Agaricomycetes Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
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Total mushrooms fount: 251

Edible
Russula cyanoxantha (Schaeff. ex Secr.) Fr. Charcoal Burner, Russule charbonni?re, Charbonnier, Frauent?ubling, K?kh?t? galambgomba, Colombina iridescente, colombina maggiore, moreleto, Regenboogrussula. Cap 5?15cm across, first globose, later flattening to depressed at the centre, sometimes one colour but usually a mixture, dullish lilac, purplish, wine-coloured, olive, greenish or brownish, sometimes entirely green (var. peltereaui), firm to hard, greasy when moist, with faint branching veins radiating from centre, half peeling. Stem 50?100 x 15?30mm, white, sometimes flushed purple, hard, giving no or a slightly greenish reaction when rubbed with iron salts not salmon as in most Russulas. Flesh white. Taste mild. Gills adnexed to slightly decurrent, whitish to very pale cream, rather narrow, oily to the touch and flexible, not brittle as in most Russulas, forked at times. Spore print whitish (A). Spores broadly elliptic, with low, up to 0.6? high warts; fine lines absent, 7?9 x 6?7?. Cap cystidia scattered, small, short and narrow (2?4?), cylindrical, teat-ended. Habitat under broad-leaved trees. Season summer to late autumn. Very common. Edible ? good.(Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous)Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Russula claroflava Grove. Yellow Swamp Russula, Gelber Graustielt-ubling, Kr-ms-rga galambgomba, Gele berkerussula. Cap 4-10cm across, convex, with a depression later, yellow to ochre yellow, fairly fleshy, slightly sticky, shining, less so when dry, peeling halfway; margin finally furrowed. Stem 40-100 x 10-20mm, white, soft but not fragile. Flesh white. Taste mild or slightly hot. Gills adnexed to almost free, palish ochre. All parts becoming dark grey on bruising or when old. Spore print pale ochre (F). Spores ovoid with warts up to 1- high, joined by numerous fine lines to form a fairly well-developed network, 9-10 x 7.5-8-. Cap surface without cystidia; numerous hyphae with encrustations staining in fuchsin present. Habitat under birch, especially on wet ground. Season autumn, sometimes late spring to early summer. Frequent. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous) Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Russula caerulea (Pers.) Fr. Buckelt?ubling, P?pos galambgomba, Russule bleue, Humpback Brittlegill Cap 3?8cm across, almost conical at first, later with a pointed to broad umbo (rarely absent), livid violet, dark livid, dark wine-coloured or chestnut, hardly sticky when wet, fairly fleshy, one quarter to two thirds peeling; margin finally furrowed. Stem 40?90 x 10?20mm, white, narrow, club-shaped, firm. Flesh white. Taste mild but cap skin bitter. Gills adnexed to almost free, pale ochre, somewhat closely spaced at first. Spore print palish ochre (G). Spores ovoid, with warts or spines up to 1?1.2? high, some isolated, others joined in chains or by a few fine lines to form at most a rather scanty network with 0?2 meshes, 8?10 x 7?9?. Cap surface without cystidia, but scattered hyphae with sparse incrustations staining in fuchsin. Habitat under pine and frequent where these occur. Season summer to autumn. Occasional. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Found In Europe.
