Tricholomataceae Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
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Total mushrooms fount: 39

Edible
Hypsi means "high" or "on high" and zygus means a "yoke" Hypsizygus, then, referring to position of this mushroom often high in the tree. Ulm- refers to "elm" indicating one of the common substrates for this fungus. There are commercially grown forms of this mushroom grown and sold in supermarkets and specialist shops, usually referred to as Buna-shimeji syn Hon-shimeji, the Brown Beech Mushrooms, there is a white form called Bunapi-shimeji. Hypsizygus tessulatus (Bull. ex Fr.) Singer New syn. Hypsizygus marmoreus Laskapereszke. Cap 5-15cm across, convex becoming flatter and rather sunken; white to buff yellow, creamy tan or crust brown in the center; moist, smooth, minutely hairy, becoming cracked with scaly patches. Gills adnexed to sinuate, close to subdistant, broad; whitish becoming cream. Stem 40-110 x 10-30mm solid, off-center, enlarged toward the base; white; dry, smooth, sometimes hairy. Flesh thick, firm; white. Odor mushroomy. Taste mild. Spores globose, smooth, 5-7 x 5-7ยต. Deposit white to buff. Season September-December . Habitat singly or scattered on old hardwood trees, especially elm, often quite high up. Frequent. In nature, shimeji are gilled mushrooms that grow on wood. Most often the mushroom is found on beech trees, hence the common name, Beech Mushroom. They are often small and thin in appearance and popular in many nations across the world. ---- Growing Hypsizygus tessulatus The groups of mushrooms are harvested before the caps open. The beige caps are a little coarse and are often harvested when they have a diameter of ca. 2 cm, while the fully grown mushrooms can reach a diameter of 7 to 9 cm. Recommended substrate: 80% hardwood, mixed fine + coarse; 10% cereals; 10% bran. humidity: 62 % ---- A delicious species, H. tessulatus falls under the umbrella concept of the Japanese "Shimeji" mushrooms. Firm textured, this mushroom is considered one of the most "gourmet" of the Oyster-like mushrooms. Recently, this mushroom has been attributed to having anti-cancer properties. I ncreasingly better know, this obscure mushroom compares favorably to P. ostreatus and P.pulmonarius in North American, European and Japanese markets. Mycelial Characteristics: Mycelium white, cottony, resembling P. ostreatus mycelium but not as aerial. Also, the mycelium of H. tessulatus does not exude the yellowish-orange metabolite nor does it form the classically thick, peelable mycelium, two features that are characteristic of Pleurotus species. Mircroscopic Features: This mushroom produces white spores. Suggested Agar Culture Media: Malt Yeast Peptone Agar (MYPA), Potato Dextrose Yeast Agar (PDYA), Dog Food Agar (DFA), or Oatmeal Yeast Agar (OMYA) Spawn Media: The first two generations of spawn can be grain. The third generation can be sawdust or grain. Substrates for Fruiting: Supplemented sawdust. Good wood types are cottonwood, willow, oak, alder, beech, or elm. The effectiveness of other woods has not yet been established. It seems that straw does not provide commercially viable crops unless inoculated up to 25% of its weight with sawdust spawn. Yield Potentials: 1/2 lb. of fresh mushrooms per 5 lb. block (wet weight) of supplemented hardwood sawdust/chips. Comments: A quality mushroom, Buna shimeji is popular in Japan and is being intensively cultivated in the Nagano Prefecture. The only two mushrooms which come close to this species in over-all quality are H. ulmarius or Pleurotus eryngii. In the same environment ideal for Shiitake (i.e. normal light, CO2 less than 1000 ppm), strains of H. tessulatus produce a stem less than 2 inches tall and a cap many times broader than the stem is long. When the light is reduced and the carbon dioxide levels are elevated, the mushrooms metamorphosize into the form preferred by the Japanese. Here again, the Japanese have set the standard for quality. In the