Agaricomycetes Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
Stem type:
Spore colour:
Cap type:
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Total mushrooms fount: 251

Inedible
Stropharia semiglobata (Batsch. ex Fr.) Qu?l. Dung Roundhead, Strophaire semi-globuleux, Halbkugeliger Tr?uschling, Dombor? harmatgomba, f?lg?mbalak? harmatgomba, Kleefsteel-stropharia. Cap 1?3cm across, hemispherical, light yellow, viscid. Stem 60?100 x 2?3mm, yellowish, apex paler, viscid below the ring; ring incomplete, often represented by zone of blackish fibrils. Flesh thin, pallid. Gills purplish-brown becoming black-spotted. Spore print dark purplish-brown. Spores elliptic, 15?17 x 9?10um. Habitat on dung. Season spring to late autumn. Common. Not edible -avoid. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Stropharia rugosoannulata Farlow ex Murr. King Stropharia, Wine Cup, -ri-s harmatgomba. Cap 5-20cm across, convex-flattened to umbonate; deep purplish red to dull brown or even grayish or white with age; smooth, not viscid. Gills adnate, crowded; pallid then gray and finally purple-brown. Stem 100-180x 10-25mm, equal to clavate; white; smooth; ring large, prominent, deeply wrinkled or segmented below, very thick, white. Flesh firm; white. Odor pleasant. Taste pleasant. Spores ellipsoid, with germ pore, 10-13 x 7.5-9-. Deposit purple-brown. Habitat on wood chips and bark mulch and around flower beds. Very common. Found Europe and widely distributed in northern North America. Season June-October. Edible-delicious. Comment An almost pure white form is not infrequent; also a closely related (probably undescribed) yellow species with viscid cap may be found at the same time.
Poisonous/Suspect
Stropharia hornemannii (Fr.) Lundell Fenyves harmatgomba. Cap 6-15cm across, broadly convex umbonate; dull reddish brown or purple-brown, with white veil remnants at margin; very viscid when wet. Gills adnate, crowded; pallid then purple-brown. Stem 60-120x 10-20mm; white; strongly fibrillose-scaly below the prominent ring. Flesh white. Odor a little unpleasant. Taste a little unpleasant. Spores ellipsoid, with germ pore, 10-14 x 5.5-7?. Deposit purple-brown. Habitat on rotting conifer logs. Found in Europe and northern North America. Season August-November. Not edible- possibly poisonous.
Inedible
Stropharia coronilla (Bull. ex Fr.) Qu?l. syn. S. obturata (Fr.) Qu?l. Stropharia coronilla Kr?nchen-Tr?uschling S?rga harmatgomba Strophaire coronille Garland Roundhead. Cap 2?4cm across, convex then flattened, light yellow, slightly viscid or greasy. Stem 25?40 x 6?8mm, white tapering towards base; ring white, but often accentuated by trapped deposit of dark spores. Flesh thick, white. Gills white then clay-brown. Pleurocystidia broadly lanceolate with acutely pointed apex, staining deeply in aniline blue in lactic acid. Spore print purple-brown. Spores elliptic with indistinct pore, 7?9 x 4?6um. Habitat lawns and pasture. Season autumn. Common. Edible ? not worthwhile. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Stropharia aeruginosa (Curt. ex Fr.) Qu?l. Verdigris Agaric, Strophaire vert-de-gris, Vert-de-gris, Gr?nspantr?uschling, Z?ld harmatgomba, Strofaria grigio-verde, Kopergroenezwam. Cap 2?8cm across, convex to bell-shaped then flattened and slightly umbonate, blue to blue-green from the gluten and flecked with white scales, becoming pale yellowish as this is lost. Stem 40?100 x 4?12mm, whitish to blue, apex smooth, covered in small whitish scales below the spreading membranous ring. Flesh whitish-blue. Smell none. Gills white then clay brown, often with a white edge. Cheilocystidia obtuse, clavate-capitate or lageniform capitate; lanceolate chrysocystidia found on gill face and only rarely on gill-edge. Spore print brownish-purple. Spores elliptic, 7?10 x 5um. Habitat woods, heaths and pastures. Season late spring to late autumn. Common. Poisonous. