Pezizomycetes Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
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Spore colour:
Cap type:
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Total mushrooms fount: 31

Inedible
Xylaria polymorpha (Pers. ex M-rat) Greville. Dead Man-s Fingers, Xilaire polymorphe, Vielgestaltige Holzkeule, Bunk-s agancsgomba, Houtknotszwam. Fruit body 3-8cm high, 1-3cm wide, irregularly club-shaped passing into a short cylindrical stalk below, black with a finely wrinkled or roughened surface. Flesh tough, white; the section shows the distinctive pattern of the spore-producing cavities, the perithecia, just below the surface crust. Asci 200 x 10um. Spores blackish, fusiform, 20-32 x 5-9um. Habitat in groups on stumps, usually beech. Season all year. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe. The two super latest shots were sent to me by David Tuckett. Thanks David.
Inedible
Xylaria hypoxylon (L. ex Hook.) Greville. Stag?s Horn or Candlesnuff Fungus, Xilaire du bois, Geweihf?rmige Holzkeule, Geweizwam, Szarvasagancsgomba. Fruit body 1?7cm high, subcylindric at first becoming flattened and branched into an antler-like shape, the upper branches powdered white, finally tipped black when mature, stalk black and hairy. Asci 100 x 8um. Spores black, bean-shaped, 11?14 x 5?6um. Habitat on dead wood. Season all year. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Choice
Tuber melanosporum Vitt., Perigord Truffle, Truffe du P?rigord, Die Perigord-Tr?ffel, Francia szarvasgomba, Tartufo nero di Norcia, tartufo di P?rigord, Perigordtruffel. Spherical or lumpy, 2-10cm across with a covering of polygonal warts, and the cut flesh turning violaceous-black with white river like lines throughout, wonderfully scented. Asci with up to 6 spoes 90-100 x 80-120um Spores elliptic, completely covered in spines 2-4um long, 29?55 x 22?35um. A specialty of the Perigore region of France, but also known from other countries around the Mediterranean, north Africa and Asia. Edible ? excellent considered the best truffle. Found In Europe, under trees especially cork oak.
Choice
Tuber aestivum Vitt. Summer Truffle, Truffe de ?t?, Truffe de la Saint-Jean, Sommertr?ffel, Ny?ri szarvasgomba, Tartufo d'estate, tartufo nero d'estate, tartufo nero nostrale, Zommertruffel. Fruit body 3?14cm across, globose, covered in pyramidal warts, blackish brown. Flesh whitish becoming marbled grey-brown. Taste nutty, smell sweet. Spores ovoid, reticulate, 20?40 x 15?30um. Habitat buried usually near beech on calcareous soil. Season late summer to autumn. Rare. Edible ? good. Found In Europe.
Inedible
Scutellinia scutellata (L. ex St. Amans) Lamb. Common Eyelash S?rt?s cs?szegomba. Cup 0.2?1cm across, shallowly disc-shaped, inner surface bright orange-red, outer pale brown covered in stiff dark brown or black hairs up to 1,000? long and 40? wide towards the forked, rooting bases, narrowing towards the pointed apices, septate; visible without a lens as distinct ?eyelashed? rimming the margin. Asci 300 x 25?. Spores elliptical and with a roughened exterior, containing several small oil droplets, 18?19 x 10?12?. Habitat on damp soil or rotten wood. Season late spring to late autumn. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Sarcoscypha coccinea (Fr.) Lamb syn. Peziza coccinea Fr. Scharlachroter Kelchbecherling Piros cs?szegomba. Cup 1?5cm across, cup-shaped, the margin becoming tattered as it expands, attached to substrate by a short stalk, inner surface bright scarlet, outer whitish and covered in white matted tufted hairs. Asci 400 x 16?, not blued by iodine. Spores cylindric-ellipsoid containing several small oil droplets, 24?32 x 12?14?. Habitat gregarious, on dead wood. Season early winter to early spring. Frequent especially in the West. Edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Poronia punctata (L. ex Fr.) Fr. Speldeprikzwam, Nail Fungus. Fruit body 0.5?2cm high, flattened disc 0.5?1.5cm across, whitish dotted black with the tips of the perithecia when mature, attached to the substrate by a long black cylindrical stalk. Asci 180 x 18?. Spores bean-shaped, smooth, 18?26 x 7?12?. Habitat on horse dung. Season autumn. Although abundant in the last century, this species became quite rare in modern times due to the decline in the use of horses. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Inedible
