Russulaceae Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
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Total mushrooms fount: 43

Edible
The term "salmonicolor" comes from the Latin and means with the colour of raw salmon flesh. This species, like all the Lactarius with red milk, in some zones is quite sought after for culinary purposes and this has created several local or dialectal names. ----- Cap : 4 - 12 cm, initially convex, then flat and finally depressed, almost funnel-shaped in the ripe fungus, much fleshy, of irregular shape, at times lobate, gibbous; margin inrolled in the young fungus for long time, then extended, flexuous, regular or just wavy, not striated. The surface is smooth, glabrous, greasy when the weather is humid, otherwise bright, at times there are evident signs of zones; of salmon, orange-reddish, colour, with concentric humid spots. Hymenium: thick gills, adnate-decurrent, often forked when close to the stipe; intercalated with several lamellules; of pale orange or orange only colour, they stain at times of violet on the lesions, rarely greenish by the end. Stipe: 2-8 × 1-3 cm. Flesh: thick, firm, whitish, cream-pale orange without hues of green, turning after about one hour brown-reddish, it may be also immutable. Pleasant smell, mild flavour. Latex: rather scarce, orange-reddish, immutable even is isolated, sourish taste. Habitat: it grows in summer and in autumn, mainly under fir, also mixed to beech or spruce. Microscopy: spores clearly ellipsoidal, warty, with some isolated warts, others forming crests, isolated or forming an incomplete reticulation, 7-9 × 6-7,5 µm. Cylindraceous basidia, sub-clavate, tetrasporic, 53-61 × 10-12 µm. Fusiform cistydia, thinned at the top, acuminate, 52-70 × 6-7 µm. Remarks : it’s an easy to recognize species due to the habitat, it grows mainly under Abies alba, due to the yellow-orange latex, the salmon coloured cap, the slimy cuticle with humid weather, the zonation at the margin almost absent and the fact of not turning green.
Edible
Russula xerampelina Gemeiner Heringst-ubling Barnul-h-s- galambgomba Russule feuille-morte Crab Brittlegill Russula xerampelina (Schaeff. ex Secr.) Fr. (R. faginea Romagn. in part) Cap 5-14 cm across, convex, later flattening and with a depression, colours very varied, often mixed, dull purples, reds, wine-coloured, cinnamon, straw, fawn, brick or dull brown, moderately firm, sometimes hard, soon dry and matt; margin eventually furrowed, one-quarter peeling at most. Stem 30-110-10-30mm, white or tinted rose, staining honey to brownish ochre especially on bruising, firm to hard, reacting dull green when rubbed with iron salts. Flesh white. Taste mild, smell crab-like especially with age. Gills adnexed, pale to medium ochre, fairly broad and thick, connected by veins at their bases. Spore print deep cream to pale ochre (E-F). Spores ovoid with warts up to 1.2m high, lines none or few, occasionally enclosing a mesh, 8-11-6.5-9m. Cap cystidia infrequent, mostly narrow, not reacting to SV. Cap hyphae with terminal cells sometimes club-shaped, and these and the supporting cells inflated. Habitat under broad-leaved trees, especially beech and oak. Season late summer to late autumn. Common. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe. Divided by some authorities into a number of different species and varieties.
