Agaricomycetes Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
Stem type:
Spore colour:
Cap type:
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Total mushrooms fount: 251

Poisonous/Suspect
Hypholoma marginatum (Pers. ex Fr.) Schroet. apud Cohn Nadelholzsch?ppling Foltost?nk? (d?szest?nk?) k?nvir?ggomba Snakeskin Brownie. Cap 1.5?4cm across, bell-shaped, dull tan with paler buff margin. Stem 30?70 x 2?5mm, brownish, covered in white silky fibres producing a silvery effect, becoming brownish on handling. Flesh whitish in cap becoming brownish towards the stem base. Taste very bitter, smell mushroomy. Gills pale yellowish when young soon olivaceous brown. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, hyaline, hair-like or bottle-shaped. Pleurocystidia clavate with long beak-like apex. Spore print dark brown. Spores elliptic with a distinct pore, 7?9.5 x4?5um. Habitat under conifers. Season autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Gymnopus ocior (Pers.) Antonin & Noordel , Collybia ocior (pers.) vilgalys &O.k. Mill. V?r?ses f?l?ke Collybie ambr?e Looks very like a Collybia as the French common name implies. Cap brown sometimes lighter at the edge, can be a little funnel shaped but normally flat or domed. Stem smooth, pliable white to tinged orange-brown. Known from America and Europe, more common in northern climates.
Poisonous/Suspect
Gymnopilus junonius (Fr.) Orton syn. G. spectabilis var. junonius (Fr.) K-hn. & Romagn. syn. Pholiota spectabilis (Fr.) Kummer Beringter Fl-mmling Pholiote remarquable, Gymnopile remarquable Spectacular Rustgill Aranys-rga t-kegomba (l-nggomba). Cap 5-15cm across, convex then expanded, rich golden tawny covered in small fibrous adpressed scales. Stem 50-120-15-35mm, usually swollen in the lower part but narrowed again at base, chrome to ochre-buff, fibrous; ring membranous, yellowish becoming rusty from the spores, soon collapsing. Flesh pale yellowish. Taste bitter, smell not distinctive. Gills yellow then rusty-brown. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, hyaline, skittle-shaped. Spore print rust. Spores elliptic to almond-shaped, roughened, 8-10-5-6m. Habitat in dense clusters at the base of deciduous trees or on stumps or logs. Season late summer to early winter. Common. Not edible -suspect. Distribution, America and Europe.
Choice
Craterellus cornucopioides (L. ex Fr.) Pers. syn. Cantharellus cornucopioides L. ex Fr. Horn of Plenty, Black Trumpets, Trompette des morts, Corne d'abondance, Herbsttrompete, Kraterpilz, S?t?t trombitagomba, Trombetta dei morti, corno dell'abbondanza, Hoorn van overvloed. Cap 2?8cm across, deeply tubular with flared mouth, becoming irregularly crisped and wavy at the margin, thin and leathery, dark brown to black and scurfy scaly when moist drying paler and greyish brown. Spore-bearing or outer surface ashy grey, smooth in young specimens becoming somewhat undulating with age. Spores white, elliptic, 10?11 x 6?7?. Habitat gregarious or clustered amongst leaf litter of deciduous woods. Season late summer to late autumn. Occasional but locally abundant. Edible ? good. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Clitocybe nebularis (Batsch. ex Fr.) Kummer. Clouded Funnel or Clouded Agaric, Clitocybe n?buleux, Nebelkappe, Sz?rke t?lcs?rgomba, Agarico delle nebbie, Nevelzwam. Cap 5?C20cm across, convex at first becoming flattened or occasionally slightly depressed in the centre, the margin remaining inrolled, cloudy grey sometimes tinged with buff, darker at the centre and often covered with a white bloom. Stem 50?C100 x 15?C25mm, swollen towards the base, paler than the cap, fibrous and easily broken. Flesh thick, white, becoming hollow in the stem. Smell strong and sweetish. Gills decurrent, crowded, whitish later with a yellow flush. Spore print cream. Spores ovoid-elliptical, 5.5?C8 x 3.5?C5??. Habitat in deciduous or coniferous woods often in rings or troops. Season late summer to late autumn. Common. Said to be edible but known to cause gastric upsets in many people. Distribution, America and Europe.C. nebularis var. alba differs only in the milk-white cap and be distinguished from other white fleshy Clitocybes by its relatively large spores. Europe.
