Strophariaceae Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
Stem type:
Spore colour:
Cap type:
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Total mushrooms fount: 26

Poisonous/Suspect
Mushroom is sticky with brownish cap and grills are brown too. Stalk more like yellowish to brown. Cap Size is from 1 to 3 cm ( 0.39 to 1.18 inches ). Cap type is Convex or broadly convex which transforms to flat. It has whitish patches on cap. Cap is smooth, dark reddish-brown color which fades to grayish-brown. Grills Coprophila has attached grill. Nearly distant; Broad; Color of grill is whitish to brown or purplish-brown. Stalk Height is 2 to 4 cm ( 0.78 to 1.57 inches ) Thick is 1.5 to 5 mm Color: whitish, darkening to brown ( NOT bruising blue ). Veil Some times it present. Partial veil evanescent. Spores: 11-14 X 7-8.5 m; elliptical, smooth, with pore at tip. Spore print purplish-brown. Season June - October. Habitat Single to numerous, on horse or cow dung. Look-alikes: P. merdaria has central ring zone on stalk. Stropharia semiglobata is ringed yellowish. Panaeolus species have blackspores. Coprinus species liquefy. Comments: This weak hallucinogen is the most widespread psilocybe in North America. According to Stamets and other sources. P. coprophila is not hallucinogenic. Source: http://books.google.ca/books?id=BQvjx9M-DTgC&pg=PA25&lpg=PA25&dq=Stamets+psilocybe+coprophila+not+hallucinogenic&source=bl&ots=6_0sersnDS&sig=qDR0hlnnlGhLJS79eONHFlEfpv0&hl=en&sa=X&ei=BoOsT6obqpGIAo2wsOsG&ved=0CGIQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=Stamets%20psilocybe%20coprophila%20not%20hallucinogenic&f=false
Inedible
Stropharia semiglobata (Batsch. ex Fr.) Qu?l. Dung Roundhead, Strophaire semi-globuleux, Halbkugeliger Tr?uschling, Dombor? harmatgomba, f?lg?mbalak? harmatgomba, Kleefsteel-stropharia. Cap 1?3cm across, hemispherical, light yellow, viscid. Stem 60?100 x 2?3mm, yellowish, apex paler, viscid below the ring; ring incomplete, often represented by zone of blackish fibrils. Flesh thin, pallid. Gills purplish-brown becoming black-spotted. Spore print dark purplish-brown. Spores elliptic, 15?17 x 9?10um. Habitat on dung. Season spring to late autumn. Common. Not edible -avoid. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Stropharia rugosoannulata Farlow ex Murr. King Stropharia, Wine Cup, -ri-s harmatgomba. Cap 5-20cm across, convex-flattened to umbonate; deep purplish red to dull brown or even grayish or white with age; smooth, not viscid. Gills adnate, crowded; pallid then gray and finally purple-brown. Stem 100-180x 10-25mm, equal to clavate; white; smooth; ring large, prominent, deeply wrinkled or segmented below, very thick, white. Flesh firm; white. Odor pleasant. Taste pleasant. Spores ellipsoid, with germ pore, 10-13 x 7.5-9-. Deposit purple-brown. Habitat on wood chips and bark mulch and around flower beds. Very common. Found Europe and widely distributed in northern North America. Season June-October. Edible-delicious. Comment An almost pure white form is not infrequent; also a closely related (probably undescribed) yellow species with viscid cap may be found at the same time.
Poisonous/Suspect
Stropharia hornemannii (Fr.) Lundell Fenyves harmatgomba. Cap 6-15cm across, broadly convex umbonate; dull reddish brown or purple-brown, with white veil remnants at margin; very viscid when wet. Gills adnate, crowded; pallid then purple-brown. Stem 60-120x 10-20mm; white; strongly fibrillose-scaly below the prominent ring. Flesh white. Odor a little unpleasant. Taste a little unpleasant. Spores ellipsoid, with germ pore, 10-14 x 5.5-7?. Deposit purple-brown. Habitat on rotting conifer logs. Found in Europe and northern North America. Season August-November. Not edible- possibly poisonous.