Edible
Russula virescens (Schaeff. ex Zantedschi) Fr. Gefelderter Gr-nt-ubling, Varas z-ld galambgomba, varash-t- galambgomba, Russule verdoyante, Bise verte, Greencracked Brittlegill. Cap 5-12cm across, globose, later convex, finally flattening and often wavy and lobed, verdigris to dull green often ochre-buff to cream in places, half peeling; surface breaking up into small, flattened, angular, scurfy scales. Stem 40-90 x 20-40mm, whitish to pale cream, browning slightly, powdered above, firm. Flesh white. Odor pleasant. Taste mild, nutty. Gills almost free, cream, somewhat brittle, with veins connecting the bases. Spore print whitish to pale cream (A-B). Spores ellipsoid-ovoid to somewhat globose with warts 0.2-0.5- high, fine lines absent to fairly numerous and forming a fairly well-developed network, 7-9 x 6-7-. Cap cystidia none; gill cystidia few, not or hardly reacting with SV. Cap hyphae forming a loose, cellular layer of variously shaped or inflated cells, the terminal ones tapering. Habitat under broad-leaved trees, especially beech. Season summer to early autumn. Uncommon. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Russula vesca Fr. Bare-toothed Russula, Russule comestible, Fleischroter Speiset-ubling, R-ncos galambgomba, r-ncost-nk- galambgomba, Rossola edule, Smakelijke russula. Cap 5-10cm across, somewhat globose at first, later flattened convex, rather variable in colour, often with pastel tints, from dark or pale wine-coloured to buff, sometimes with olive or greenish tints, fleshy, firm, the skin half peeling, tending to retreat from the margin leaving the underlying flesh visible. Stem 30-100 x 15-25mm, white, rather hard, often with somewhat pointed base. Flesh white. Taste mild, nutty. Gills adnexed, whitish to very pale cream, rather closely spaced, narrow, forked, especially near stem. Gills and stem surface rapidly deep salmon when rubbed with an iron salt. Spore print whitish (A). Spores ovoid with small warts up to 0.5- high, very occasionally with short lines attached or joining pairs, 6-8 x 5-6-. Cap cystidia cylindrical or spindle-shaped, without septa, hardly reacting to SV. Cap hyphae with cylindrical or tapering terminal cells or sometimes a long, tapering, thick-walled hair; supporting cells rectangular. Habitat under broad-leaved trees. Season summer to autumn. Frequent. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Russula sardonia Fr. Zitronenbl?ttriger T?ubling, Citromlemez? galambgomba, Russule ?cre, Russule ? couleur de sardoine, Primrose Brittlegill. Cap 4?10cm across, convex, later flattening and with a depression, violet-, purplish- or brownish-red, greenish or ochre to yellowish, hard, shortly peeling only. Stem 30?80 x 10?15mm, sometimes white but usually entirely pale lilac to greyish rose, firm; surface as if powdered. Flesh white. Taste very hot, smell slightly fruity. Gills adnexed to slightly decurrent, at first primrose, later pale golden yellow, narrow. Gills and flesh reacting rose with ammonia (distinguishes this species). Spore print cream (C?F). Spores ovoid with warts up to 0.5? high, joined into ridges or by fine lines to form a rather poorly developed network, 7?9 x 6?8?. Cap cystidia spindle-shaped or cylindrical, without septa, strongly reacting to SV. Habitat under pine. Season summer to autumn. Frequent. Found In Europe and western north America. Edibility suspect-not advisable.
Edible
Russula parazurea J. Schaeff. Blaugr?ner Reift?ubling, K?kesz?ld galambgomba, deres galambgomba, Russule presque azur?e, Powdery Brittlegill. Cap 3?8cm across, convex then flattening, with greyish, dark colours, olive, violet-grey, greyish sepia or chestnut or tinged with dull green, wine or violet, firm, rather fleshy, sometimes greasy, usually matt, often as if powdered when dry, half to three quarters peeling. Stem 30?70 x 7?20mm, white. Flesh white. Taste mild or very slightly hot. Gills adnexed, pale buff, often forked. Spore print palish cream (C?D). Spores elliptic with warts up to 0.5? high, some isolated but mostly joined by lines forming a moderately developed network, 5.7?8.5 x 5?6.5?. Cap hyphae with the terminal cell usually tapering and the supporting cells rectangular. Cap cystidia cylindrical to narrow club-shaped, without septa, moderately reacting to SV. Habitat under broad-leaved trees. Season early summer to autumn. Occasional. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous) Found In Europe.
Edible
Russula ochroleuca (Pers. ex Secr.) Fr. Common Yellow Russula, Russule blanc ocr-, Zitronent-ubling, Fak-s-rga galambgomba, s-rga galambgomba, Geelwitte russula. Cap 4-10cm across, convex then flattening and with a depression, ochre, yellow or sometimes greenish yellow, fleshy, two-thirds peeling; margin eventually furrowed. Stem 40-70 x 15-25mm, white, greying slightly with age especially when waterlogged. Flesh white. Taste from mild to moderately hot. Gills adnexed, creamy. Spore print whitish to pale cream (A-C). Spores broadly ovoid with warts up to 1.2m high, joined by numerous fine lines forming a fairly well-developed network, 8-10 x 7-8-. Cap surface cystidia absent, hyphae 2-3- wide, often with yellow encrusting pigment. Habitat under broad-leaved trees and conifers. Season late summer to late autumn. Very common. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Found In Europe.