Inedible
Boletus subtomentosus L. ex Fr. Samtiger R?hrling Molyhos tin?ru. Cap 4?10cm, very velvety, fulvous to pale sepia, darkening where rubbed or bruised. Stem up to 80 x 10?15(20)mm, pale at apex and yellow towards middle sometimes with a wide, coarse, irregular network of dark brick-coloured veins, paler again towards the base. Flesh white in cap with a date-brown line beneath the cuticle, rust above tubes and flushed lemon-yellow in base of stem, hardly blueing or not at all on cutting. Taste and smell not distinctive. Tubes lemon-chrome blueing on exposure to air. Pores large, angular, similarly coloured, bruising blue on handling then fading. Spore print olivaceous snuff-brown. Spores subfusiform-ellipsoid, 9?11.5 x 3.5?4.5?. Habitat in broad-leaved and mixed woods, particularly with birch. Season autumn. Rare. Edibility unknown. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Boletus rubellus Krombh. Piros tin-ru. Cap 3-8cm across, broadly convex then flattened; scarlet red when young, becoming dull olivaceous red with age, margin often yellowish; dry and velvety, finally glabrous, and often areolate. Tubes dull yellow. Pores lemon yellow then greenish yellow, bruising blue. Stem 40-80 x 4-8mm, equal; bright yellow at apex, shading to bright rose red or scarlet below, with yellow basal mycelium. Flesh yellowish, staining blue when cut. Odor pleasant. Taste slightly soapy. Spores subellipsoid, 10-13 x 4-5-. Deposit olive-brown. Habitat often gregarious in grassy woodlands, especially oak. Found in Europe and the northeastern United States. Season July-September. Edible but often maggoty. Comment This is one of a complex of very closely related species, often separable only with microscopic examination.
Edible
Boletus pulverulentus Opatowski Ligeti tin?ru. Cap 4-10cm across, broadly convex; deep yellow-brown to blackish brown, sometimes with reddish hues; subtomentose to dull, dry, or glabrous, tacky when moist. Tubes yellow, but instantly deep blue when cut. Pores large and angular; lemon yellow, instantly deep blue when touched. Stem 40-80 x 10-30mm, equal to tapering below; bright yellow-orange on apex, reddish brown below, turns instantly blue-black when handled; surface pruinose. Flesh soft; yellow then deep blue to almost black when cut. Odor not distinctive. Taste not distinctive. Spores subfusiform, 11-14(15) x 4.5-6?. Deposit olive-brown. Habitat in grassy oak woods and in garden lawns, particularly on slopes and banks. Often common. Found throughout northeastern North America. Season July-August. Edible. Comment One of the most easily identifiable boletes, with its instant and very deep blue color change of all parts. Ammonia on the cap cuticle gives a fleeting green coloration.
Inedible
Boletus porosporus (Imler) Watling syn. Xerocomus porosporus Imler Gefelderter R-hrling Hamis nemezestin-ru (-tin-ru) Sepia Bolete Cap up to 8cm, dark olive brown then sepia to cigar-brown although at first with yellow down which darkens on bruising, later cracking to show yellowish flesh particularly at centre. Stem 90-100 x 20-30mm, apex lemon-chrome sometimes with brown to blood-red zone, slightly ribbed with olivaceous brown, darkening when bruised. Flesh pale lemon yellow to buff in cap, stem apex lemon-chrome, stem base dark brick or vinaceous, finally becoming blue after cutting particularly above the tubes. Taste and smell not distinctive. Tubes lemon-yellow finally olivaceous, bruising blue. Pores compound, angular, lemon-yellow darkening with age, bruising blue. Spore print olivaceous snuff-brown. Spores subfusiform, 13-15 x 4.5-5.5-, with a distinct truncate pore making this species unique among European boletes. Habitat mixed deciduous woods, particularly where oak is present. Season autumn. Rare. Edible but not recommended. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Boletus chrysenteron Bull. ex St. Amans syn. Xerocomus chrysenteron (Bull. ex St. Amans) Qu?l. Red Cracking Boletus,C?pe ? pied rouge, Bolet ? chair jaune, Rotfussr?hrling, Aranytin?ru (tin?ru), Boleto dorato, Roodstelige fluweelboleet. Cap 4?11cm, dingy brown to pale sepia or buff with olivaceous flush, or with a pinkish red flush particularly late in the season, slightly velvety at first then smooth, later cracking irregularly to show coral flesh, making this an easily recognizable species. Stem 40?80 x 10?15mm, lemon-yellow at apex, red from middle downwards becoming more buff towards base. Flesh cream or lemon-yellow in cap, brown to reddish-buff in stem, usually pale red just below cap, turning slightly blue above the tubes and in base of stem but only slowly. Taste and smell slight but not distinctive. Tubes sulphur or lemon yellow, becoming greenish with age. Pores large, angular, similarly coloured and sometimes bruising greenish. Spore print olivaceous snuff-brown. Spores subfusiform, 12?15 x 3.5?5?. Habitat with broad-leaved trees. Season autumn. Very common. Edible but mushy when cooked. Distribution, America and Europe.