Edible
Russula aurea Pers. Syn. R. aurata (With.) Fr. Goldt-ubling, Aranyos galambgomba, Russule dor-e, Gilded Brittlegill. Cap 4-9cm across, globose at first, then flattening and finally with a depression, scarlet red, brownish coral, blood-coloured or reddish orange, often partly or entirely golden yellow, fleshy, firm, half peeling, sticky when moist, smooth; margin often furrowed when mature. Stem 30-80x10-25mm, white to pale yellow to pale golden yellow, firm then soft, cylindrical to somewhat club-shaped, often somewhat irregular, smooth. Gills adnexed-free, pale ochre, broad, fairly widely spaced, connected by veins at their bases; edge often yellow. Taste mild. Spore print ochre (H). Spores globose-ovoid with conical warts up to 0.7-1.5μ high, with thin to thick connecting ridges which form a partial network enclosing a few meshes, 7.5-9x6-8μ. Cap hyphae tapering, cylindrical, spindle-shaped or slightly club-shaped, with shortish cells; both dermatocystidia and hyphae staining in fuchsin absent. Habitat under broad-leaved trees. Season summer to early autumn. Uncommon. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Russula aeruginea Lindblad ex Fr. Gr-ner Birkent-ubling, F-z-ld galambgomba, Russule vert-de-gris, Green Brittlegill. Cap 4-9cm across, convex then flattening or depressed, grass-green, sometimes with yellowish or brownish tinges, without any violaceous tints, often with rusty spots, centre usually darker, smooth or radially veined, peeling halfway; margin often furrowed. Stem 40-80 X 7-20mm, white, fairly firm. Flesh white. Taste mild to slightly hot. Gills almost free, usually forking, yellowish-buff. Spore print cream (D-E). Spores elliptic, with rounded warts up to 0.6μ high, some joined by fine lines to form a very incomplete network with 0-2 meshes, 6-10 X 5-7μ. Cap surface hyphae with rectangular, not inflated, supporting cells; cystidia cylindrical to spindle-shaped, without septa. Habitat under birch. Season summer to early autumn. Frequent. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Rhizopogon luteolus Fr. Gelbliche Barttr?ffel, S?rg?s istr?ngos-?lp?feteg, Rhizopogon jaun?tre, Yellow False Truffle. Fruit body 1.5?5cm across, ovate to globose, whitish at first then dirty ochre-yellow, finally olive brown covered in tawny mycelial strands, outer wall thick and tough. Gleba olivaceous at maturity. Spores olivaceous, oblong-elliptical, 7?10?2.5?3.5m. Habitat sandy conifer woods. Season autumn. Rare but less so in Scottish pine woods. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Inedible
Ramaria stricta, Steife Koralle, Merev korallgomba. ---- Ramaria stricta grows from wood--though the wood is often buried. It features branches that are usually "strictly" oriented, so that they are mostly straight and ascending. When fresh, its branch tips are yellow and its branches are dull yellowish buff, but its surfaces bruise and discolor purplish brown. Under the microscope it features roughened spores, clamp connections, and thick-walled hyphae. Several very similar species have been separated by mycologists (see below), and the name Ramaria stricta should probably represent a group of potential species awaiting contemporary study. ---- Overall, the fruit body appears bushy, and is medium sized, up to 10 by 7 cm (3.9 by 2.8 in), ochraceous tinged with flesh-colour becoming darker or brownish cinnamon with age, tips of branches at first clear yellow then concolorous; All parts bruising vinaceous, stem arising from white mycellum or rhizomorphs, passing into numerous dichotomous branches. Flesh white or pale yellow, tough ( Whitish; fairly tough. ). Taste slightly peppery, smell sweet ( Odor not distinctive, or sweet and fragrant; taste bitter ). Spores cinnamon-ochraceous, oblong, minutely rough to almost smooth 7.5-10.5 x 3.5-5 ยต ( Spore Print: Rusty yellowish ). Habitat on stumps of conifers and broad-leaved trees. Season late summer to winter. Uncommon. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe. ---- Ecology: Uncertain; while most ramarias are thought to be mycorrhizal, the wood-inhabiting species could be mycorrhizal or saprobic; growing from the dead (but sometimes buried) wood of conifers (and sometimes hardwoods); appearing alone, scattered, or gregariously; early summer through fall; apparently widely distributed in North America, but more common from the Rocky Mountains westward. Branches: Vertically oriented and elongated; often flattened; smooth; yellowish buff, becoming orangish buff as the spores mature; bruising and discoloring purplish brown; tips yellow when fresh and young. Base: Nearly absent, or fairly well developed; to 2 cm wide; white below; colored like the branches above; attached to numerous white rhizomorphs. Chemical Reactions: Iron salts green on branches; KOH orangish to brownish on branches.