growing room, abbreviated caps and stem elongation is encouraged so that forking bouquets emerge from narrow mouthed bottles. Modest light levels are maintained (400 lux) with a higher than normal carbon dioxide levels (>2000 ppm) to promote this form of product. From a cultivator's point of view, this cultivation strategy is well merited, although the mushrooms look quite different from those found in nature. This cultivation strategy is probably the primary reason for the confused identifications. When visiting Japan, American mycologists viewed these abnormal forms of H. tessulatus, a mushroom they had previously seen only in the wild, and suspected they belonged to Lyophyllum. Many of the strains of H. marmoreus cultivated in Japan produce dark gray brown primordia with speckled caps. These mushrooms lighten in color as the mushrooms mature, becoming tawny or pale woody brown at maturity. Most strains obtained from cloning wild specimens of H tessulatus from the Pacific Northwest of North America are creamy brown when young, fading to a light tan at maturity, and have distinct water-markings on the caps. The differences seen may only be regional in nature. This mushroom does not exude a yellowish metabolite from the mycelium typical of Pleurotus species. However, it has been found that H. tessulatus produces a mycelium-bound toxin to nematodes, similar to that present in the droplets of P. ostreatus mycelium. This discovery may explain why it is not likely to see a nematode infestation in the course of growing Hypsizygus tessulatus. Given the number of potentially valuable by-products from cultivating this mushroom, entrepreneurs might want to extract the water soluble anti-cancer compounds and/or menatacides before discarding the waste substrate.
Poisonous/Suspect
Inedible
Tricholomopsis rutilans (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Sing. syn. Tricholoma rutilans (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Kummer. Plums and Custard, Tricolome rutilant, Pleurote rutilant, R?tlicher Holzritterling, B?rsonyos pereszke (fapereszke), Agarico rutilante, Koningsmantel. Cap 4?12cm across, convex to bell-shaped when expanded often with a low broad umbo, yellow densely covered in reddish-purple downy tufts or scales, more densely covered at the centre. Stem 35?55 x 10?15mm, yellow covered in fine downy purplish scales like the cap but to a much lesser extent; no mycelial strands. Flesh pale yellow or cream. Taste watery, smell like rotten wood. Gills rich egg-yellow. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, voluminous, 20?30um wide. Spore print white. Spores ellipsoid, 6?8.5 x 4?5um. Habitat on and around conifer stumps. Season late summer to late autumn. Very common. Considered edible by some but not recommended. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma virgatum (Fr. ex Fr.) Kummer. Tricolome verget?, Brennender Erdritterling, Cs?p?s pereszke, Tricoloma vergato, Scherpe ridderzwam, Ashen Knight. Cap 3?7cm across, convex with a low broad umbo, brownish-black or greyish initially with violaceous tints, streaked with very fine black fibrils. Stem 50?90 x 10?18mm, white and smooth, often flushed grey. Flesh white to greyish. Taste bitter and peppery, smell musty. Gills greyish tinged flesh-colour, often browning at the edges. Spore print white. Spores 6.5?8 x 5?6um. Habitat deciduous and coniferous woods. Season autumn. Uncommon. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Tricholoma ustale (Fr. ex Fr.) Kummer. Tricolome br?l?, Brandiger Ritterling, Szenesed? (feketed?) pereszke, Beukridderzwam, Burnt Knight. Cap 4?8cm across, convex then expanded, viscid in wet weather, chestnut brown, paler at margin, blackening with age. Stem 30?60 x 10?15mm, fibrous, reddish-brown, apex paler. Flesh whitish, sometimes reddening slightly. Taste slightly bitter, smell not distinctive. Gills white, becoming rust-spotted, edges blackening with age. Spore print white. Spores elliptic-ovate, 5.5?7 x 4?5um. Habitat deciduous woods, especially beech. Season late summer to late autumn. Rare. Poisonous. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Tricholoma terreum (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Kummer. Tricolome couleur de terre, Petit-gris, Saint-Martin, Graubl?ttriger Erdritterling, Feny?pereszke, Agarico color di terra, cavarese, Donkergrijze ridderzwam, Grey Knight. Cap 4?7cm across, convex with a low broad umbo, light to dark grey, downy to felty. Stem 30?80 x 10?15mm, white and silky smooth. Flesh whitish grey. Taste pleasant, not mealy, smell not distinctive. Gills emarginate, distant, whitish to grey. Spore print white. Spores 6?7 x 3.5?4.5um Habitat in woods, especially with conifers. Season late summer to late autumn. Uncommon. Edible with caution. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma sulphureum (Bull. ex Fr.) Kummer syn. T. bufonium (Pers. ex Fr.) Gillet. Tricolome soufr?, Schwefelritterling, B?d?s pereszke, Agarico zolfino, Narcisridderzwam, Sulphur Knight Gas Agaric. Cap 3?8cm across, convex with an indistinct umbo, sulphur-yellow often tinged reddish-brown or olivaceous. Stem 25?40 x 6?10mm, sulphur-yellow covered in reddish-brown fibres. Flesh bright sulphur-yellow. Taste mealy, smell strongly of gas-tar. Gills bright sulphur-yellow. Spore print white. Spores 9?12 x 5?6um. Habitat in deciduous woods, less frequently with conifers. Season autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma sejunctum (Sow. ex Fr.) Qu?l. Jaunet, Braungelber Ritterling, Z?ldess?rga pereszke, Streephoedridderzwam, Deceiving Knight. Cap 4?10cm across, conico-convex then expanded, yellowish-green more brown or greyish-brown towards the centre, radially streaky, moist. Stem 50?80 x 10?30mm, white flushed yellowish. Flesh white, yellowing below the cap cuticle in older specimens. Taste mealy. Gills whitish. Spore print white. Spores 5?7 x 4?5um. Habitat deciduous woods. Season autumn. Uncommon. Non edible ? nauseating. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Tricholoma scalpturatum (Fr.) Qu?l. Gillet syn. Tricholoma argyraceum (Bull. ex St. Amans) syn. T. chrysites (Fr.) Gillet Silbergrauer Erdritterling S?rgul? pereszke Tricolome grav? Yellowing Knight. Cap 4?8cm across, pale grey or grey-brown to almost white, the cuticle often breaking into felty scales leaving the cap even paler in colour, often tinged yellowish-brown at the centre. Stem 40?80 x 6?12mm, white often faintly flushed with the cap colour. Flesh white in cap, greyish in stem. Taste and smell mealy. Gills emarginate, white becoming spotted with yellow especially when old and beginning to decay. Spore print white. Spores 5?6 x 3?4um. Habitat in pine or beech woods. Season early summer to late autumn. Occasional. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Found In Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma saponaceum (Fr.) Kummer. Soapy Knight or Soap Tricholoma, Tricolome ? odeur de savon, Seifenritterling, Szappanszag? pereszke, Agarico saponaceo, Zeepzwam. Cap 5?10cm across, convex at first then expanded with a broad umbo, grey-brown often with rusty or olivaceous tints, darker at the centre. Stem 50?100 x 10?30mm, white with reddish or olivaceous tints. Flesh white becoming more or less pink. Taste mushroomy, smell of soap. Gills rather distant, whitish sometimes with greenish tints or finally spotted reddish. Spore print white. Spores elliptical, 5?6 x 3.5?4um. Habitat in troops in deciduous or coniferous woods. Season late summer to late autumn. Occasional. Edible ? poor. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe. Note the first pictures shows a rather red form that will probably become a seperate variety, in fact this species contains a rather divers group of mushrooms that may well be split in the future. Comment Tricholoma saponaceum var. ardosiacum Bres. differs from the type in having a much darker, bluish-gray, almost black cap and sometimes gray or brown scales on the stem (the last of our pictures).
