Edible Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
Stem type:
Spore colour:
Cap type:
Fungus colour:
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Flesh:
Class:
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Total mushrooms fount: 482

Edible
Boletus caespitosus Pk. Cap 2-8cm across, convex to flattened; ochre-brown to reddish brown or pinkish; dry to distinctly viscid when wet. Tubes bright gold. Pores chrome yellow to golden yellow, unchanging. Stem 25-80 x 5-15mm usually swollen-attenuate at base, narrowed at apex and often caespitose; pale to yellow to pinkish buff below, brown on handling; dry to slightly viscid. Flesh pallid buff. Odor when crushed, strong unpleasant, like earthballs (scleroderma species). Taste mild. Spores ovoid to ellipsoid or fusiform, 8-11 x 3.5-5-. Deposit olive-ochre. Habitat usually in dense clusters in mixed hardwoods, especially along stream and river edges. Found in northeastern North America, south to North Carolina. Season July-September. Edible. Comment This species is usually confused with Boletus auriporus, from which it differs in its smaller spores and the odor of Earth balls. The latter feature does not appear to have been noted by any previous author but has been confirmed on numerous collections by several different persons.
Edible
Boletus auriporus Pk. Gold-pored Bolete Cap 3-7cm across, convex then flattened; dull yellow-brown to reddish or pinkish brown; dry but soon viscid, tacky when wet or when handled for any length of time, with innate fibrils. Tubes brilliant chrome yellow, unchanging. Pores 2-3 per mm; concolorous with tubes, unchanging. Stem 30-60 x 10-15mm, often swollen at center, spindle-shaped; pale yellow to pinkish brown, darker stains developing where handled; viscid when wet, smooth. Flesh pale yellow, unchanging when cut. Odor none. Taste slightly acidic. Spores smooth, subellipsoid, 8-11 x 3.5-4.5?. Deposit olive-brown. Pleurocystidia in tubes of remarkable size, 38-70(100) x 9-161., filled with golden sap. Habitat under mixed deciduous trees. Uncommon to rare. Found in eastern North America. Season July-August. Edible. Comment Easily confused with other bright pored boletes, such as Boletus illudens, but that species does not develop the noticeably sticky cap of this fungus, however wet it becomes.
Edible
Boletus auripes Pk. Cap 6-15cm across, convex to flattened; yellow-brown to gold when young, soon uniformly brown when old; dry, subtomentose to pruinose. Tubes bright yellow. Pores soon free of stem; bright yellow, unchanging. Stem 60-120 x 10-45mm, bulbous to equal; bright golden yellow; surface finely reticulate on upper half. Flesh firm; yellow. Odor pleasant. Taste mild. Spores ellipsoid to subfusiform, 9.5-15 x 3.5-5?. Deposit ochre-brown. Habitat in mixed hardwood trees. Rather uncommon. Found in eastern North America. Season August-September. Edible. Comment The cap of this species changes color markedly from young to old and is strongly reminiscent of Xanthoconium (=Boletus) affine (Pk.) Singer, with which it might be better grouped.
Edible
Boletus affinis Pk. Spotted Bolete Cap 5-10cm across, convex; color very variable, reddish brown, vinaceous brown to yellow-brown, often spotted and blotched with pallid, yellowish spots in the var. maculosus; dry, often with white bloom. Tubes sunken around stem; white to yellowish. Pores off-white to pale buff with age, bruising olivaceous. Stem 50-120 x 10-20mm, cylindrical to clavate; pale fawn, reddish brown in mid portion, white at base, in the var. maculosus sometimes completely pallid; dry, smooth to very slightly reticulate. Flesh white. Odor pleasant. Taste pleasant. Spores smooth, ellipsoid, (9)12-16 x 3-4(5)?. Deposit yellow-brown. Habitat abundant at times under deciduous trees. especially beech. Found widespread in eastern North America, from eastern Canada to Florida. Season June-October. Edible. Comment The young buttons are dark brown and the mature specimens often light tan. Var. maculosus has a more spotted cap.
Edible
Boletopsis subsquamosa (Fr.) Kotlaba & Pouz. S?t?t tapl?tin?ru (tin?ru), v?r?s?d? zsemlegomba Fruit body annual. Cap up to 15cm across, 4cm thick in center, circular to irregular outline, with thin wavy margin; bluish black to grayish brown tinged with olive; fleshy becoming soft or brittle and slightly wrinkled when dry. Tubes up to 8mm deep; white to greenish white, paler than the flesh. Pores 1-3 per mm, angular, thin-walled, decurrent; surface white drying pale grayish. Stem up to 7 x 3cm, central to lateral; gray to sordid olive-brown; smooth or with fine dark scales, fleshy becoming wrinkled when dry. Flesh up to 3cm thick; white when fresh but darkens when touched, becoming greenish gray when dry, often darker just above the tubes. Odor slight. Taste weak to bitterish when fresh, sweetish to spicy when dry. Spores angular to oval, with warty projections, 5-7 x 4-5?. Deposit light or dark brown. Hyphal structure monomitic; clamps present. Habitat on the ground in deciduous or coniferous woods, especially pine. Found in eastern North America, the Pacific Northwest, and California. Season September-October. Edible. Comment Although the name suggests a boletus, this is, in fact, a polypore.