Hallucinogenic
Psilocybe semilanceata (Fr. ex Secr.) Kummer. Liberty Cap or Magic Mushroom, Spitzkegeliger Kahlkopf, Hegyescs?cs? badargomba, Puntig kaalkopje. Cap 0.5?1.5cm across, elongate conical with a distinct sharply pointed umbo, puckered at margin, hygrophanous, yellowish-brown with olivaceous tinge drying ochre-buff, covered with a viscid pellicle. Stem 25?75 x 1?2mm, white to cream, sometimes with a bluish tinge at the stem base. Flesh cream to pallid. Gills pale clay at first, finally dark purple-brown. Spore print dark purplish-brown. Spores elliptic, 11.5?14.5 x 7?9um. Habitat lawns, pasture and roadsides. Season late summer to late autumn. Frequent. Hallucinogenic. Edible but not recommended. Hallucinogenic and widely collected for this purpose, but should be regarded as mildly poisonous; also, there is the possibility of misidentification. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Psathyrella multipedata (Peck) Smith B?scheliger Faserling Clustered Brittlestem Csoportos porhany?sgomba. Fruit bodies growing in very dense tufts of up to seventy individuals arising from a common base. Cap 1?3cm across, conical-convex, dingy clay-brown drying or ageing cream, striate. Stem 70?120 x 2?4mm, whitish. Flesh thin, whitish. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills dark purplish-brown. Cystidia thin-walled, narrowly fusoid with somewhat swollen base. Spore print dark brown. Spores elliptic, 6.5?10 x 3.5?4.5um. Habitat amongst grass in open deciduous woodland and roadsides. Season summer. Rare. Edibility unknown -avoid. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Pluteus salicinus (Pers. ex Fr.) Kummer Grauer Dachpilz Plut?e du saule Sz?rke csengetty?gomba Willow Shield. Cap 2?5cm across, convex then flattened and slightly umbonate, bluish- or greenish-grey darker at the centre, faintly striate when moist. Stem 30?50 x 2?6mm, white, sometimes becoming tinged with cap colour at the base. Flesh white with greyish tinge. Gills white then pink. Pleurocystidia fusiform with slightly thickened walls and an apical crown of hooked processes. Spore print pink. Spores elliptic, 8?9 x 6?7um. Habitat on deciduous wood. Season spring to autumn. Frequent. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Pluteus leoninus (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Kummer s. Lange L?wengelber Dachpilz Plut?e couleur de lion Lion Shield S?rga csengetty?gomba. Cap 4?6cm across, convex to flattened and slightly umbonate, minutely velvety, deep yellow to bright golden, striate at the margin. Stem 50?75 x 3?10mm, whitish becoming flushed yellow from the base up. Flesh thin, whitish turning brownish in stem base. Gills pale pink, often edged with yellow. Pleurocystidia fusiform. Spore print pink. Spores subglobose, 6.5?7.5 x 5?6um. Cap cuticle flamentous. Habitat on wood of deciduous trees. Season autumn. Rare. Edibility unknown ?avoid. Distribution, America and Europe. The photograph taken in the field was by Geoffrey Kibby.
Edible
Pluteus cervinus (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Kummer Rehbrauner Dachpilz Plut-e couleur de cerf Deer Shield Barna (v-ltoz-kony) csengetty-gomba. Cap 4-12cm across, bell-shaped then convex to flattened, sepia to dark umber with radiating streaks. Stem 70-100 X 5-15mm, slightly swollen at the base, white becoming streaked with umber fibres. Flesh white. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills white, later dull pink. Cystidia fusoid with thickened walls and crowned with several apical prongs. Spore print pink. Spores broadly elliptic, 7-8 x 5-6um. Habitat on rotting stumps, trunks and sawdust of deciduous trees. Season early summer to late autumn, but also sporadically throughout the year. Very common. Edible - not worthwhile, some members of a foray group in north America were taken ill after eating it. Distribution, America and Europe.
