Boletaceae Mushrooms identifications

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Total mushrooms fount: 21

Edible
Boletus aereus, described by some as the Queen Bolete but just lately given the normal name Bronze Bolete in Britain and Ireland, is a most sought-after edible mushroom. It is merely as good as its famous close relative, Boletus edulis (Cep or Cent Bun Bolete) but its flesh is quite firmer. In the pub marketplaces of France, for example, these excellent boletes can be purchased as well as Boletus edulis and Boletus reticulatus, and customers are evenly happy with whichever of the meaty mushroom varieties can be found. A exceptional find in Ireland and Britain, where it is restricted to southern parts mainly, Boletus aereus is a lot more prevalent in southern European countries. Commonly bought at the sides, beside strolls or in clearings in oak and beech woodlands, Boletus aereus will berry just a little than boletus edulis later, which looks later than the summertime Bolete relatively, Boletus reticulatus. Most boletes, and certainly every one of the common ones within Britain and Ireland, are ectomycorrhizal fungi. Which means that they form mutualistic romantic relationships with the main systems of trees and shrubs or shrubs. The fungi help the tree to obtain moisture and essential minerals from the soil, and in exchange the main system of the tree gives energy-rich nutrients, the merchandise of photosynthesis, to the fungal mycelium. Although most trees and shrubs may survive without their mycorrhizal companions, boletes (and a great many other varieties of forest-floor fungi) cannot endure without trees; subsequently these so-called 'obligately mycorrhizal' fungi do not happen in wide open grassland. The medical name Boletus aerus started in Jean Baptiste Francois Pierre Bulliard's 1789 descriotipon of the varieties. Synonyms of Boletus aereus includeBoletus mamorensis Redeuilh. The universal name Boletus comes from the Greek bolos, indicating lump of clay; the foundation of the precise epithet aereus is Latin and means copper or bronze (in shade) - hence the normal name Bronze Bolete. Some individuals make reference to it as the Dark colored Porcini or the Dark Cover Bolete. Boletus aereus, the dark cep or bronze bolete, is a highly prized and much sought-after edible mushroom in the family Boletaceae. Dark cigar brown, bay to dark sepia, often dark brick-coloured near the margin, minutely cracking making the surface roughly textured, slightly downy at first then smooth. Stem 60-80 x 11-12mm, robust, covered with network which is brown near apex, clay pink or buff around the middle and rusty below. Flesh white, unchanging or becoming dirty vinaceous when bruised. Taste pleasant, smell strong and earthy. Boletus aereus comes with an earthy smell and a pleasurable mild taste. Habitat with broad-leaved trees, especially beech and oak. To Oct in Britain and Ireland august, this bolete are available from Oct to Feb in a few elements of southern European countries. ( Season summer to autumn ) Rare. Edible. Distribution, America and Europe. Cap: First downy but becoming gentle with a finely damaged or granular surface soon, the dark-brown to dark sepia-brown hats of Boletus aereus range between 7 to 20cm size at maturity. The cover margin is a far more reddish brownish than the centre often. When cut, the cover flesh remains white or very gradually converts somewhat purplish usually. Spores: Spores olivaceous snuff-brown, subfusiform, 13,5 - 16 x 4 - 5 ┬Ám. Pores and tubes: Tubes white to cream, finally sulphur-yellow. Pores similarly coloured but bruising vinaceous on handling and often flushed rust with age. The pipes of Boletus aereus (seen when the cover is damaged or chopped up) are white or pale cream, becoming smart sulphur yellow at maturity; they terminate in really small creamy white skin pores that become rust-coloured (see remaining) with years. When bruised or cut, the skin pores and pipes of Boletus aereus swiftly do not change shade, but after the right time they create a vinaceous tinge. Stem: A fine brown online structure (reticulum) is obvious on the pale darkish track record of the stem surface, darkest on the apex with the bottom and usually relatively paler and pinker near to the inflamed centre of the stem. Sometimes clavate (club-shaped) but more regularly barrel-shaped, the stem of Boletus aereus is 5 to 12cm high or more to 8cm in size at its widest point. The stem flesh is white and incredibly organization. Habitat & Ecological role: Boletus aereus develops on garden soil beneath broadleaf trees and shrubs, beech and oaks notably. Similar species Boletus edulis has a pale stem with a white reticulum; its dark brown cover has a whitish marginal region. Tylopilus felleus has a darker stem reticulum and a pinkish tinge to its skin pores; it has an extremely bitter taste.