Edible
Auricularia auricula-judae St. Amans syn. Hirneola auricula-judae (St. Amans) Berk. syn. Auricularia auricula (Hook.)Underwood. Jew's Ear, Oreille de Judas, Judasohr, J?d?sf?legomba, j?d?sf?l, Orechio di Giuda, Judasoor. Fruit body 3?8cm across, ear-shaped, gelatinous when fresh drying hard and horny, outer surface tan-brown with minute greyish downy hairs, inner surface grey-brown, smooth, or often wrinkled and ear-like. Spores white, sausage-shaped, 16?18?6?8?. Basidia elongated cylindric with three transverse septa. Habitat on branches of frondose trees, usually elder. Season all year, especially autumn. Very common. Edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Aureoboletus cramesinus (Secr.) Watling syn. Boletus cramesinus Secr. Kirschroter Goldr?hrling Aranyb?l?s? tin?ru Bolet cramoisy, C?pe sanguine Cap 2.5?5cm, ochraceous peach to dirty pink, viscid. Stem 50?80 x 5?10mm, more or less rooting, narrowing towards the pointed base, smooth and viscid, yellow at apex flushed reddish buff or pink towards the base. Flesh whitish often pinkish under cap disc and lemon-yellow over the tubes. Taste and smell pleasant. Tubes lemon-chrome then golden-yellow, unchanging on bruising. Pores similarly coloured. Spore print ochraceous buff. Spores subfusiform, 11?15 x 4.5?5.5?. Habitat in broad-leaved woods, occasionally on old bonfire sites. Season late summer to autumn. Rare. Edible. Found In Europe.
Edible
Sheep Polypore Albatrellus ovinus (Fr.) Murr. syn. Polyporus ovinus Fr. Schafporling Fak? zsemlegomba. Fruit body annual. Cap 5-15cm across, usually single but sometimes several fused together, circular to irregular when fused, convex then depressed, dish-shaped; white to pale buff, tan; dry, smooth, or a little scaly with age. Tubes 1-2mm deep, decurrent; white. Pores 2-4 per mm, angular; white to yellowish. Stem 20-75 x 10-30mm, slightly swollen, pointed at base, usually central; white bruising pinkish; smooth. Flesh 5-20mm thick, firm; white, dries yellowish. Odor pleasant, fungusy, aromatic. Taste mild, sometimes slightly bitter (see Comment). Spores subglobose-ellipsoid, 3-4.5 x 3-3.5?. Deposit white. Hyphal structure monomitic. Habitat on the ground by conifers, especially at high elevations. Found in Europe especially Finland (where it is considered a fine edible,)and throughout North America. Season August to winter. Edible. Comment Similar are Albatrellus confluens (Fr.) Kotlaba & Pouz., which is darker, orange-hued, with a bitter flavor, and Albatrellus subrubescens (Murr.) Pouz., which bruises orange.
Edible
Albatrellus caeruleoporus (Pk.) Pouz. Fruit body annual. Cap up to 6cm wide, one or several growing from a branched base, circular, with an acute or rounded margin; indigo to blue-gray, becoming grayish brown or orange-brown in age; smooth to slightly rough and scaly. Tubes up to 3mm deep; indigo becoming reddish orange. Pores 2-3 per mm, angular; surface gray to blue, becoming grayish brown to bright reddish orange when dry. Stem up to 75 x 25mm, central or off center; indigo, discoloring with age; smooth to slightly pitted. Flesh up to l0mm thick, firm when dry; cream-colored to pale buff. Odor slight. Taste mild, pleasant. Spores ovoid to subglobose, smooth, 4-6 x 3-5-. Deposit white. Hyphal structure monomitic. Habitat singly or gregariously on the ground in mixed hemlock and deciduous woods. Found in northeastern North America. Season September-October. Edible.