Peziza badia Pers. ex M-rat Kastanienbrauner Becherling, Barna cs-szegomba, P-zize brune, Bay Cup. Cup 3-8cm across, cup-shaped, irregularly wavy with age, sessile, inner surface olive-brown, outer reddish-brown and slightly scurfy. Flesh thin, reddish-brown, yielding watery juice. Asci 330 x 15-, blued at the tip by iodine. Spores elliptical, containing two oil drops, irregularly reticulate, 17-20 x 9-12-. Habitat on soil especially on open clay banks or paths. Season late summer to autumn. Common. Edible when well cooked, poisonous if eaten raw. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Otidea onotica (Pers.) Fuckel syn. Peziza onotica Pers. ex Fr. Hare-s Ear, Oreille de li-vre, Oreille d--ne, Eselsohr, Orecchia d'asino, Varkensoor, Ny-lf-lgomba. Cup 2-6cm wide, 3-10cm high, lopsided, irregularly ear-shaped, attached to the substrate by a short, indistinct whitish stalk, inner surface ochraceous flushed pinkish, outer similarly coloured and slightly scurfy. Flesh thin, white. Asci 250 x 10-, not blued by iodine. Paraphyses slender, curved at tip. Spores broadly elliptical, containing two oil drops, 12-13 x 5-6-. Habitat in soil in deciduous or mixed woodland. Season autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Neobulgaria pura (Fr.) Petrak Beech Jellydisc B?kk koronggomba. Fruit body 0.5?2cm across, gregarious, subglobose at first with the margin inrolled showing the smooth exterior, becoming flattened on top or concave, flesh-coloured often with a violaceous tint, gelatinous. Asci 70 x 9?. Spores elliptical, containing two small oil drops, 6?9 x 3?4?. Habitat on logs and fallen branches especially beech. Season early summer to early winter. Occasional. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Choice
Morchella esculenta Pers. ex St. Amans Speisemorchel, ?zletes kucsmagomba, Morille comestible, Morel. Fruit body 6?20cm high, very variable, fertile head round to ovoid or obtusely conical, pale yellowish-brown darkening and browning with age, ridges acute and forming an irregular honeycomb around the angular pits; stalk minutely scurfy, slightly swollen at the base and longitudinally furrowed, whitish to ochraceous cream. Asci 330 x 20?. Spores cream, broadly elliptical, 16?19 x 8.5?11?. Habitat in open scrub or woodland or on waste ground. Season late spring. Uncommon. Edible ? excellent. Distribution, America and Europe. Several forms are recognized in Europe; var. rotunda has a roundish ochre-yellow fertile head, while that of var. crassipes is grey-brown and the stalk granular and much swollen at the base; var. umbrina is smaller then the type with a dark greyish-black fertile head. Note in north America there are forms of Morchella esculenta growing under Hickoties, Elms and Tulip Trees, they are normally smaller and rather tall and narrow, I have encluded them here, but one day they may be described as different varieties.
Inedible
Mitrula paludosa Fr. Sumf-Haubenpilz Mocs?ri sapk?sgomba Bog Beacon. Fruit body 1?4cm high, fertile head ovoid or club-shaped, smooth yellow to orange, stem white. Asci 150 x 8?. Spores cylindric-ellipsoid, 10?15 x 2.5?3?. Habitat on rotting twigs and leaves in damp ditches or amongst sphagnum. Season spring to summer. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Leotia lubrica Fr. Jelly Babies, L-otie visqueuse, Schl-pfriger Kappenpilz, Leozia viscosa, Groene glibberzwam, Z-ld csukly-sgomba. Fruit body a small stalked club with convoluted head. Head 1-4cm across, convex and rather convoluted, margin inrolled; ochre, cinnamon to pale buff, often with olive tint; smooth, gelatinous. Stem 20-50 x 5-l0mm; pale ochre-yellow; minutely scaly-squamulose. Spores spindle-shaped, with rounded ends, often curved, 20-25 x 5-6-; becoming 6-8-celled within. Habitat often gregarious on soil in mixed woods. Common. Found in Europe and throughout North America. Season July-October. Edibility not known.