Inedible
Russula fragilis (Pers. ex Fr.) Fr. Fragile Russula, Russule fragile, Wechselfarbiger Speit?ubling, T?r?keny galambgomba, Colombina fragile, Broze Russula. Cap 2?5cm across, convex, then flattening or depressed, variable in colour, usually purplish or violet-tinted and rather pale, or purplish-red, purple-violet, olive-greenish, even lemon yellow, often with combinations of these, with a darker, paler or olive-tinted centre, thin-fleshed, usually delicate and fragile, three-quarters peeling. Stem 25?60 x 5?15mm, white, cylindrical to slightly club-shaped. Flesh white. Taste very hot, smell slightly fruity. Gills adnexed, white to very pale cream, with tiny nicks along their edges. Spore print whitish (A?B). Spores somewhat globose with warts up to 0.5? high, joined by fine lines forming an almost complete network, 7.5?9 x 6?8?. Cap cystidia cylindrical to club-shaped, with 0?2 septa, reacting strongly with SV. Habitat under broad-leaved trees or conifers. Season late summer to late autumn. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Russula foetens (Pers. ex Fr.) Fr. Fetid Russula, Russule fetide, Stinkt?ubling, B?d?s galambgomba, Rossola fetente, colombina fetida, Stinkende russula. Cap 5?12cm across, globose at first, later convex, finally flattening, at times with a central depression, dull brownish ochre to honey-coloured, thick-fleshed, rigid, slimy or glutinous; margin furrowed and with small, low warts. Stem 50?120 x 15?40mm, whitish to buff, cylindrical or swollen in the middle, hard and rigid but easily breaking. Flesh white, irregular cavities forming in stem. Taste of gills very hot, of stem flesh almost mild, in addition bitter or oily, smell strongly oily or rancid. Gills adnexed, creamy, often brown spotted, thickish and well spaced. Spore print pale to medium cream (B?D). Spores somewhat globose with strong warts, up to 1.5? high, isolated or an occasional fine line joining them, 8?10 x 7?9?. Cap cystidia cylindrical, tapering or spindle-shaped, not reacting to SV. Habitat under broad-leaved trees or conifers. Season late summer to late autumn. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Russula fellea (Fr.) Fr. Geranium-scented Russula, Russule trompeuse, Russule de fiel, Gallent-ubling, Epe-z- galambgomba, Rossola di fiele, Okerkleurige beukerussla. Cap 4-9cm across, convex, soon flattening, often with a broad umbo, straw-coloured to pale ochre-honey or buff, fairly fleshy, slightly sticky when moist, peeling at margin only, which is smooth to slightly furrowed. Stem 20-60 x 10-20mm, coloured as cap but slightly paler, firm, cream if rubbed with iron salts. Flesh white. Taste very hot, smell of geraniums. Gills adnexed, coloured as stem. Spore print whitish to pale cream (A-C). Spores ovoid with warts up to 0.7- high, mostly joined by fine lines to form a well-developed network, 7.5-9 x 6-7-. Cap cystidia abundant, cylindrical to narrow club-shaped, strongly reacting with SV. Habitat under beech. Season late summer to late autumn. Very common. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Russula emetica (Schaeff. ex Fr.) S.F. Gray. Sickener, Emetic Russula, Russule -m-tique, Colombe rouge, Kirschroter Speit-ubling, H-nytat- galambgomba, Colombina rossa, rossetta, Berijpte russula. Cap 3-10cm across, convex, later flattening or with a shallow depression, scarlet, cherry or blood red, sometimes with ochre-tinted to white areas, somewhat thin-fleshed, fragile, shiny, sticky when moist; skin easily peeling to show pink to red coloured flesh beneath, margin often furrowed when old. Stem 40-90 x 7-20mm, white, cylindrical or more usually somewhat swollen towards the base, fragile. Flesh white, red immediately beneath cap cuticle. Taste very hot, smell slightly fruity. Gills adnexed to free, cream then pale straw. Spore print whitish (A). Spores broadly ovoid; with large warts, 1.2- high, connected by fine lines to form a large-meshed, almost complete network, 9-11 x 7.5-8.5-. Cap cystidia mostly narrowly club-shaped with 0-1 septa. Habitat under pines. Season summer to late autumn. Common. Poisonous. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Russula densifolia (Secr.) Gillet syn. R. acrifolia Romagn. Russule ? feuillets denses, Feketed? galambgomba, Crowded Brittlegill. Cap 3?12cm across, flattened convex at first, later with a depression, cup- or funnel-shaped, whitish or dull brown in the centre or all over, eventually blackish, sticky when moist, fleshy; margin incurved at first. Stem 25?80 x 6?30mm, white then dull brown to blackish, reddish on bruising, hard. Flesh white at first when cut, then tinged reddish and soon greyish as well, finally dark grey to brownish blackish. Taste hot or very hot, but sometimes almost mild, smell not distinctive. Gills slightly decurrent, white to pale cream, closely spaced, rather narrow and not thick, interspersed with shorter gills. Spore print whitish (A). Spores ovoid with small warts under 0.5? high, joined by numerous fine lines to form a well-developed network, 7?9 x 6?7?. Cap hyphae cylindrical or narrowing towards the apex, 3?4? wide; cap cystidia few, narrow, not reacting to SV. Habitat under both broad-leaved trees and conifers. Season summer to autumn. Common. Edibility suspect- not recommended; other members of this group have caused poisonings. Distribution, America and Europe