Edible
Agrocybe cylindracea (DC. ex Fr.) Maire syn. Pholiota aegerita (Brig.) Qu?l. Pappel-Sch?ppling, D?li t?kegomba, d?li r?tgomba, Albarelle, Pholiote du peuplier Poplar Fieldcap Cap 4?10cm across, hemispherical convex becoming flattened and sometimes cracked at centre and often wavy near the margin, pale buff to almost white with rust flush at centre when young becoming darker brown with age. Stem 50?100 x 10?15mm, cream at first, darker brown with age, with persistent ring which soon becomes dusted brown by the spores. Flesh white in the cap and stem, brown in the stem base. Taste nutty, smell of old wine casks. Gills adnate or slightly decurrent, cream at first then tobacco brown due to the spores. Spore print tobacco brown. Spores ovoid-ellipsoid, 8.5?10.5 x 5?6?. Cap cuticle cellular. Habitat in tufts wood especially willows and poplars. Season all year round. Rare. Edible. Found In Europe.
Edible
Agaricus subrutilescens (Kauffman) Hot. & Stuntz Cap 5-13cm across, convex; whitish; fibrillose-striate, to slightly scaly; fibers deep vinaceous brown. Gills free, crowded, narrow; whitish pink then deep brown. Stem 60-150 x 10-25mm, clavate; whitish; smooth above the ring, with white to vinaceous veil remnants below, often in bands; ring large, thin, woolly below, high on stem. Flesh white. Odor pleasant. Taste pleasant. Spores ellipsoid, 4.5-6 x 3-4?. Deposit deep brown. Habitat in mixed woods. Found on the West Coast of north America. Season August-December. Edible. Dan Manders wrote:I eat it whenever I find it, it's quite good. It's listed in David Arora's book as being a good edible, though less meaty than most other Agaricus, which I've found to be true as well. In Oregon I find it mostly on slopes in mixed company with sword ferns & Oregon grape.
Edible
Agaricus silvicola (Vitt.) Peck. Wood Mushroom, Agaric des bois, D?nnfleischiger Anisegerling, Agarico di boschi, Slanke anijchamignon, Karcs? csiperke. Cap: 5 - 10cm across, convex, cream, readily bruising ochraceous and becoming more yellow with age. Hymenium is free ( cap is convex or flat ). Stem: 50 - 80 x 10 - 15mm, concolorous with the cap, base usually bulbous. Stipe: has a ring. Ring: large and pendulous, upper surface white, lower drab. Flesh: thin, white. Taste: mushroomy, smell of aniseed. Gills: free, pale greyish-pink at first later chocolate brown. Smell: Aniseed. Cheilocystidia numerous, thin-walled, oval to subglobose, hyaline, 10 - 20 x 7 - 20. Spore print purple-brown. Spores ellipsoid 5-6 x 3-4-. Habitat in coniferous and deciduous woods. Season autumn. Occasional. ---- The cap is light cream, and bruises yellow ochre when damaged. It is much the same colour as the cap, and has a fragile drooping ring. The flesh is thin and white, and smells of aniseed. It looks fairly similar to a young death cap, it is believed by some mycologists. ---- Agaricus silvicola grows in both deciduous and coniferous woodland in Britain, Europe, and North America. Appearing in the autumn, it is rarely seen in huge numbers, usually just a few, or solitary ( Season: August to November ). Often found in loose groups. ---- It is suspected to have caused an allergic reaction in a few people in North America. ---- Agaricus xanthodermus, the yellow stainer looks very alike but bruises chrome yellow when handled or cut and smells of Indian ink or Agaricus pilatianus which stains yellow on cutting and smells of carbolic. Both do not smell edible. People can mistake some of the Amanitas for field mushrooms but on inspection they are quite different.
Edible
Agaricus micromegethus Pk. Cap 2.5-6cm across, convex with flattened disc; cream with darker innate fibrils, fibers dull yellowish brown to brown, staining stronger yellow when bruised. Gills free; white to grayish then dark brown. Stem 25-50 x 6-l0mm, equal; white staining yellowish; smooth above the ring, slightly fibrillose below; ring thin, single, often vanishing, white. Flesh white, discoloring yellowish. Odor pleasant. Taste pleasant. Spores ovoid to ellipsoid, 4.5-5.5 x 3.5-4?. Deposit dark brown. Habitat in open pastures and meadows. Frequent. Found east of the Great Plains. Season July-September. Edible. Comment The collection illustrated was found in mixed woodlands in Oregon.
Edible
Agaricus littoralis (Wak. & Pears.) Pilat. syn. A. spissicaulis. Strandegerling, Szeksz?rdi csiperke, nyomott-t?nk? csiperke. Cap 5-13cm across, convex at first but soon flattened and later with a central depression. Margin of cap often incurved and overhanging gills. White or greyish-white to pale brown, smooth or with faint, flattened, darker scales at centre, with small fragments of veil hanging at margin. Stem 25-70 x 12-20mm, whitish to pale buff, stout, swollen and slightly bulbous at base, slightly browning on handling, with a narrow, pendent white ring about half way up. Base of stem usually has distinct white ?roots? or rhizomorphs. Flesh white with a brownish tint, thick in cap, faintly discolouring to pale orange-buff to pale reddish-brown when cut, smelling slightly of anise or almonds when fresh, later rather sour. Taste is pleasant and nutty. Gills free from stem, rather crowded and at first pale pinkish-brown then soon greyish-brown then dark brown. Spore print dark, chocolate brown. Spores ellipsoid, 6.5-8.5x5-6.5?, smooth. Gill edge appearing sterile but with sparse, swollen cystidia. Habitat solitary or in small groups in dry sandy pastures, coastal dunes, or even along roadsides. Season summer to late autumn. Uncommon to rare. Edible but poor. Distribution, North America, Europe and North Africa. The first picture was taken by Geoffrey Kibby.