Edible
Hortiboletus rubellus, commonly known as the ruby bolete, is a small, dainty, brightly coloured member of the family Boletaceae, with a reddish cap and stipe, and yellow pores. Like many boletes, it stains blue when cut or bruised. It is found in deciduous woodland in autumn. There is some question over its edibility, and it is reportedly of poor quality with a taste of soap. Until 2015, the species was known as Boletus rubellus.
Poisonous/Suspect
Tylopilus felleus (Fr.) Karst. syn Boletus felleus Fr. Bitter Boletus, Bolet de fiel, Bolet amer, Bolet chicotin, Gallenr?hrling, Epe?z? tin?ru, Boleto felleo, porcino di fiele, Bittere boleet. Cap 6?12cm, fulvous to snuff-brown, slightly downy at first, smooth with age. Stem 70?100 x 20?30 (60 at base) creamy ochre, lighter at apex, covered in a coarse snuff-brown network. Flesh soft, white to cream, clay-pink beneath cap cuticle. Taste very bitter, like bile, smell slightly unpleasant. Tubes slightly salmon or coral. Pores similarly coloured, bruising brownish. Spore print clay-pink to vinaceous. Spores subfusoid, 11?15?4?5m. Habitat coniferous and deciduous woodland. Season late summer to autumn. Occasional. Not edible due to very bitter taste. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Leccinum variicolor Watling syn. L. oxydabile (Sing.) Sing. p.p. Verschiedenfarbiger Rauhfuss Tarkah?s? ?rdestin?ru (-tin?ru) Mottled Bolete. Cap 5?10cm, stippled mouse-grey to dark brown, initially felty and dry, later smooth and slightly viscid. Stem 125?180 x 20?25mm, white, with mouse-grey scales but bruising greenish yellow on handling. Flesh pink in the cap, intensely blue-green in stem base. Taste and smell pleasant. Tubes white or pale cream. Pores small, similarly coloured, bruising pink or vinaceous. Spore print snuff-brown with cinnamon flush. Spores subfusiform, 14?20 x 5?6um. Habitat with birch. Season summer to autumn. Occasional. Edible. Found In Europe.
Edible
Bolete Leccinum scabrum (Fr.) S. F. Gray syn. Boletus scaber Fr. Brown Birch Bolete, Bolet rude, Brauner Birkenpilz, Barna -rdestin-ru (-tin-ru), Porcinello grigio, cravetta grigia, Berkeboleet. Cap 5-15cm, hazel, fulvous or snuff-brown, dry but tacky in wet weather. Stem 70-200 x 20-30mm, white to grey covered with brownish-black scales becoming darker towards the base. Flesh white, very soft, watery, unchanging or flushing pale pink. Taste and smell pleasant. Tubes white becoming dirty ochraceous. Pores small, white then dingy, bruising ochraceous. Spore print snuff-brown. Spores subfusiform, 14-20 x 5-6um. Habitat with birch. Season summer to autumn. Common. Edible - not worthwhile. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Leccinum holopus (Rostk.) Watling syn. Boletus holopus Rostk. Moor-Birkenpilz L-pi -rdestin-ru (-tin-ru) Ghost Bolete. Cap 4-7(10)cm, dirty white to pale buff becoming darker and flushed greenish with age, smooth, viscid when fresh. Stem 80-110-8-15(30)mm, white or pale buff, covered with white scales discolouring cinnamon with age. Flesh soft, white, blue green in stem base, often pink elsewhere or unchanging. Taste and smell pleasant. Tubes white to clay-buff. Pores white to buff, flushed cinnamon with age or on bruising. Spore print cinnamon-ochraceous buff. Spores subfusiform, 17.5-20-5.5-6.5m. Habitat amongst sphagnum under birches. Season autumn. Rare. Edible - not worthwhile. Distribution, America and Europe. Thanks to the Pash family for the last picture.