Inedible
Russula delica Fr. Milk-white Russula, Russule sans lait, Blaubl?ttriger T?ubling, F?ldtol? galambgomba, Colombina bianca, roseola delicata, Witte russula. Cap 5?16cm across, convex, cup- or funnel-shaped, whitish, often tinged yellow brownish, matt, dry, thick-fleshed; margin strongly inrolled. Stem 20?60 x 20?40mm, white, often bluish at apex, hard. Flesh white, unchanging. Taste hot and acrid with a bitter tang; smell distinctive, slightly of bugs and reminiscent of certain Lactarius, sometimes fishy. Gills decurrent, whitish, often tinged bluish towards the stem, often forked or with cross-connections, interspersed with numerous short gills. Spore print white, to slightly creamy (A?B). Spores ovoid with warts 0.5?1.5? high, often in chains or occasionally joined by fine lines not enclosing meshes, or sometimes more abundant and forming a network, 8?12 x 7?9?. Cap cystidia worm-like to narrow cylindrical, hardly reacting to SV. Habitat under both broad-leaved and coniferous trees. Season autumn. Common. Edible ? poor, unpleasant tasting -avoid. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous) Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Russula cyanoxantha (Schaeff. ex Secr.) Fr. Charcoal Burner, Russule charbonni?re, Charbonnier, Frauent?ubling, K?kh?t? galambgomba, Colombina iridescente, colombina maggiore, moreleto, Regenboogrussula. Cap 5?15cm across, first globose, later flattening to depressed at the centre, sometimes one colour but usually a mixture, dullish lilac, purplish, wine-coloured, olive, greenish or brownish, sometimes entirely green (var. peltereaui), firm to hard, greasy when moist, with faint branching veins radiating from centre, half peeling. Stem 50?100 x 15?30mm, white, sometimes flushed purple, hard, giving no or a slightly greenish reaction when rubbed with iron salts not salmon as in most Russulas. Flesh white. Taste mild. Gills adnexed to slightly decurrent, whitish to very pale cream, rather narrow, oily to the touch and flexible, not brittle as in most Russulas, forked at times. Spore print whitish (A). Spores broadly elliptic, with low, up to 0.6? high warts; fine lines absent, 7?9 x 6?7?. Cap cystidia scattered, small, short and narrow (2?4?), cylindrical, teat-ended. Habitat under broad-leaved trees. Season summer to late autumn. Very common. Edible ? good.(Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous)Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Russula claroflava Grove. Yellow Swamp Russula, Gelber Graustielt-ubling, Kr-ms-rga galambgomba, Gele berkerussula. Cap 4-10cm across, convex, with a depression later, yellow to ochre yellow, fairly fleshy, slightly sticky, shining, less so when dry, peeling halfway; margin finally furrowed. Stem 40-100 x 10-20mm, white, soft but not fragile. Flesh white. Taste mild or slightly hot. Gills adnexed to almost free, palish ochre. All parts becoming dark grey on bruising or when old. Spore print pale ochre (F). Spores ovoid with warts up to 1- high, joined by numerous fine lines to form a fairly well-developed network, 9-10 x 7.5-8-. Cap surface without cystidia; numerous hyphae with encrustations staining in fuchsin present. Habitat under birch, especially on wet ground. Season autumn, sometimes late spring to early summer. Frequent. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous) Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Russula caerulea (Pers.) Fr. Buckelt?ubling, P?pos galambgomba, Russule bleue, Humpback Brittlegill Cap 3?8cm across, almost conical at first, later with a pointed to broad umbo (rarely absent), livid violet, dark livid, dark wine-coloured or chestnut, hardly sticky when wet, fairly fleshy, one quarter to two thirds peeling; margin finally furrowed. Stem 40?90 x 10?20mm, white, narrow, club-shaped, firm. Flesh white. Taste mild but cap skin bitter. Gills adnexed to almost free, pale ochre, somewhat closely spaced at first. Spore print palish ochre (G). Spores ovoid, with warts or spines up to 1?1.2? high, some isolated, others joined in chains or by a few fine lines to form at most a rather scanty network with 0?2 meshes, 8?10 x 7?9?. Cap surface without cystidia, but scattered hyphae with sparse incrustations staining in fuchsin. Habitat under pine and frequent where these occur. Season summer to autumn. Occasional. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Found In Europe.