Edible
Agaricus excellens (M?ller) M?ller syn. Psalliota excellens M?ller Seidenweisser Egerling Cap 10?15cm across, convex, white and silky, yellowing slightly at the centre especially with age, densely covered in minute fibrous scales of the same colour. Stem 100?140 x 20?35mm, white; ring thick and white, the underside scaly. Flesh thick, white, becoming more or less pink on cutting. Taste sweet and mushroomy, smell slightly of aniseed. Gills pale grey-pink. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, globose or ovate to broadly clavate, hyaline, 10?38 x 5?16?. Spore print brown. Spores elliptic, 9?12 x 5?7?. Habitat amongst grass in open woodland, especially spruce. Season autumn. Rare. Edible. Found In Europe.
Edible
Agaricus devoniensis Orton syn. Psalliota arenicola Wakef. & Pearson, Sandegerling Cap 3?12cm across, convex to flattened-convex, whitish and silky tinted pinkish or violaceous. Stem 30?40 x 10?15mm, white covered in scaly remnants of the veil, bruising reddish; ring sheathing, white and short-lived. Flesh white, tinted pink above the gills and in the lower stem. Taste and smell mushroomy but not distinctive. Gills free, greyish pink darkening with age. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, tufted, clavate, hyaline or brownish, 36?50 x 10?13?. Spore print dark brown. Spores subglobose, 6.5?7 x 5?5.5?. Habitat on sand dunes, only noticeable after the expanded cap has pushed up through the sand. Season late summer to autumn. Rare. Edible. Found In Europe.
Edible
Agaricus comtulus Fr. syn. Psalliota comtula (Fr.) Qu?l. Dickstieliger Zwergegerling, Kis csiperke. Cap 2?4cm across, convex expanding flat, white to ochraceous-cream. Stem 30?50 x 4?6mm, white or creamy, not bruising yellow; ring white and membranous. Flesh white but yellowing slightly in the stem base. Taste almondy, smell faintly of almonds or aniseed. Gills flesh-pink at first, darkening with age. Spore print brown. Spores ovate, 4.5?5.5?3?3.5m. Habitat in pastureland. Season late summer to autumn. Occasional. Edible. Found In Europe.
Edible
Agaricus bitorquis (Qu?l.) Sacc. syn. A. edulis (Witt.) M?ller & Schaeff. syn. A. campestris subsp. bitorquis(Qu?l.) Konrad & Maubl. syn. Psalliota rodmanii (Peck) Kauffm. Scheidenegerling ?zletes (bocskoros) csiperke Champignon de trottoirs Cap 4?10cm across, convex soon flattened, white with faintly ochraceous flakes. Stem 30?60 x 15?20mm, white with two separate sheathing rings, the lower thinner and resembling a volva. Flesh white, tinged faintly pink on cutting. Taste mushroomy, smell pleasant. Gills dirty pink at first, soon clay, finally dark chocolate brown. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, clavate. Spore print brown. Spores subglobose, 4?6.5 x 4?5?. Habitat in gardens and at roadsides, sometimes found growing through asphalt. Season late spring to autumn. Occasional. Edible ? good. Found In Europe and north America.
Edible
Agaricus bernardii (Qu?l.) Sacc. syn. A. campestris subsp. bernardii (Qu?l.) Konrad & Maubl. D?nen-Egerling, Sziki csiperke. Cap 1?15cm across, hemispherical then flattened convex and often depressed, whitish to light brown, bruising reddish on handling, surface soon disrupting into coarse brownish scales. Stem 50?70 x 20?40mm, whitish, narrowing slightly at the greyish-brown base; ring sheathing, whitish and narrow. Flesh white becoming reddish orange on cutting. Taste slightly unpleasant, smell fishy. Gills pale grey then flesh-coloured becoming dark brown. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, elongate, cylindric, clavate or fusiform. Spore print dark brown. Spores broadly ovoid, 5.5?7 x 5?5.5?. Habitat on sand dunes and meadows near the sea or sodic lakes, also on roadsides inland, possibly due to the practice of salting the roads in icy weather. Season autumn. Uncommon. Edible. Found In Europe.
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