Choice
Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer. Oyster Mushroom, Pleurote en forme d'hu-tre, Oreillette, Mouret, Poule de bois, Austernseitling, Austernpilz, K-s-i laskagomba, Gelone, orgella, agarico ostreato, pinnella, Oesterzwam. Cap 6-14cm across, shell-shaped, convex at first then flattening or slightly depressed and often wavy and lobed at the margin or splitting, variable in colour; flesh-brown or deep blue-grey later more grey-brown. Stem 20-30-10-20cm, excentric to lateral, or absent, white with a woolly base. Flesh white. Taste and smell pleasant. Gills decurrent, white at first then with a yellowish tinge. Spore print lilac. Spores subcylindric, 7.5-11 x 3-4um. Habitat often in large clusters on stumps and fallen or standing trunks, usually of deciduous trees, especially beech. Season all year. Common. Edible and good. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Pleurotus dryinus (Pers. ex Fr.) Kummer, Pih?s laskagomba. Cap 5-15cm across, convex then slowly expanding, margin inrolled; white to cream; surface dry, felty-hairy to slightly scaly. Gills decurrent, crowded, narrow, often cross-veined on the stem; white. Stem 50-100 x 10-30mm, lateral to just off-center; white; felty, with a slight membranous ring at apex when young, soon vanishing or leaving fragments on cap margin. Flesh firm; white. Odor pleasant. Taste pleasant. Spores cylindrical, 9-12 x 3.5-4?. Deposit white. Habitat on deciduous timber. Found in Europe and throughout most of northern North America. Season July-October. Edible.
Edible
Pleurotus cornucopiae (Paul. ex Pers.) Rolland syn. P. sapidus (Schulz. apud Kalchbr.) Sacc. Rillstieliger Seitling Erest?nk? laskagomba Pleurote corne d'abondance Branching Oyster. Cap 5?12cm across, convex then depressed to funnel-shaped, often becoming wavy or cracked at the margin, cream at first and covered in a whitish bloom then smooth and tinged ochraceous, finally ochre-brown. Stem 20?50 x 10?25mm, frequently excentric, usually several fused into a common base, whitish becoming tinged with cap colour. Flesh white. Taste pleasant, smell of flour or ammonia. Gills deeply decurrent, white to pale flesh. Spore print pale lilac. Spores subcylindric, 8?11 x 3.5?5um. Habitat in dense clusters on the cut stumps of deciduous trees, usually elm or oak. Season spring to autumn. Occasional. Edible. Found In Europe.