Choice
Boletus badius Fr. syn. Xerocomus badius (Fr.) K-hn. Bay Boletus, Bolet bai, C-pe des ch-taigniers, Maronenr-hrling, Barna tin-ru, Boleto baio, Kastanjeboleet. Cap 4-14cm, bay to dark brick-colour later flushed ochraceous brown, downy when young, soon becoming smooth and polished, slightly viscid in wet weather. Stem 45-125 x 8-40mm, concolorous with cap or paler, surface slightly cottony. Flesh white to lemon-yellow on cutting becoming faintly blue particularly in stem apex and above tubes, vinaceous in cap. Taste and smell mild and mushroomy. Tubes cream to lemon-yellow, bruising bluish green. Pores large, readily bruising blue-green. Spore print olivaceous snuff-brown. Spores subfusiform, 13-15 x 4.5-5.5-. Habitat in mixed woods. Season autumn. Common throughout British Isles. Edible - very good and usually free of maggots. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Armillaria gallica Marxm?ller & Romagnesi Syn. A. bulbosa and A. lutea Gum?s (s?rgapelyhes) tusk?gomba. Ricken Cap 3?15cm across, very variable, convex to shield shapped, yellow brown, tawny, to dark brown, often with an olivaceous tinge, covered in darker fibrillose scales especially at the centre. Stem 60?150?5?15mm, often bulbous towards the base, yellowish becoming reddish-brown at the base, initially with a thick whitish to yellow cottony ring. Flesh white. Taste astringent, smell strong. Gills white at first then yellowish becoming pinkish-brown and often darker spotted with age. Spore print pale cream. Spores elliptic, 8?9 x 5?6?. Habitat in clusters on or around trunks or stumps of deciduous and coniferous treesor shrubs. Season summer to early winter. Very common. Edible when cooked but should only be eaten in small amounts as some forms are known to cause stomach upsets. Distribution, America and Europe. The fungus spreads by long black cords called rhizomorphs resembling bootlaces which can be found beneath the bark of infected trees, on roots or in the soil where they can travel large distances to infect other trees. This is one of the most dangerous parasites of trees, causing an intensive white rot and ultimately death; there is no cure and the fungus is responsible for large losses of timber each year.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita strobiliformis (Vitt.) Quel. Cafrangos gal?ca. Sometimes other authors use the name Amanita solitaria for this mushroom. Cap 15-25cm white, with large plate-like grey remnants of the volva. Stem large 15x5cm, white with a ring. Gills white. Flesh white. Spores 12x8??. Found on chalk or limestone beech woods. Said to be edible, but I advise against because of the possibility of confusion with poisonous white species. Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita regalis Fr. Barna gal?ca. Developing from a white volval sac. Cap up to 15cm or even larger, yellow-brown to greenish-brown, the flesh under the cap skin is yellowish; veil flakes white (whitish) the whole appearance like a brownish Amanita muscaria. Stem with prominent bulb and ring tending to be flaky. Gills white. Spores elliptical 9-12 x6-9??. Found, mainly in pine and spruce woods, more especially in northern Scandinavia. Poisonous found in Europe. Rare.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita porphyria (Alb. & Schw. ex Fr.) Secr. Grey Veiled Amanita, Amanite porphyre, Porphyrbrauner Wulstling, Agarico porporino, Porfieramaniet, B?bor gal?ca. Cap 5?9cm across, convex becoming flattened, pale greyish-brown with vinaceous flush, smooth. Stem 100?130 x 10?15mm, whitish, ring thin and fragile, basal bulb encased in a short volva. Flesh whitish becoming brown. Taste unpleasant, smell slight. Gills free to adnexed, white. Spore print white. Spores globose, amyloid, 7.5?9.5? diameter. Habitat in coniferous or mixed woods. Season late summer to autumn. Occasional. Not edible many amanitas contain poisonous toxins -avoid. Distribution, north America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita gemmata (Fr.) Gillet syn. A. junquillea Qu?l. syn. Amanitopsis adnata (W. G. Smith) Sacc. Jewelled Amanita, Amanite ? pierreries, Zitronengelber Knollenbl?tterpilz, Amanita giunchiglia, Narcisamaniet, S?rga gal?ca. Cap 5?7cm across, flattened convex, pale yellow with more ochre centre, covered in snow-white patches of veil remnants, margin striate. Stem 70?100 x 10?14mm, white with pale yellow flush, with a large basal bulb encased in a short thin volva. Flesh white, flushed pale yellow in the stem. Smell faint. Gills adnexed, white. Spore print white. Spores ovoid ? subglobose, nonamyloid, 8.5?9 x 7?7.5?. Habitat in coniferous woods. Season spring to autumn. Very rare. Deadly poisonous causing symptoms as in A. pantherina poisoning. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Amanita fulva (Schaeff.) Secr. syn. Amanitopsis vaginata var. fulva (Schaeff.) Fr. Tawny Grisette, Rotbrauner Scheidenstreifling, Falso farinaccio fulvo, Roodbruine slanke amaniet, R?t selyemgomba. Cap 4-9cm across, ovoid at first, expanding to almost flat with a low umbo and a distinctly grooved margin; orange-brown; slightly paler toward the margin; smooth, slightly sticky when moist then dry. Gills free, close, broad; white to creamy. Stem 70-150 x 5-12mm, slender, hollow, quite fragile, tapering toward the top; white tinged with orange-brown and very fine white hairs; no ring; no basal bulb, but base of stem encased in large baglike volva, white tinged with orange-brown. Flesh white. Odor not distinctive. Taste not distinctive. Spores globose, nonamyloid; 9.7-12.5 x 9.7-12.5?. Deposit white. Habitat singly or in small groups on the ground in deciduous and coniferous woods. Fairly common. Found widely distributed throughout North America. Season July-September (January-March in California). Edible but I advise avoiding it as I would all amanitas, because there are so many deadly poisonous species.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita crocea (Qu?l.) K?hn. & Romagn. syn. A. vaginata var. crocea Qu?l. syn. Amanitopsis crocea (Qu?l.) Gilbert Orange Grisette Orangebrauner Scheidenstreifling, Falso farinaccio giallo, Narancssz?n? selyemgomba. Cap 4?10cm across, convex becoming flattened or turning up at margin, with a broad umbo, pale yellow orange or apricot at centre, paler towards the lined margin. Stem 100?150 x 10?20mm, gradually attenuated towards the apex, covered in silky or cottony tufts of the cap colour throughout the length, the non-bulbous base encased in a thick, persistent volva which is white on the outside and flushed with the cap colour on the interior surface, no ring. Flesh thin, white often pale orange below the cap cuticle. Smell sweet, taste sweet and nutty. Gills adnexed or free, cream. Spore print white. Spores subglobose, nonamyloid, 11?12.5 x 9?10?. Habitat amongst broadleaved trees especially birch. Season late summer to autumn. Occasional. Not known to be edible -best avoided. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Found In Europe and north America from New York west to Colorado.
Inedible
Agrocybe erebia (Fr.) K?hn. syn. Pholiota erebia (Fr.) Gillet Lederbrauner Erdsch?ppling S?t?t r?tgomba Dark Fieldcap. Cap 3?6cm across, convex becoming flattened with a broad umbo, the margin wavy in older specimens, dull clay-brown when dry, darker and slightly viscid when moist. Stem 60?80 x 8?12mm, whitish at first gradually darkening brown from base upwards, with whitish grooved ring. Flesh pale brownish. Gills pale at first then dark umber brown. Spore print very dark brown. Spores ellipsoid, 10?13 x 5?6?. Cap cuticle cellular. Habitat on bare soil or in leaf litter in deciduous woods. Season autumn. Frequent. Not edible ? easily confused with poisonous species. Distribution, America and Europe.
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