Edible
Leccinum aurantiacum (Fr.) Gray syn. Boletus aurantiacus Espen-Rotkappe V?r?s ?rdestin?ru, t?lgyfa ?rdes tin?ru Bolet orang?. Cap 8?16cm across, orange to apricot, brown, smooth or slightly downy-fibrillose, cuticle overhanging tubes as an irregular skirt up to 3mm deep. Stem 80?140 x 18?48mm, initially covered in white scales which gradually turn rusty then dark brown. Flesh cream turning vinaceous in cap and stem base and sepia elsewhere. Taste and smell pleasant. Tubes white, vinaceous on exposure to air. Pores very small, white or cream bruising vinaceous. Spore print ochraceous buff. Spores subfusiform, 14?16.5 x 4?5um. Habitat with aspens. Season late summer to autumn. Rare. Edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Deadly
Boletus satanas Lenz. Satan?s or Devil?s Bolete, Bolet satan, Satanpilz, S?t?ntin?ru (-tin?ru), Boleto satana, porcino malefico, Satansboleet. Cap 8?25cm, almost white with buff or sepia flush frequently with faint red flush at margin, becoming flushed ochre with age, slightly downy then smooth with minute cracks particularly at centre, bruising brown with handling. Stem 60?90 x 50?110mm, often markedly swollen at base, saffron orange to lemon-chrome at apex, red with ochre flush at base, covered with a red net. Flesh pale straw-coloured to saffron in cap, white or pale lemon in stem gradually becoming pale sky blue on cutting with rusty patches in stem and dirty buff fading to greenish blue or blotched with red at stem base. Taste and smell unpleasant. Tubes yellowish green then dark olivaceous, blue on cutting. Pores small, round, blood-red but orange towards the margin, finally tinged orange, bruising greenish. Spore print olivaceous snuff-brown. Spores subfusiform, 11?14 x 4.5?6.5?. Habitat with broad-leaved trees, especially beech and oak, usually on calcareous soils. Season summer. Very rare. Poisonous ? possibly deadly. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Boletus pruinatus Fr. & H?k Bereifter R?hrling Pomp?s nemezestin?ru (-tin?ru). Cap 4?10cm, dark red-brown or chestnut when young becoming lighter and more pink with age, with a hoary bloom which is destroyed by handling. Stem 90?100 x 20?30mm lemon-yellow or yellow-chrome at apex, irregularly covered with fine blood-red dots, base more red and arising from apricot-coloured mycelium. Flesh lemon-chrome throughout with darker brown base, slowly turning blue-green on cutting. Taste and smell not distinctive. Tubes lemon-yellow, becoming bluish with age. Pores small, similarly coloured. Spore print olivaceous snuff-brown. Spores subfusiform, 11.5?14 x 4.5?5.5?. Habitat mixed broad-leaved woods, especially when beech is present. Season summer and autumn. Rare. Edible but not worthwhile. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Boletus luridus Schaeff. ex Fr. Netzstieliger Hexenr-hrling V-ltoz-kony tin-ru Bolet blafard Lurid Bolete Cap 6-14cm, snuff brown or olive brown with rusty or bay tints, slightly downy at first then becoming smooth and polished, bruising dark brownish or blue-black. Stem 80-140 x 10-30mm yellowish red with orange-red net, bruising blue. Flesh lemon-yellow in cap soon becoming greenish-blue to dark blue on cutting with a persistent red line above tubes, lemon in stem and blackish-red in stem base. Taste and smell not distinctive. Tubes yellowish-green, blue on cutting. Pores small, orange-red, more yellow at margin, bruising dark blue. Spore print olivaceous snuff-brown. Spore subfusiform to broadly ellipsoid, 11-15 x 4.5-6.5-. Habitat in broad-leaved woods, particularly with oak or beech and on calcareous soils. Season summer to autumn. Occasional. Edible when cooked, but has been known to cause gastric upsets. (Two forms illustrated.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Boletus impolitus Fr. syn. Xerocomus impolitus (Fr.) Qu-l Fahler R-hrling Okkersz-n- varg-nya (tin-ru) Iodine Bolete Cap 5-15cm, clay coloured, sometimes with tawny or olive tints with a pale grey hoariness at first, dry, slightly velvety, then smooth. Stem 60-100 x 30-50mm, robust, straw-coloured at apex, darker brown towards the base. Flesh pale lemon-yellow with deeper yellow region above the pores, becoming faintly pink or very rarely faintly blue after some time on cutting. Taste mild, smell of iodoform in stem base. Tubes lemon-yellow then lemon-chrome. Pores small, similarly coloured. Spore print olivaceous snuff-brown. Spores subfusiform, 10-14 x 4.5-5.5-. Habitat on rides in broad-leaved woods, particularly oak and often on clay soils. Season early summer to autumn. Rare. Edible. (Two forms illustrated.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Choice
Boletus edulis Bull. ex Fr. King Bolete, Porcini, Cep or Penny Bun, C?pe de Bordeaux, Bolet comestible, Champignon polonais, Steinpilz, ?zletes varg?nya (tin?ru), Porcino, brisa, Eekhoorntjesbrood, Borowik prawdziwy. Cap 8?20(30)cm, brown often with a whitish bloom at first gradually lost on expanding leaving a white line at the margin, smooth and dry initially becoming greasy, in wet weather slightly viscid and polished. Stem 30?230 x 30?70(110)mm, robust, pallid with white net. Flesh white, unchanging, flushed dirty straw-colour or vinaceous in cap. Taste and smell pleasant. Tubes white becoming grey-yellow. Pores small and round, similarly coloured. Spore print olivaceous snuff-brown. Spores subfusiform, 14?17 x 4.5?5.5?. Habitat coniferous, broad-leaved or mixed woodland. Season summer to late autumn. Common. Edible ? excellent. Distribution, America and Europe. This fungus is perhaps the most important edible species, it can often be found on sale in continental markets. Commercially it is dried and used as flavouring for soups. Comment Var. aurantio-ruber Dick & Snell differs in its ferruginous-red cap, and pores staining yellow-olive when bruised.
