 1.5m long. Habitat damp places on bare ground or amongst sparse grass or moss. Season autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Schizophyllum commune Fr. Split-gill or Common Porecrust, Schizophylle commun, Gemeiner Spaltbl?ttling, Hasadtlemez? gomba, k?z?ns?ges hasadtlemez? gomba, Waaiertje. Cap 1?4cm across, fan-shaped, often lobed or fused with others, sessile or on a short stem-like base, densely covered in greyish-white down with a purplish tinge. Gills radiating from the point of attachment, splitting lengthwise and rolling back covering the space between the gills, and protecting the hymenium from desiccation. Spore print white. Spores cylindric, 6 x 3um. Habitat on dead wood of deciduous trees and also on cut timber. Season all year. Uncommon. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Sarcodontia setosa (Pers.) Donk Fruit body 5-20cm across, forming crust-like spreading patches on the surface of logs; often stained with wine-red areas. Fertile surface bright yellow, formed of downward pointed teeth or spines 5-l0mm long. Odor strong, very sweet-fruity to unpleasant. Taste mild. Spores teardrop shape, smooth, 5-6 x 3.5-4?. Habitat on logs or standing wood of fruit trees, especially apples. Rather uncommon. Found widely distributed in North America. Season July-October. Not edible.
Rhizopogon luteolus Fr. Gelbliche Barttr?ffel, S?rg?s istr?ngos-?lp?feteg, Rhizopogon jaun?tre, Yellow False Truffle. Fruit body 1.5?5cm across, ovate to globose, whitish at first then dirty ochre-yellow, finally olive brown covered in tawny mycelial strands, outer wall thick and tough. Gleba olivaceous at maturity. Spores olivaceous, oblong-elliptical, 7?10?2.5?3.5m. Habitat sandy conifer woods. Season autumn. Rare but less so in Scottish pine woods. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Rhizina undulata Fr. syn. R. inflata (Schaeff.) Karst Wellige Wurzellorchel Gy-keres cs-szegomba Pine Firefungus. Fruit body 4-12cm across, 2-8cm high, chestnut brown to black with a paler margin, forming irregularly lobed, wavy cushions. Flesh tough, thick, reddish-brown. Attached to the substrate by numerous whitish rhizoids growing down from the underside. Asci 400 x 20-. Spores fusiform, containing two or more oil drops, 22-40 x 8-11-. Habitat on conifer debris especially on fire sites. Season early summer to autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe. Causes a serious disease of conifers known as group dying. The photograph on the left is by Geoffrey Kibby.
Ramaria stricta, Steife Koralle, Merev korallgomba. ---- Ramaria stricta grows from wood--though the wood is often buried. It features branches that are usually "strictly" oriented, so that they are mostly straight and ascending. When fresh, its branch tips are yellow and its branches are dull yellowish buff, but its surfaces bruise and discolor purplish brown. Under the microscope it features roughened spores, clamp connections, and thick-walled hyphae. Several very similar species have been separated by mycologists (see below), and the name Ramaria stricta should probably represent a group of potential species awaiting contemporary study. ---- Overall, the fruit body appears bushy, and is medium sized, up to 10 by 7 cm (3.9 by 2.8 in), ochraceous tinged with flesh-colour becoming darker or brownish cinnamon with age, tips of branches at first clear yellow then concolorous; All parts bruising vinaceous, stem arising from white mycellum or rhizomorphs, passing into numerous dichotomous branches. Flesh white or pale yellow, tough ( Whitish; fairly tough. ). Taste slightly peppery, smell sweet ( Odor not distinctive, or sweet and fragrant; taste bitter ). Spores cinnamon-ochraceous, oblong, minutely rough to almost smooth 7.5-10.5 x 3.5-5 ยต ( Spore Print: Rusty yellowish ). Habitat on stumps of conifers and broad-leaved trees. Season late summer to winter. Uncommon. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe. ---- Ecology: Uncertain; while most ramarias are thought to be mycorrhizal, the wood-inhabiting species could be mycorrhizal or saprobic; growing from the dead (but sometimes buried) wood of conifers (and sometimes hardwoods); appearing alone, scattered, or gregariously; early summer through fall; apparently widely distributed in North America, but more common from the Rocky Mountains westward. Branches: Vertically oriented and elongated; often flattened; smooth; yellowish buff, becoming orangish buff as the spores mature; bruising and discoloring purplish brown; tips yellow when fresh and young. Base: Nearly absent, or fairly well developed; to 2 cm wide; white below; colored like the branches above; attached to numerous white rhizomorphs. Chemical Reactions: Iron salts green on branches; KOH orangish to brownish on branches.
Ramaria flava (Fr.) Qu-l. syn. Clavaria flava Schaeff. Pers. Schwefelgelbe Koralle, S-rga korallgomba, Clavaire jaune, Barbe de ch-vre. Fruit body 10-20cm high, 7-15cm wide, lemon- to sulphur-yellow becoming more ochraceous with age with numerous densely crowded branches. Stem 50-80 x 40-50mm with whitish base which often bruises reddish-brown especially with age. Flesh white to pale yellowish. Taste mild. Spores pale ochraceous, elliptic, roughened, 11-18 x 4-6.5-. Habitat on the ground in mixed woods. Season autumn. Rare. Edible but has a laxative effect on some people. Distribution, America and Europe.
Ramaria aurea (Fr.) Qu-l. syn. Clavaria aurea Fr. Goldgelbe Koralle Narancssz-n- (narancss-rga) korallgomba, Clavaire dor-e, Gallinette, Menotte. Fruit body 8-20cm high, 5-12cm wide, egg-yellow or ochraceous, densely branched with paler cauliflower-like tips, white at the plant base. Spores deep ochraceous, oblong, minutely roughened 8-15 x 3-6-. Habitat on the ground in mixed woods. Season autumn. Rare. Edible -avoid, many Ramarias can cause stomach upset. Distribution, America and Europe.