Agaricaceae Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
Stem type:
Spore colour:
Cap type:
Fungus colour:
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Flesh:
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Total mushrooms fount: 38

Edible
Coprinus Coprinus comatus (Fr.) S. F. Gray. Shaggy Mane, Shaggy Inkcap, Lawyer's Wig, Coprin chevelu, Schopftintling, Agarico chiomato, Geschubde inktzwam, Gyapjas tintagomba. Cap 3-7cm across when expanded, more or less a tall ovoid when young, becoming more cylindrical as it expands; white and very shaggy-scaly, often with a pale brownish "skullcap" at apex; margin of the cap dissolves away and progresses steadily upward until the entire cap has liquified away, including the gills. Gills free, crowded, very narrow; white becoming black and inky from the margin upward. Stem 60-120 x 10-20mm, very tall, straight, with a slightly bulbous base, hollow in center; white; smooth, with a ring of veil tissue left lower down on the stem. Flesh soft, fibrous; white. Odor (when young) pleasant. Taste similar. Spores ellipsoid, smooth, with germ pore at apex, (12)13-17(18) x 7-9?. Deposit black. Habitat often in large numbers on roadsides, lawns, and other urban sites, especially where the soil has been disturbed. Found throughout North America and Europe. Season sometimes in the spring but usually July-November. Edible and delicious when young.
Poisonous/Suspect
Inedible
Tulostoma brumale Pers. ex Pers. Zitzenbovist, ?ves nyelesp?feteg, nyeles p?feteg, Tulostome mamelonn?, Winter Stalkball. Fruit body consisting of a globose head 1?2cm across attached to a slender fibrous stem 20?50 x 3?4mm. Head opening by a circular pore surmounting a pale ochre to whitish cylindrical mouth. Spores globose and finely warted, 3.5?5m in diameter. Habitat in sandy calcareous soil or dunes usually amongst moss, formerly found on old stone walls where mortar was used instead of cement. Season autumn. Rare. Not edible. Found In Europe and possibly in north America.
Poisonous/Suspect
Phaeolepiota aurea (Matt. ex Fr.) Maire ex Konrad & Maublanc Aranys-rga t-kegomba. Cap 2-15cm across, obtuse to convex, becoming flatter with a central umbo and the margin often hung with veil remnants; orange-tan to golden brown; dry, granular to powdery. Gills adnate to free, close, broad; pale yellow becoming tawny to orange-brown. Stem 40-150 x 10-40mm expanded toward the base; orange to buff or similar to cap; smooth above the ring, powdery or granular below. Veil partial veil sheathing stalk; same color as cap; granular underneath, smooth above; leaving persistent flaring to drooping ring. Flesh thick; pale or yellowish. Spores ellipsoid, smooth to minutely roughened, 10-14 x 5-6-. Deposit yellowish brown to orange-buff. Habitat in groups or clusters on compost, rich soil, humus, or leaf litter under coniferous or deciduous trees. Quite rare but sometimes abundant. Found in Alaska and the Pacific Northwest. Season September-October. Not edible because it is mildly poisonous to some people. The field photograph was taken by Geoffrey Kibby.
Choice
Macrolepiota procera (Scop. ex Fr.) Sing. syn. Lepiota procera (Scop. ex Fr.) S.F. Gray syn. Leucocoprinus procerus (Scop. ex Fr.) Pat. Parasol Mushroom, L?piote ?lev?e, Coulemelle, Nagy ?zl?bgomba, Parasol, Riesenschirmpilz, Parasol, Bubbola maggiore, Fungo parasole, Mazza da tamburo, Grote parasolzwam. Cap 10?25cm across, button spherical or egg-shaped expanding flattened with a prominent umbo, pale buff or grey-brown covered in darker shaggy scales. Stem 150?300 x 8?15mm, 40mm at the bulb, white, with a grey-brown felty covering which becomes split into snake-like markings as the stem expands; ring large, double, white on upper surface, brown below, movable on the stem. Flesh thin, soft, white. Taste sweet, smell slight, indistinctive. Gills free, white. Spore print white. Spores ovate with a germ-pore, dextrinoid, 15?20 x 10?13um. Habitat in open woods and pastures. Season summer and autumn. Uncommon. Edible ? excellent. Distribution, America and Europe. Note the American form of this fungus is rather more delicate in form than the more robust European variety. The third photograph was taken by Geoffrey Kibby.