Inedible
Boletus calopus Fr. Dickfussr-hrling, Farkastin-ru (tin-ru) C-pe beau pied, Bitter Beech Bolete syn. B. pachypus Fr. Cap 5-14cm, smoke-grey or flushed olivaceous, slightly downy at first then smooth, sometimes slightly cracked or scaly at centre with age. Stem 70-90 x 35-40(50)mm, robust, lemon-yellow at apex, elsewhere red although frequently brown at base, covered with a white or straw-coloured network. Flesh pale straw-coloured to pale lemon-yellow becoming whitish immediately on cutting then flushed blue especially in stem apex and over the tubes, sometimes patchily red at base of stem. Taste bitter, smell strong. Tubes dirty sulphur-yellow, bruising bluish-green. Pores similarly coloured, also bruising bluish-green. Spore print olivaceous snuff-brown. Spores subfusiform, 12-16 x 4.5-5.5-. Habitat in mixed woodland, particularly with beech or oak. Season late summer to autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Leccinum versipelle (Fr. & H?k) Snell. syn. L. testaceoscabrum (Secr.) Sing. syn. Boletus versipellis Fr. & H?k. Orange Birch Boletus, Bolet changeant, Heide Rotkappe, Kormost?nk? ?rdestin?ru (-tin?ru), Oranje berkeboleet. Cap 8?20cm, tawny orange, slightly downy at first becoming smooth, dry to very slightly viscid, the margin overhanging the pores. Stem up to 200 x 15?40mm, white or greyish covered with woolly brownish-black scales. Flesh white then dark vinaceous, but blue-green in stem base, finally blackish. Taste and smell pleasant. Tubes white to buff, vinaceous on cutting. Pores small, mouse-grey at first later ochraceous, bruising vinaceous. Spore print ochraceous snuff-brown. Spores subfusiform, 12.5?154?5um. Habitat with birch in scrub or open woodland. Season summer to autumn. Common. Edible ? good. Found In Europe.
Edible
Leccinum crocipodium (Letellier) Watling syn. Boletus crocipodius Letellier syn. Leccinum nigrescens (Rich. & Roze) Sing. Yellow-Cracking Bolete, C-pe noircissant, Gelber Rauhfuss, S-rga -rdestin-ru (-tin-ru), Boleto rimoso. Cap 4-11cm across, cinnamon to fulvous with yellow or olivaceous tinge, downy and soon conspicuously cracked, margin slightly overhanging tubes. Stem 60-120 x 18-24mm, lemon-yellow at apex, covered in yellow scales which become buff to cinnamon and finally mouse-grey, darkening on handling. Flesh pale yellow then rapidly brick-colour, vinaceous or greyish and finally black throughout. Taste and smell not distinctive. Tubes lemon-yellow becoming flushed ochre or sienna. Pores minute, similarly coloured, bruising darker. Spore print ochre with olivaceous flush. Spores ellipsoid-subfusiform, 12-17.5 x 4.5-6um. Habitat with oaks. Season late summer to early autumn. Rare. Edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Boletus subtomentosus L. ex Fr. Samtiger R?hrling Molyhos tin?ru. Cap 4?10cm, very velvety, fulvous to pale sepia, darkening where rubbed or bruised. Stem up to 80 x 10?15(20)mm, pale at apex and yellow towards middle sometimes with a wide, coarse, irregular network of dark brick-coloured veins, paler again towards the base. Flesh white in cap with a date-brown line beneath the cuticle, rust above tubes and flushed lemon-yellow in base of stem, hardly blueing or not at all on cutting. Taste and smell not distinctive. Tubes lemon-chrome blueing on exposure to air. Pores large, angular, similarly coloured, bruising blue on handling then fading. Spore print olivaceous snuff-brown. Spores subfusiform-ellipsoid, 9?11.5 x 3.5?4.5?. Habitat in broad-leaved and mixed woods, particularly with birch. Season autumn. Rare. Edibility unknown. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Boletus rubellus Krombh. Piros tin-ru. Cap 3-8cm across, broadly convex then flattened; scarlet red when young, becoming dull olivaceous red with age, margin often yellowish; dry and velvety, finally glabrous, and often areolate. Tubes dull yellow. Pores lemon yellow then greenish yellow, bruising blue. Stem 40-80 x 4-8mm, equal; bright yellow at apex, shading to bright rose red or scarlet below, with yellow basal mycelium. Flesh yellowish, staining blue when cut. Odor pleasant. Taste slightly soapy. Spores subellipsoid, 10-13 x 4-5-. Deposit olive-brown. Habitat often gregarious in grassy woodlands, especially oak. Found in Europe and the northeastern United States. Season July-September. Edible but often maggoty. Comment This is one of a complex of very closely related species, often separable only with microscopic examination.