Inedible
Stropharia coronilla (Bull. ex Fr.) Qu?l. syn. S. obturata (Fr.) Qu?l. Stropharia coronilla Kr?nchen-Tr?uschling S?rga harmatgomba Strophaire coronille Garland Roundhead. Cap 2?4cm across, convex then flattened, light yellow, slightly viscid or greasy. Stem 25?40 x 6?8mm, white tapering towards base; ring white, but often accentuated by trapped deposit of dark spores. Flesh thick, white. Gills white then clay-brown. Pleurocystidia broadly lanceolate with acutely pointed apex, staining deeply in aniline blue in lactic acid. Spore print purple-brown. Spores elliptic with indistinct pore, 7?9 x 4?6um. Habitat lawns and pasture. Season autumn. Common. Edible ? not worthwhile. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Stropharia aeruginosa (Curt. ex Fr.) Qu?l. Verdigris Agaric, Strophaire vert-de-gris, Vert-de-gris, Gr?nspantr?uschling, Z?ld harmatgomba, Strofaria grigio-verde, Kopergroenezwam. Cap 2?8cm across, convex to bell-shaped then flattened and slightly umbonate, blue to blue-green from the gluten and flecked with white scales, becoming pale yellowish as this is lost. Stem 40?100 x 4?12mm, whitish to blue, apex smooth, covered in small whitish scales below the spreading membranous ring. Flesh whitish-blue. Smell none. Gills white then clay brown, often with a white edge. Cheilocystidia obtuse, clavate-capitate or lageniform capitate; lanceolate chrysocystidia found on gill face and only rarely on gill-edge. Spore print brownish-purple. Spores elliptic, 7?10 x 5um. Habitat woods, heaths and pastures. Season late spring to late autumn. Common. Poisonous. Distribution, America and Europe.
Hallucinogenic
Psilocybe semilanceata (Fr. ex Secr.) Kummer. Liberty Cap or Magic Mushroom, Spitzkegeliger Kahlkopf, Hegyescs?cs? badargomba, Puntig kaalkopje. Cap 0.5?1.5cm across, elongate conical with a distinct sharply pointed umbo, puckered at margin, hygrophanous, yellowish-brown with olivaceous tinge drying ochre-buff, covered with a viscid pellicle. Stem 25?75 x 1?2mm, white to cream, sometimes with a bluish tinge at the stem base. Flesh cream to pallid. Gills pale clay at first, finally dark purple-brown. Spore print dark purplish-brown. Spores elliptic, 11.5?14.5 x 7?9um. Habitat lawns, pasture and roadsides. Season late summer to late autumn. Frequent. Hallucinogenic. Edible but not recommended. Hallucinogenic and widely collected for this purpose, but should be regarded as mildly poisonous; also, there is the possibility of misidentification. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Pholiota squarrosa (M-ller ex Fr.) Kummer syn. Dryophila squarrosa (M-ller ex Fr.) Qu-l. Shaggy Scalycap, Pholiote squarreuse, Sparriger Sch-ppling, T-sk-s t-kegomba, Schubbige bundelzwam. Cap 3-10(15)cm across, convex becoming flattened, the margin remaining inrolled, pale straw-yellow densely covered in coarse red-brown, upturned scales, not viscid. Stem 50-120 x 10-15mm, smooth and pale yellow above torn membranous ring, covered in red-brown recurved scales below and darkening at the base. Flesh tough, pale yellowish becoming red-brown in stem base. Taste and smell radishy. Gills crowded, pale yellow at first later cinnamon. Pleurocystidia clavate with mucronate apex. Spore print rust brown. Spores oval, smooth, 5.5-9 x 3.5-5um. Habitat in dense clusters at the base of deciduous and very occasionally coniferous trees. Season autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Pholiota flammans (Fr.) Kummer Freuersch-ppling L-ngsz-n- t-kegomba (l-nggomba) Pholiote flamboyante Flaming Scalycap. Cap 2-8cm across, convex then expanded, tawny yellow covered in recurved lemon- to sulphur-yellow scales, margin incurved. Stem 40-80 x 4-10mm, bright yellow with concolorous cottony ring near the apex, densely covered in concolorous scales below. Flesh pale yellow. Gills pale yellow darkening to rusty yellow with age. Pleurocystidia lanceolate with pointed apex, staining deeply in cotton blue in lactic acid. Spore print rusty. Spores elliptic, 4-4.5 x 2-2.5um. Habitat singly or in tufts on conifer stumps or fallen trunks. Season late summer to autumn. Rare, more frequent in mountains. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Pholiota aurivella (Fr.) Kummer Rozsdas?rga (s?rga) t?kegomba. Cap 4-15cm across, bell-shaped to convex with a broad umbo; ochre-orange to tawny; sticky to slimy with large flattened spot-like scales, which may disappear or become somewhat sticky when wet. Gills adnate, close, moderately broad; pale yellowish becoming tawny brown. Stem 50-80 x 5-15mm, dry, solid, central or off-center; yellowish to yellow-brown; dry and cottony above the ring, hairy and with down-curving scales toward the base. Veil partial veil leaves evanescent ring or zone on upper stalk; white. Flesh firm; yellow. Odor sweet. Taste slight. Spores ellipsoid, smooth, with pore at apex, 7-9.5 x 4.5-6?. Deposit rusty brownish. Caulocystidia absent; pleurocystidia present. Habitat in clusters on living trunks and logs of hardwoods and conifers. Found Europe and in North America except the Southeast. Season June-November. Not edible.