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Scleroderma verrucosum (Bull.) Pers. Braunwarziger Kartoffelbovist, Nyeles ?ltrifla, Scl?roderme verruqueux, Scaly Earthball. Fruit body 2.5?5cm across, subglobose often flattened on top, tapering into a long, thick stem-like base which is usually prominently ribbed, yellowish to brown covered in small brownish scales, the thin leathery wall breaking open irregularly above when mature. Gleba olive-brown. Spores dark brown, globose covered in spines or warts, 10?14um in diameter. Habitat on sandy soil in woods or heaths. Season summer to late autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Inedible
Scleroderma citrinum Pers. syn. S. aurantium (Vaill.) Pers. syn. S. vulgare Horn. Common Earthball, cl-roderme vulgaire, Scl-roderme orang-, Kartoffelbovist, R-t (k-z-ns-ges) -ltrifla, Scleroderma commune, tartufo falso, Aardappelbovist. Fruit body 2-10cm across, subglobose, attached to the substrate by cord-like mycelial threads, wall dirty yellow to ochre-brown, thick and tough, coarsely scaly, breaking open irregularly to liberate the spores. Gleba purplish-black at first patterned by whitish veins, powdery when mature. Spores brown, globose, with a net-like ornamentation, 9-13m in diameter. Habitat on mossy or peaty ground on heaths or in rich woodland, especially on sandy soil. Season late summer to early winter. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe. This species is sometimes parasitized by Boletus parasiticus.
Inedible
Scleroderma areolatum Ehr. syn. S. lycoperdoides Schwein. Netzbovist Pikkelyes (leop-rd) -ltrifla Leopard Earthball. Fruit body 1-3(4)cm across, subglobose, tapering into a thick rooting stalk which passes into a few strong mycelial strands, yellowish-brown covered in smooth very dark scales surrounded by a ring giving a dotted, reticulate pattern when the scales have been worn off, opening by an irregular slit or pore. Gleba deep purplish-brown. Spores dark brown, globose, 9-14m in diameter, covered in spines 1.5m long. Habitat damp places on bare ground or amongst sparse grass or moss. Season autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Russula xerampelina Gemeiner Heringst-ubling Barnul-h-s- galambgomba Russule feuille-morte Crab Brittlegill Russula xerampelina (Schaeff. ex Secr.) Fr. (R. faginea Romagn. in part) Cap 5-14 cm across, convex, later flattening and with a depression, colours very varied, often mixed, dull purples, reds, wine-coloured, cinnamon, straw, fawn, brick or dull brown, moderately firm, sometimes hard, soon dry and matt; margin eventually furrowed, one-quarter peeling at most. Stem 30-110-10-30mm, white or tinted rose, staining honey to brownish ochre especially on bruising, firm to hard, reacting dull green when rubbed with iron salts. Flesh white. Taste mild, smell crab-like especially with age. Gills adnexed, pale to medium ochre, fairly broad and thick, connected by veins at their bases. Spore print deep cream to pale ochre (E-F). Spores ovoid with warts up to 1.2m high, lines none or few, occasionally enclosing a mesh, 8-11-6.5-9m. Cap cystidia infrequent, mostly narrow, not reacting to SV. Cap hyphae with terminal cells sometimes club-shaped, and these and the supporting cells inflated. Habitat under broad-leaved trees, especially beech and oak. Season late summer to late autumn. Common. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe. Divided by some authorities into a number of different species and varieties.