Edible
Russula aurea Pers. Syn. R. aurata (With.) Fr. Goldt-ubling, Aranyos galambgomba, Russule dor-e, Gilded Brittlegill. Cap 4-9cm across, globose at first, then flattening and finally with a depression, scarlet red, brownish coral, blood-coloured or reddish orange, often partly or entirely golden yellow, fleshy, firm, half peeling, sticky when moist, smooth; margin often furrowed when mature. Stem 30-80x10-25mm, white to pale yellow to pale golden yellow, firm then soft, cylindrical to somewhat club-shaped, often somewhat irregular, smooth. Gills adnexed-free, pale ochre, broad, fairly widely spaced, connected by veins at their bases; edge often yellow. Taste mild. Spore print ochre (H). Spores globose-ovoid with conical warts up to 0.7-1.5μ high, with thin to thick connecting ridges which form a partial network enclosing a few meshes, 7.5-9x6-8μ. Cap hyphae tapering, cylindrical, spindle-shaped or slightly club-shaped, with shortish cells; both dermatocystidia and hyphae staining in fuchsin absent. Habitat under broad-leaved trees. Season summer to early autumn. Uncommon. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Russula aeruginea Lindblad ex Fr. Gr-ner Birkent-ubling, F-z-ld galambgomba, Russule vert-de-gris, Green Brittlegill. Cap 4-9cm across, convex then flattening or depressed, grass-green, sometimes with yellowish or brownish tinges, without any violaceous tints, often with rusty spots, centre usually darker, smooth or radially veined, peeling halfway; margin often furrowed. Stem 40-80 X 7-20mm, white, fairly firm. Flesh white. Taste mild to slightly hot. Gills almost free, usually forking, yellowish-buff. Spore print cream (D-E). Spores elliptic, with rounded warts up to 0.6μ high, some joined by fine lines to form a very incomplete network with 0-2 meshes, 6-10 X 5-7μ. Cap surface hyphae with rectangular, not inflated, supporting cells; cystidia cylindrical to spindle-shaped, without septa. Habitat under birch. Season summer to early autumn. Frequent. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Lactarius vellereus (Fr.) Fr. Fleecy Milkcap, Lactaire velout?, Samtiger Milchling, Pelyhes keser?gomba, Lattario vellutato, Schaapje. Cap 10?25cm across, convex and centrally depressed to widely funnel-shaped, margin incurved at first, white to cream becoming tinged yellowish-buff to pale reddish cinnamon in places, surface very shortly woolly. Stem 40?70 x 20?40mm, solid, concolorous with cap, shortly velvety. Flesh thick and firm. Gills decurrent, distant, narrow and brittle, pale ochraceous-cream. Milk white, abundant; taste mild. Spore print white (A). Spores elliptic with small warts connected by fine lines in an incomplete network, 7.5?9.5 x 6.5?8.5?. Habitat deciduous woods. Season late summer to early winter. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Lactarius uvidus (Fr.) Fr. Cap 3-l0cm across, flatly convex with a small umbo and incurved margin, becoming flatter with a broad depression and an arched or irregular margin; very pale fawn, lilac, buff, or violet-gray, becoming a little darker in age; smooth, sticky or slimy if very wet. Gills adnate to decurrent, close, moderately broad; creamy white, bruising dull lilac to tan. Stem 30-70 x 10-l6mm, becoming hollow; dirty white to pale, dull buff, staining rusty or yellow-brown at the base; smooth, slimy when young, shiny when dry. Flesh whitish staining dull lilac to pinky-brown. Latex milk-white becoming dingy cream, staining broken surfaces dull lilac. Odor typical. Taste mild becoming slightly bitter then faintly acrid. Spores oval, amyloid, 8-11 x 7-8.5-; ornamented with widely spaced bands and ridges and isolated particles, no reticulum, prominences 0.5-1- high. Deposit pale yellow. Habitat scattered to gregarious on low ground under mixed aspen, birch, and pine. Quite common. Found widely distributed in northeastern North America, west to Colorado. Season July-October. Not edible-probably poisonous
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