Inedible
Pholiota alnicola (Fr.) Sing. syn. Flammula alnicola (Fr.) Kummer syn. Dryophila alnicola (Fr.) Qu?l. Erlen-Sch?ppling S?rga t?kegomba Alder Scalycap. Cap 2?6(11)cm across, convex to flattened, smooth and greasy, bright lemon-yellow at first becoming flushed olivaceous at the margin, remains of veil often adhering to the margin. Stem 20?80 x 5?10mm, pale lemon-yellow above the remains of the veil becoming rusty-brown towards the base, not viscid. Flesh yellow in cap, rusty towards the stem base. Taste mild to slightly bitter, smell pleasant and sweet. Gills pale yellow at first becoming cinnamon. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, hyaline, hair-like, clavate. Spore print rusty brown. Spores oval, smooth, 8.5?11.5 x 5?5.5um. Habitat solitary or in small clusters on deciduous wood, especially alder, willow and birch. Season autumn. Uncommon. Inedible. Distribution, America and Europe. Note the two forms that I have collected seem to differ in form and will need to be rechecked.
Edible
Kuehneromyces mutabilis (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Sing. & Smith syn. Galerina mutabilis (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Orton syn. Pholiota mutabilis (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Kummer Stockschw?mmchen ?zletes t?kegomba Pholiote changeante Sheathed Woodtuft. Cap 3?6cm across, convex then expanded and usually umbonate, bright orange-cinnamon when moist drying pale ochraceous from the centre and often appearing distinctly two-coloured. Stem 30?80 x 5?10mm, whitish above becoming darker tan to blackish towards the base, scaly below the ring. Flesh white tinged brownish. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills pallid at first later cinnamon. Spore print deep ochre. Spores ovoid to slightly almond-shaped with germ-pore, 6?7.5 x 4?5um. Habitat in dense clusters on stumps or trunks of deciduous trees. Season spring to early winter. Common. Edible ? good. Take great care not to confuse this species with other smallish brown poisonous fungi. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Hypholoma fasciculare (Huds. ex Fr.) Kummer syn. Geophila fasciculari (Huds. ex Fr.) Qu?l. syn. Naematoloma fasciculare (Huds. ex Fr.) Karst. Sulphur Tuft, Hypholome en touffe, Gr?nbl?ttriger Schwefelkopf, S?rga k?nvir?ggomba, Falso chiodino, zolfino, Gewone zwavelkop. Cap 2?7cm across, convex or slightly umbonate, remains of the pale yellow veil often adhering to the margin, bright sulphur-yellow tinged orange-tan towards the centre. Stem 40?100 x 5?10mm, often curved, sulphur at the apex becoming dirty brownish towards the base with a faint ring zone often made more obvious by trapped purple-brown spores. Flesh sulphur-yellow, more brownish towards the stem base. Taste very bitter, smell mushroomy. Gills sulphur-yellow becoming olivaceous, finally dark brown. Spore print purplish-brown. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, cylindric, hair-like. Pleurocystidia broadly clavate with beak-like apex. Spores oval, with pore 6?7 x 4?4.5um. Habitat in dense clusters on stumps of deciduous and coniferous tress. Season all year. Very common. Not edible very bitter. -Now known to be poisonous, deaths have been recorded due to this fungus. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Hypholoma capnoides (Fr. ex Fr.) Kummer Syn Naemateloma capnoides (Fr.) Kar. Graubl?ttriger Schwefelkopf Hypholome capno?de Conifer Tuft Feny? k?nvir?ggomba. Cap 2?6cm across, convex with an indistinct umbo, pale ochraceous flushed tan in the centre, margin buff. Stem 40?100 x 5?10mm, ochraceous buff flushed tan from base up, with white cortinal zone. Flesh yellowish. Taste sweetish, smell not distinctive. Gills whitish at first then greyish-lilac. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, cylindric, hair-like. Pleurocystidia broadly clavate with beak-like apex. Spore print dark brown. Spores ellipsoid-ovate with a distinct pore, 7?8 x 4?5um. Habitat conifer stumps. Season spring to late autumn. Uncommon. Said to be edible -avoid. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Hebeloma sinapizans (Paulet ex Fr.) Gillet Rettichf?lbling Retekszag? fak?gomba H?b?lome couleur moutarde Bitter Poisonpie. Cap 4?12(20)cm across, convex then flattened and often wavy or upturned at the margin, ochre-brown or tan paling to cream or buff at the margin, greasy at first. Stem 50?120 x 10?20mm, swollen at the base, white covered in brownish scales forming a pattern of bands around the stem. Flesh whitish, becoming hollow in the stem often with a piece of the cap flesh hanging down into the stem cavity. Smell of radish. Gills pale clay-buff later with a cinnamon flush. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, hyaline, with a slightly swollen body and a narrower neck. Spore print rust. Spores almond-shaped, warted, 10?14.5 x 6?8um. Habitat in deciduous and mixed woods. Season autumn. Uncommon. Poisonous. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Hebeloma mesophaeum (Pers.) Qu?l Dunkelscheibiger F?lbling Veiled Poisonpie S?t?tl?b? fak?gomba. Cap 2?4.5cm across, convex then expanded, yellowish-brown, darker tan to date-brown at the centre, viscid when moist, margin covered in white fibrous remains of veil in young specimens. Stem 40?70 x 4mm, whitish above, with a poorly developed fibrillose ring zone, brownish towards the base. Flesh white in cap, brownish towards stem base. Taste bitter, smell strongly of radish. Gills clay-brown. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, hyaline, elongate-cylindric with obtuse apex, base often slightly enlarged. Spore print rusty-clay. Spores elliptic, very minutely punctate, 8?10 x 5?6um. Habitat damp woodland, often on burnt ground. Season late summer to early winter. Occasional. Edibility unknown ?avoid, as many Hebelomas contain toxins. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Hebeloma crustuliniforme (Bull. ex St. Amans) Qu?l. Poison Pie, H?b?lome ?chaud?, Tr?nender Rettichf?lbling, Radijsvaalhoed, Zsemlesz?n? (retekszag?) fak?gomba. Cap 3-11 cm across, convex then expanded and often obtusely umbonate, the margin remaining inrolled for a long time and often lobed; buff to pale ochre-tan, darker at the center; slightly greasy to sticky when moist. Gills adnate or notched, crowded; pale clay-brown exuding watery droplets in moist conditions, spotted when dry. Stem 40-130 x 5-20mm, solid with an enlarged base; whitish or tinged with cap color; top powdery or finely flaky, center finely hairy, base with white mycelium. Veil not showing when cap is extended. Flesh thick; white. Odor strongly of radish. Taste bitter. Spores almond-shaped, smooth or finely warted, 9-13 x 5.5-7.5?. Deposit rust-brown. Cheilocystidia club-shaped, thin-walled, hyaline. Habitat singly or in groups on the ground on wood edges, on lawns, or under trees. Common. Found widely distributed in North America. Season September-November (through May in California). Poisonous.
Poisonous/Suspect
Gymnopilus penetrans (Fr. ex Fr.) Murr. syn. Flammula penetrans (Fr. ex Fr.) Quid. Geflecktbl-tteriger Tannenfl-mmling Common Rustgill Foltoslemez- l-nggomba (t-kegomba). Cap 2-5cm across, bell-shaped to convex then flattened, often with a wavy margin; chrome yellow to golden then tawny and fading yellowish in age; smooth. Gills adnate, close, moderately broad; gold or yellowish white becoming tawny-spotted. Stem 40-60 x 4-7mm, sometimes enlarged toward base; yellowish; base whitish with downy hairs. Veil white, fibrous; leaves no ring. Flesh whitish. Odor none or mild. Taste bitter. Spores ellipsoid, warted 7-9 x 4-5.5- Deposit orange-brown. Cheilocystidia present; no pileocystidia; clamp connections present. Habitat singly or in small tufts on hardwoods and conifers. Found throughout North America. Season July-October. Not edible, some species of Gymnopilus can be deadly poisonous.
Poisonous/Suspect
Galerina paludosa (Fr.) Kuehn. L-pi turj-ngomba. Cap ochre brown to reddish-ochre, 1-3cm finely granular, conical to convex. Gills adnate. Stem when young fibrous and flaky, with a distinct ring.4-12x1.5-3mm. Spore print rusty-yellowish brown, spores 9.5-11x6-7umfinely warty. Growing on sphagnum moss.
Poisonous/Suspect
Galerina marginata (Fr.) Kuehn. Feny? t?kegomba. Cap 1.5-4cmconvex then flat margin striate, pale ochre to yellow brown. Gills thin and crowded. Stem with scales ochre-honey distinctly darker below. Smell and taste floury. Spores almond shaped 8-10.5 ( 14)x5-6(7.25). Found on conifer wood.
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