Edible
Macrolepiota excoriata (Fr.) Wasser syn. Lepiota excoriata (Schaeff ex. Fr.) Kummer syn. Leucocoprinus excoriatus (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Pat. L?piote excori?e, Coulemelle excori?e, Ackerschirmpilz, Csipk?s ?zl?bgomba, Bubbola buona, Tubiet, Rafeligeparasolzwam. Cap 6?10cm across, ovate at first then convex and slightly umbonate, covered in fine adpressed ochre-buff scales on a white ground. Stem 40?60 x 8?10mm, slightly thickened at the base, smooth, white; ring narrow and persistent. Flesh white. Smell none. Gills white to cream. Spore print white to pale ochraceous. Spores oval, 12?15 x 8?9um. Habitat pastureland. Season late summer to late autumn. Rare. Edible with caution because of other white poisonous mushrooms. Distribution, America and Europe. Unfortunately a specimen of L. leucothites has crept into this collection (bottom right).
Edible
Lycoperdon pyriforme Schaeff. ex Pers. Birnenst?ubling K?rtealak? (k?rte alak?) p?feteg Vesse-de-loup en poire, Stump Puffball. Fruit body 1.5?4cm across, 3.5cm high, subglobose to club-shaped, attached to the substrate by mycelial strands, whitish at first finally yellowish- or greyish-brown, outer layer of scurfy spines, warts, or granules, inner wall becoming smooth and papery, opening by an apical pore. Gleba olive-brown; sterile base occupying the stem spongy, but the cavities forming rather small cells. Spores olive-brown, globose, smooth, 3?4um in diameter. Capillitium distinctive in being formed of brownish branched threads which lack all trace of tiny hyaline pores, all other members of the genus have poroid capillitial threads. Habitat in groups or swarms on rotten logs or stumps, often appearing to grow in soil but in reality attached to buried wood by the characteristic white mycelial cords. Season summer to late autumn. Common. Edible when young. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Lycoperdon perlatum Pers. syn. L. gemmatum Batsch Flaschenst?ubling, Flaschenbovist, Bimb?s p?feteg, Vesse-de-loup ? pierreries, Common Puffball. Fruit body 2.5?6cm across, 2?9cm high, subglobose with a distinct stem, white at first becoming yellowish brown, outer layer of short pyramidal warts especially dense on the head, rubbing off to leave an indistinct mesh-like pattern on the inner wall which opens by a pore. Gleba olive-brown at maturity; sterile base spongy, occupying the stem. Spores olivaceous-brown, globose, minutely warted, 3.5?4.5m. Habitat woodland. Season summer to late autumn. Common. Edible and good -when the flesh is pure white. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Leucoagaricus leucothites (Vitt.) Wasser syn. Lepiota leucothites (Vitt.) Orton syn. L. naucina (Fr.) Kummer L?piote pudique Rosabl?tteriger Schirmpilz Tarl?gomba. Cap 5?8cm across, convex expanding to almost flattened, smooth and silky, whitish becoming flushed flesh-colour or pale cream-ochre. Stem 60?80 x 8?20mm, concolorous with the cap; ring concolorous, narrow, free of the stem. Flesh thick and white in the cap, browning in the stem. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills white becoming pale flesh-colour with age. Spore print white. Spores ovoid, dextrinoid, 7?9 x 4.5?5um. Habitat in gardens or at roadsides. Season autumn. Uncommon. Edible but best avoided due to possible confusion with poisonous species. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Lepiota ignivolvata Bousset-Joss. L-piote - base couleur de feu, Braunbuckliger Schirmpilz, Cs-kosgall-r- (v-r-sl-b-) -zl-gbomba. Cap 4-10cm across, convex then expanded and umbonate, centre reddish-brown, disrupting into tiny crowded ochraceous cream scales which become more dispersed towards the margin. Stem 60-120 x 6-15mm, slightly bulbous, with bright orange zone on the edge of the bulb which often becomes more obvious after collection; there is often a similar orange colour on the underside of the ring. Flesh white. Taste foul, smell strong and rank. Gills white to cream. Spore print white. Spores fusoid, 11-13 x 6um. Habitat deciduous and coniferous woods. Season autumn. Rare. Not edible -avoid. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Lepiota crostata Kummer. L?piote cr?t?e, L?piote cr?pe, Kleiner Stinkschirmling, B?d?s ?zl?bgomba, Lepiota crestata, Stinkparasolzwam, Stinking Dapperling. Cap 2?5cm across, irregularly bell-shaped and umbonate, cuticle reddish-brown and soon broken up, except at centre, into small scales on a white silky background. Stem 20?35 x 3?4mm, white tinged flesh-colour; ring membranous and deciduous. Flesh thin, white. Taste pleasant, smell unpleasant, strongly fungusy. Gills white, becoming brownish with age. Spore print white. Spores bullet-shaped, dextrinoid, 6?7.5 x 3?3.5um. Habitat in woods, garden refuse or in leaf litter. Season summer to autumn. Frequent. Edibility suspect ? avoid. Distribution, America and Europe. The collection on the blue background was made in America, but differs from European material in the much longer stem.