Edible
Russula virescens (Schaeff. ex Zantedschi) Fr. Gefelderter Gr-nt-ubling, Varas z-ld galambgomba, varash-t- galambgomba, Russule verdoyante, Bise verte, Greencracked Brittlegill. Cap 5-12cm across, globose, later convex, finally flattening and often wavy and lobed, verdigris to dull green often ochre-buff to cream in places, half peeling; surface breaking up into small, flattened, angular, scurfy scales. Stem 40-90 x 20-40mm, whitish to pale cream, browning slightly, powdered above, firm. Flesh white. Odor pleasant. Taste mild, nutty. Gills almost free, cream, somewhat brittle, with veins connecting the bases. Spore print whitish to pale cream (A-B). Spores ellipsoid-ovoid to somewhat globose with warts 0.2-0.5- high, fine lines absent to fairly numerous and forming a fairly well-developed network, 7-9 x 6-7-. Cap cystidia none; gill cystidia few, not or hardly reacting with SV. Cap hyphae forming a loose, cellular layer of variously shaped or inflated cells, the terminal ones tapering. Habitat under broad-leaved trees, especially beech. Season summer to early autumn. Uncommon. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Russula vesca Fr. Bare-toothed Russula, Russule comestible, Fleischroter Speiset-ubling, R-ncos galambgomba, r-ncost-nk- galambgomba, Rossola edule, Smakelijke russula. Cap 5-10cm across, somewhat globose at first, later flattened convex, rather variable in colour, often with pastel tints, from dark or pale wine-coloured to buff, sometimes with olive or greenish tints, fleshy, firm, the skin half peeling, tending to retreat from the margin leaving the underlying flesh visible. Stem 30-100 x 15-25mm, white, rather hard, often with somewhat pointed base. Flesh white. Taste mild, nutty. Gills adnexed, whitish to very pale cream, rather closely spaced, narrow, forked, especially near stem. Gills and stem surface rapidly deep salmon when rubbed with an iron salt. Spore print whitish (A). Spores ovoid with small warts up to 0.5- high, very occasionally with short lines attached or joining pairs, 6-8 x 5-6-. Cap cystidia cylindrical or spindle-shaped, without septa, hardly reacting to SV. Cap hyphae with cylindrical or tapering terminal cells or sometimes a long, tapering, thick-walled hair; supporting cells rectangular. Habitat under broad-leaved trees. Season summer to autumn. Frequent. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Russula sardonia Fr. Zitronenbl?ttriger T?ubling, Citromlemez? galambgomba, Russule ?cre, Russule ? couleur de sardoine, Primrose Brittlegill. Cap 4?10cm across, convex, later flattening and with a depression, violet-, purplish- or brownish-red, greenish or ochre to yellowish, hard, shortly peeling only. Stem 30?80 x 10?15mm, sometimes white but usually entirely pale lilac to greyish rose, firm; surface as if powdered. Flesh white. Taste very hot, smell slightly fruity. Gills adnexed to slightly decurrent, at first primrose, later pale golden yellow, narrow. Gills and flesh reacting rose with ammonia (distinguishes this species). Spore print cream (C?F). Spores ovoid with warts up to 0.5? high, joined into ridges or by fine lines to form a rather poorly developed network, 7?9 x 6?8?. Cap cystidia spindle-shaped or cylindrical, without septa, strongly reacting to SV. Habitat under pine. Season summer to autumn. Frequent. Found In Europe and western north America. Edibility suspect-not advisable.
Edible
Russula parazurea J. Schaeff. Blaugr?ner Reift?ubling, K?kesz?ld galambgomba, deres galambgomba, Russule presque azur?e, Powdery Brittlegill. Cap 3?8cm across, convex then flattening, with greyish, dark colours, olive, violet-grey, greyish sepia or chestnut or tinged with dull green, wine or violet, firm, rather fleshy, sometimes greasy, usually matt, often as if powdered when dry, half to three quarters peeling. Stem 30?70 x 7?20mm, white. Flesh white. Taste mild or very slightly hot. Gills adnexed, pale buff, often forked. Spore print palish cream (C?D). Spores elliptic with warts up to 0.5? high, some isolated but mostly joined by lines forming a moderately developed network, 5.7?8.5 x 5?6.5?. Cap hyphae with the terminal cell usually tapering and the supporting cells rectangular. Cap cystidia cylindrical to narrow club-shaped, without septa, moderately reacting to SV. Habitat under broad-leaved trees. Season early summer to autumn. Occasional. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous) Found In Europe.