Inedible
Pholiota squarrosa (M-ller ex Fr.) Kummer syn. Dryophila squarrosa (M-ller ex Fr.) Qu-l. Shaggy Scalycap, Pholiote squarreuse, Sparriger Sch-ppling, T-sk-s t-kegomba, Schubbige bundelzwam. Cap 3-10(15)cm across, convex becoming flattened, the margin remaining inrolled, pale straw-yellow densely covered in coarse red-brown, upturned scales, not viscid. Stem 50-120 x 10-15mm, smooth and pale yellow above torn membranous ring, covered in red-brown recurved scales below and darkening at the base. Flesh tough, pale yellowish becoming red-brown in stem base. Taste and smell radishy. Gills crowded, pale yellow at first later cinnamon. Pleurocystidia clavate with mucronate apex. Spore print rust brown. Spores oval, smooth, 5.5-9 x 3.5-5um. Habitat in dense clusters at the base of deciduous and very occasionally coniferous trees. Season autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Pholiota flammans (Fr.) Kummer Freuersch-ppling L-ngsz-n- t-kegomba (l-nggomba) Pholiote flamboyante Flaming Scalycap. Cap 2-8cm across, convex then expanded, tawny yellow covered in recurved lemon- to sulphur-yellow scales, margin incurved. Stem 40-80 x 4-10mm, bright yellow with concolorous cottony ring near the apex, densely covered in concolorous scales below. Flesh pale yellow. Gills pale yellow darkening to rusty yellow with age. Pleurocystidia lanceolate with pointed apex, staining deeply in cotton blue in lactic acid. Spore print rusty. Spores elliptic, 4-4.5 x 2-2.5um. Habitat singly or in tufts on conifer stumps or fallen trunks. Season late summer to autumn. Rare, more frequent in mountains. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Pholiota aurivella (Fr.) Kummer Rozsdas?rga (s?rga) t?kegomba. Cap 4-15cm across, bell-shaped to convex with a broad umbo; ochre-orange to tawny; sticky to slimy with large flattened spot-like scales, which may disappear or become somewhat sticky when wet. Gills adnate, close, moderately broad; pale yellowish becoming tawny brown. Stem 50-80 x 5-15mm, dry, solid, central or off-center; yellowish to yellow-brown; dry and cottony above the ring, hairy and with down-curving scales toward the base. Veil partial veil leaves evanescent ring or zone on upper stalk; white. Flesh firm; yellow. Odor sweet. Taste slight. Spores ellipsoid, smooth, with pore at apex, 7-9.5 x 4.5-6?. Deposit rusty brownish. Caulocystidia absent; pleurocystidia present. Habitat in clusters on living trunks and logs of hardwoods and conifers. Found Europe and in North America except the Southeast. Season June-November. Not edible.
Inedible
Pholiota alnicola (Fr.) Sing. syn. Flammula alnicola (Fr.) Kummer syn. Dryophila alnicola (Fr.) Qu?l. Erlen-Sch?ppling S?rga t?kegomba Alder Scalycap. Cap 2?6(11)cm across, convex to flattened, smooth and greasy, bright lemon-yellow at first becoming flushed olivaceous at the margin, remains of veil often adhering to the margin. Stem 20?80 x 5?10mm, pale lemon-yellow above the remains of the veil becoming rusty-brown towards the base, not viscid. Flesh yellow in cap, rusty towards the stem base. Taste mild to slightly bitter, smell pleasant and sweet. Gills pale yellow at first becoming cinnamon. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, hyaline, hair-like, clavate. Spore print rusty brown. Spores oval, smooth, 8.5?11.5 x 5?5.5um. Habitat solitary or in small clusters on deciduous wood, especially alder, willow and birch. Season autumn. Uncommon. Inedible. Distribution, America and Europe. Note the two forms that I have collected seem to differ in form and will need to be rechecked.
Poisonous/Suspect
Phaeolepiota aurea (Matt. ex Fr.) Maire ex Konrad & Maublanc Aranys-rga t-kegomba. Cap 2-15cm across, obtuse to convex, becoming flatter with a central umbo and the margin often hung with veil remnants; orange-tan to golden brown; dry, granular to powdery. Gills adnate to free, close, broad; pale yellow becoming tawny to orange-brown. Stem 40-150 x 10-40mm expanded toward the base; orange to buff or similar to cap; smooth above the ring, powdery or granular below. Veil partial veil sheathing stalk; same color as cap; granular underneath, smooth above; leaving persistent flaring to drooping ring. Flesh thick; pale or yellowish. Spores ellipsoid, smooth to minutely roughened, 10-14 x 5-6-. Deposit yellowish brown to orange-buff. Habitat in groups or clusters on compost, rich soil, humus, or leaf litter under coniferous or deciduous trees. Quite rare but sometimes abundant. Found in Alaska and the Pacific Northwest. Season September-October. Not edible because it is mildly poisonous to some people. The field photograph was taken by Geoffrey Kibby.
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