Inedible
Helvella lacunosa Afzelius ex Fr. Black Helvella, Elfin Saddle Cap, Helvelle lacuneuse, Mitre d'?v?que, Gruben-Lorchel, Sz?rke papsapkagomba, Elvella lacunosa, Zwarte kluifzwam. 1.5?4cm high, saddle-shaped with convolute lobes, one lobe often pointing upwards and re-curved, grey to blackish with paler underside. Stem 20?40 x 10?20mm, pale grey, hollow and deeply furrowed. Asci 350 x 18?. Spores 17?20 x 10?13?. Habitat in mixed woodland and orchards especially on burnt ground. Season summer to autumn. Frequent. Edible ? poor. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Helvella elastica Bull. ex St. Amans syn. Leptopodia elastica Bull. ex St. Amans Boud. Glattstiellorchel, Karcs? papsapkagomba, Helvelle ?lastique, Elastic Saddle. Cap 1?3cm high, saddle-shaped and irregularly lobed, grey-brown to yellowish-brown, underside smooth, whitish drying ochraceous. Stem 40?70 x 3?7mm, whitish, often compressed. Asci 330 x 20?. Spores 19?22 x 11?13?. Habitat open ground in woodland. Season summer to autumn. Occasional. Edible ? poor. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Helvella crispa Fr. White Saddle, Common White Helvella, Helvelle cr?pue, Oreille de chat, Herbst-Lorchel, Fodros papsapkagomba, Spugnola d'autumno crespa, Witte kluifzwam. Cap 2?5cm high, saddle-shaped and deeply lobed, convoluted at the centre, whitish with pale buff or tan underside. Stem 20?60 x 10?20mm white, hollow and deeply furrowed. Asci 300 x 18?. Spores elliptical, 18?20 x 10?13?. Habitat on path-sides in damp, deciduous woods. Season late summer to late autumn and occasionally in spring. Common. Edible ? poor. Distribution, America and Europe.
Deadly
Gyromitra esculenta (Pers.) Fr. False Morel, Fr?hjahrslorchel Fausse Morille, Red?s papsapkagomba. Cap 3-11 cm across, brain-like, irregularly rounded, and somewhat flattened; reddish brown or darker, yellowish brown in some forms; sometimes almost smooth, but generally intricately wrinkled and folded but not pitted. Stem 20-50 x 15-40mm, stuffed becoming hollow in chambers, equal or expanded at either end; pale flesh-colored; smooth or faintly grooved. Flesh thin and brittle. Spores ellipsoid, smooth, containing 2 or more yellowish oil droplets, 18-22 x 9-13?. Habitat singly or in groups in coniferous and deciduous woods. Common in northern mountain forests. Found widely distributed in North America. Season March-May. Deadly poisonous when eaten raw. Prolonged cooking or drying may reduce the toxicity of this species so that a single meal of it may not be so poisonous. However, repeated doses at even the reduced toxicity may accumulate in the system to a fatal level.
Inedible
Elaphomyces granulatus Fr. ?lszarvasgomba. Fruit body 2?5cm across, globose, outer rind bright reddish-brown covered in small warts; remnants of yellowish mycelium will often be seen, the internal powdery spore mass becomes pinkish-brown to purplish as the spores mature. Asci globose, usually 6-8 spored. Spores purplish-black, globose, 23?35? ornamented with rods or spines. Habitat subterranean in the top soil of conifer or deciduous woods. Season all year but most easily found in autumn. Rare. Edibility unknown. Found In Europe and north America.
Inedible
Daldinia concentrica (Bolt. ex Fr.) Cesati & de Notaris. Cramp Ball or King Alfred?s Cakes, Kohliger Kugelpilz, szenes g?mbgomba, Kogel-Houtskoolzwam. Fruit body 2?10cm across, hemispherical to subglobose, brown at first soon black and shiny. Flesh concentrically zoned silver-grey and blackish. Asci 200?12?. Spores black elliptical to fusiform, 12?17?6?9?. Habitat gregarious on dead wood, especially beech and ash. Season all year. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Cordyceps militaris (L. ex St. Amans) Link. Scarlet Caterpillar Fungus, V?r?s rovarront?gomba, Rupsendoder. Fruit body up to 7cm high, cylindrical or club-shaped; bright orange-red; the slightly swollen fertile head has a finely roughened surface and tapers into a smooth, paler, wavy stem. Asci very long, about 4? wide. Spores threadlike, breaking into barrel-shaped part-spores, 3.5-6 x 1-1.5?. Habitat singly or numerously on larvae and pupae of butterflies and moths. Quite common. Found throughout North America and Europe. Season September-November. Not edible.
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