Edible
Russula ochroleuca (Pers. ex Secr.) Fr. Common Yellow Russula, Russule blanc ocr-, Zitronent-ubling, Fak-s-rga galambgomba, s-rga galambgomba, Geelwitte russula. Cap 4-10cm across, convex then flattening and with a depression, ochre, yellow or sometimes greenish yellow, fleshy, two-thirds peeling; margin eventually furrowed. Stem 40-70 x 15-25mm, white, greying slightly with age especially when waterlogged. Flesh white. Taste from mild to moderately hot. Gills adnexed, creamy. Spore print whitish to pale cream (A-C). Spores broadly ovoid with warts up to 1.2m high, joined by numerous fine lines forming a fairly well-developed network, 8-10 x 7-8-. Cap surface cystidia absent, hyphae 2-3- wide, often with yellow encrusting pigment. Habitat under broad-leaved trees and conifers. Season late summer to late autumn. Very common. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Found In Europe.
Inedible
Russula fragilis (Pers. ex Fr.) Fr. Fragile Russula, Russule fragile, Wechselfarbiger Speit?ubling, T?r?keny galambgomba, Colombina fragile, Broze Russula. Cap 2?5cm across, convex, then flattening or depressed, variable in colour, usually purplish or violet-tinted and rather pale, or purplish-red, purple-violet, olive-greenish, even lemon yellow, often with combinations of these, with a darker, paler or olive-tinted centre, thin-fleshed, usually delicate and fragile, three-quarters peeling. Stem 25?60 x 5?15mm, white, cylindrical to slightly club-shaped. Flesh white. Taste very hot, smell slightly fruity. Gills adnexed, white to very pale cream, with tiny nicks along their edges. Spore print whitish (A?B). Spores somewhat globose with warts up to 0.5? high, joined by fine lines forming an almost complete network, 7.5?9 x 6?8?. Cap cystidia cylindrical to club-shaped, with 0?2 septa, reacting strongly with SV. Habitat under broad-leaved trees or conifers. Season late summer to late autumn. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Russula foetens (Pers. ex Fr.) Fr. Fetid Russula, Russule fetide, Stinkt?ubling, B?d?s galambgomba, Rossola fetente, colombina fetida, Stinkende russula. Cap 5?12cm across, globose at first, later convex, finally flattening, at times with a central depression, dull brownish ochre to honey-coloured, thick-fleshed, rigid, slimy or glutinous; margin furrowed and with small, low warts. Stem 50?120 x 15?40mm, whitish to buff, cylindrical or swollen in the middle, hard and rigid but easily breaking. Flesh white, irregular cavities forming in stem. Taste of gills very hot, of stem flesh almost mild, in addition bitter or oily, smell strongly oily or rancid. Gills adnexed, creamy, often brown spotted, thickish and well spaced. Spore print pale to medium cream (B?D). Spores somewhat globose with strong warts, up to 1.5? high, isolated or an occasional fine line joining them, 8?10 x 7?9?. Cap cystidia cylindrical, tapering or spindle-shaped, not reacting to SV. Habitat under broad-leaved trees or conifers. Season late summer to late autumn. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Russula fellea (Fr.) Fr. Geranium-scented Russula, Russule trompeuse, Russule de fiel, Gallent-ubling, Epe-z- galambgomba, Rossola di fiele, Okerkleurige beukerussla. Cap 4-9cm across, convex, soon flattening, often with a broad umbo, straw-coloured to pale ochre-honey or buff, fairly fleshy, slightly sticky when moist, peeling at margin only, which is smooth to slightly furrowed. Stem 20-60 x 10-20mm, coloured as cap but slightly paler, firm, cream if rubbed with iron salts. Flesh white. Taste very hot, smell of geraniums. Gills adnexed, coloured as stem. Spore print whitish to pale cream (A-C). Spores ovoid with warts up to 0.7- high, mostly joined by fine lines to form a well-developed network, 7.5-9 x 6-7-. Cap cystidia abundant, cylindrical to narrow club-shaped, strongly reacting with SV. Habitat under beech. Season late summer to late autumn. Very common. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Russula emetica (Schaeff. ex Fr.) S.F. Gray. Sickener, Emetic Russula, Russule -m-tique, Colombe rouge, Kirschroter Speit-ubling, H-nytat- galambgomba, Colombina rossa, rossetta, Berijpte russula. Cap 3-10cm across, convex, later flattening or with a shallow depression, scarlet, cherry or blood red, sometimes with ochre-tinted to white areas, somewhat thin-fleshed, fragile, shiny, sticky when moist; skin easily peeling to show pink to red coloured flesh beneath, margin often furrowed when old. Stem 40-90 x 7-20mm, white, cylindrical or more usually somewhat swollen towards the base, fragile. Flesh white, red immediately beneath cap cuticle. Taste very hot, smell slightly fruity. Gills adnexed to free, cream then pale straw. Spore print whitish (A). Spores broadly ovoid; with large warts, 1.2- high, connected by fine lines to form a large-meshed, almost complete network, 9-11 x 7.5-8.5-. Cap cystidia mostly narrowly club-shaped with 0-1 septa. Habitat under pines. Season summer to late autumn. Common. Poisonous. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Russula densifolia (Secr.) Gillet syn. R. acrifolia Romagn. Russule ? feuillets denses, Feketed? galambgomba, Crowded Brittlegill. Cap 3?12cm across, flattened convex at first, later with a depression, cup- or funnel-shaped, whitish or dull brown in the centre or all over, eventually blackish, sticky when moist, fleshy; margin incurved at first. Stem 25?80 x 6?30mm, white then dull brown to blackish, reddish on bruising, hard. Flesh white at first when cut, then tinged reddish and soon greyish as well, finally dark grey to brownish blackish. Taste hot or very hot, but sometimes almost mild, smell not distinctive. Gills slightly decurrent, white to pale cream, closely spaced, rather narrow and not thick, interspersed with shorter gills. Spore print whitish (A). Spores ovoid with small warts under 0.5? high, joined by numerous fine lines to form a well-developed network, 7?9 x 6?7?. Cap hyphae cylindrical or narrowing towards the apex, 3?4? wide; cap cystidia few, narrow, not reacting to SV. Habitat under both broad-leaved trees and conifers. Season summer to autumn. Common. Edibility suspect- not recommended; other members of this group have caused poisonings. Distribution, America and Europe
Inedible
Russula delica Fr. Milk-white Russula, Russule sans lait, Blaubl?ttriger T?ubling, F?ldtol? galambgomba, Colombina bianca, roseola delicata, Witte russula. Cap 5?16cm across, convex, cup- or funnel-shaped, whitish, often tinged yellow brownish, matt, dry, thick-fleshed; margin strongly inrolled. Stem 20?60 x 20?40mm, white, often bluish at apex, hard. Flesh white, unchanging. Taste hot and acrid with a bitter tang; smell distinctive, slightly of bugs and reminiscent of certain Lactarius, sometimes fishy. Gills decurrent, whitish, often tinged bluish towards the stem, often forked or with cross-connections, interspersed with numerous short gills. Spore print white, to slightly creamy (A?B). Spores ovoid with warts 0.5?1.5? high, often in chains or occasionally joined by fine lines not enclosing meshes, or sometimes more abundant and forming a network, 8?12 x 7?9?. Cap cystidia worm-like to narrow cylindrical, hardly reacting to SV. Habitat under both broad-leaved and coniferous trees. Season autumn. Common. Edible ? poor, unpleasant tasting -avoid. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous) Distribution, America and Europe.
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