Poisonous/Suspect
Cystoderma amianthinum ([Scop.] Fr.) Fayod syn. Lepiota amianthina ([Scop.] Fr.) Karst. Cystoderme Amiantac-, Amiant-K-rnchenschirmling, S-rga szemcs-s-zl-bgomba, Cistoderma amiantino, Okergele Korrelhoed, Earthy Powdercap. Cap 2-5cm across, bell-shaped at first expanding to flattened convex, bright ochre-yellow with mealy surface often becoming indistinctly radially wrinkled with age. Stem 30-50 x 4-8mm, concolorous with cap and mealy-granular below the short-lived ring. Flesh thin, yellowish. Gills crowded, white at first becoming creamy yellow. Spore print white. Spores elliptic, amyloid, 5-7 x 3-4um. Cap cuticle turns red-brown with KOH. Habitat on heaths, or in coniferous woodland. Season autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Found In Europe.
Inedible
Cyathus olla Batsch. ex Pers. Napf-Teuerling Sz-rke poh-rgomba Field Bird's Nest. Fruit body 8-12mm across, 8-15mm high, trumpet-shaped, outer surface felty, yellowish-grey, inner silver-grey and smooth, containing several silver-grey -eggs-. Spores ovate, 10-14 x 6-8-. Habitat on soil, twigs and other organic debris. Season early spring to early winter. Occasional. Not edible. Found In Europe and north America.
Inedible
Crucibulum laeve (Huds.) Kam. Common Bird's Nest, Tiegel-Teuerling, T-gelygomba, Geel nestzwammetje. Fruit body a small cup or goblet containing a number of small flattened "eggs." Cup 0.5-lcm high, 1cm across, tapered downward; yellow-ochre to tawny brown; outer surface velvety, inner surface pallid, smooth, and shiny; mouth at first covered with a densely hairy lid. Eggs 1.5mm across; white; attached to cup by long thin cord. Spores ellipsoid, smooth, 4-10 x 4-6-. Habitat on decaying logs and twigs. Common. Found throughout most of North America. Season July-October. Not edible.
Edible
Agaricus sylvaticus Schaeff. ex Secr., Agaricus silvaticus, Echter Waldchampignon, Agaric des for?ts, Psalliote des for?ts, Erdei csiperke, feny?erdei csiperke, Blushing Wood Mushroom Cap 5?10cm across, convex, covered in ochre to brown fibrils breaking up into small adpressed scales. Stem 50?80 x 10?12mm, whitish sometimes with brownish fibrous scales below the dirty brown ring. Flesh white, reddening on cutting when fresh, later turning brownish. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills pale at first then reddish, later dark brown. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, clavate. Spore print brown. Spores ovoid, 4.5?6 x 3?3.5?. Habitat coniferous woods. Season summer to autumn. Rare. Edible ? good. Distribution, America and Europe. A. haemorrhoidarius (formerly a subspecies of A. silvaticus) is distinguished by its different habitat; it grows in deciduous woods. Distribution, America and Europe.
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