Edible
Boletus pulverulentus Opatowski Ligeti tin?ru. Cap 4-10cm across, broadly convex; deep yellow-brown to blackish brown, sometimes with reddish hues; subtomentose to dull, dry, or glabrous, tacky when moist. Tubes yellow, but instantly deep blue when cut. Pores large and angular; lemon yellow, instantly deep blue when touched. Stem 40-80 x 10-30mm, equal to tapering below; bright yellow-orange on apex, reddish brown below, turns instantly blue-black when handled; surface pruinose. Flesh soft; yellow then deep blue to almost black when cut. Odor not distinctive. Taste not distinctive. Spores subfusiform, 11-14(15) x 4.5-6?. Deposit olive-brown. Habitat in grassy oak woods and in garden lawns, particularly on slopes and banks. Often common. Found throughout northeastern North America. Season July-August. Edible. Comment One of the most easily identifiable boletes, with its instant and very deep blue color change of all parts. Ammonia on the cap cuticle gives a fleeting green coloration.
Inedible
Boletus porosporus (Imler) Watling syn. Xerocomus porosporus Imler Gefelderter R-hrling Hamis nemezestin-ru (-tin-ru) Sepia Bolete Cap up to 8cm, dark olive brown then sepia to cigar-brown although at first with yellow down which darkens on bruising, later cracking to show yellowish flesh particularly at centre. Stem 90-100 x 20-30mm, apex lemon-chrome sometimes with brown to blood-red zone, slightly ribbed with olivaceous brown, darkening when bruised. Flesh pale lemon yellow to buff in cap, stem apex lemon-chrome, stem base dark brick or vinaceous, finally becoming blue after cutting particularly above the tubes. Taste and smell not distinctive. Tubes lemon-yellow finally olivaceous, bruising blue. Pores compound, angular, lemon-yellow darkening with age, bruising blue. Spore print olivaceous snuff-brown. Spores subfusiform, 13-15 x 4.5-5.5-, with a distinct truncate pore making this species unique among European boletes. Habitat mixed deciduous woods, particularly where oak is present. Season autumn. Rare. Edible but not recommended. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Boletus chrysenteron Bull. ex St. Amans syn. Xerocomus chrysenteron (Bull. ex St. Amans) Qu?l. Red Cracking Boletus,C?pe ? pied rouge, Bolet ? chair jaune, Rotfussr?hrling, Aranytin?ru (tin?ru), Boleto dorato, Roodstelige fluweelboleet. Cap 4?11cm, dingy brown to pale sepia or buff with olivaceous flush, or with a pinkish red flush particularly late in the season, slightly velvety at first then smooth, later cracking irregularly to show coral flesh, making this an easily recognizable species. Stem 40?80 x 10?15mm, lemon-yellow at apex, red from middle downwards becoming more buff towards base. Flesh cream or lemon-yellow in cap, brown to reddish-buff in stem, usually pale red just below cap, turning slightly blue above the tubes and in base of stem but only slowly. Taste and smell slight but not distinctive. Tubes sulphur or lemon yellow, becoming greenish with age. Pores large, angular, similarly coloured and sometimes bruising greenish. Spore print olivaceous snuff-brown. Spores subfusiform, 12?15 x 3.5?5?. Habitat with broad-leaved trees. Season autumn. Very common. Edible but mushy when cooked. Distribution, America and Europe.
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