Edible
Tricholoma portentosum (Fr.) Qu?l. Tricolome pr?tentieux, Bise d'automne, Schwarzfaseriger Ritterling, Sz?rke pereszke, Tricoloma portentoso, Glanzende ridderzwam. Cap 5?10cm across, conical to bell-shaped, expanding with a broad umbo, light grey to grey-black covered in fine radiating innate streaks often with olivaceous or violaceous tints. Stem 40?100 x 10?20mm, white, often becoming flushed lemon-yellow. Flesh white. Taste and smell mealy. Gills white then lemon-yellow. Spore print white. Spores 5?6 x 3.5?5um. Habitat with conifers. Season autumn. Occasional. Edible with caution. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Tricholoma pardinum Qu??l. P?rducpereszke (pereszke). Cap 5-15cm across, convex becoming flatter; whitish with pale-gray to dark-gray scales; dry with hairy scales. Gills notched or adnexed, close, moderately broad; whitish very occasionally flushed pinkish. Stem 50-150 x 10-20mm, firm, solid, sometimes enlarged at the base; white, sometimes tinged gray; dry, smooth. Flesh thick, firm; white. Odor mealy. Taste mealy. Spores ellipsoid, smooth, 8-10 x 5.5-6.5??. Deposit white. Habitat singly, scattered, or in groups on the ground in mixed and deciduous woods, especially under fir. Sporadically common and abundant, otherwise infrequent. Found in Europe and widely distributed in northern North America. Season August-October. Poisonous.
Inedible
Tricholoma fulvum (DC. ex Fr.) Sacc. syn. T. flavobrunneum (Fr. ex Pers.) Kummer. Tricolome brun et jaune, Gelbbl?ttriger Ritterling, S?rgalemez? pereszke, Tricoloma giallo-bruno, Berkeridderzwam, Birch Knight. Cap 4-8cm across, expanded convex with a slight umbo, brown to reddish-brown and finely streaky. Stem 30-70 x 8-14mm, concolorous with the cap, fibrous. Flesh whitish in cap, yellow in stem. Taste mild, smell mealy. Gills yellowish becoming spotted brownish with age. Spore print white. Spores elliptical, 5-7 x 3-4.5um. Habitat in deciduous or mixed woods, usually with birches. Season autumn. Commmon. Edible ? poor. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe. Wikipedia: Edible.
Edible
Tricholoma columbetta (Fr.) Kummer. Tricolome columbette, Columbette, Weisseidiger Ritterling, Galambpereszke, Colombetta, Witte duifridderzwam, Blue Spot Knight. Cap 5?10cm across, convex then expanding, silky white sometimes with greenish, pinkish or violet-blue spots when old. Stem 40?100 x 10?20mm, rooting, white sometimes blue-green at base. Flesh white, firm. Taste none, smell not distinctive. Gills white, crowded. Spore print white. Spores oval, 5.5?7 x 3.5?5um. Habitat deciduous and coniferous woods. Season late summer to early autumn. Occasional. Edible ? good but somewhat fibrous. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Melanoleuca cognata (Fr.) Konrad & Maubl. syn. Tricholoma cognatum (Fr.) Gillet. Fr?hlings-Weichritterling, Korai l?gypereszke, fak?s?rga pereszke, Okerkleurige veldridder, Spring Cavalier. Cap 4?10(12)cm across, expanded convex and umbonate, ochre-brown to grey-brown, shiny. Stem 60?120 x 10?15mm, swollen at the base, cream flushed ochre to grey-brown. Flesh whitish to cream. Taste sweetish, smell floury. Gills ochraceous cream. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, hyaline, lanceolate, sometimes encrusted with crystals at apex. Spore print ochraceous cream. Spores elliptic, minutely warted, amyloid 9?10 x 5.5?6um. Habitat coniferous woods. Season spring and autumn. Occasional. Said to be edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Found In Europe.
Inedible
Megacollybia platyphylla (pers.) Kotl.& Pouz wellknown as Tricholomopsis platyphylla (Pers. ex Fr.) Sing. syn. Oudemansiella platyphylla (Pers. ex Fr.) Moser syn. Collybia platyphylla (Pers. ex Fr.) Kummer Breitbl?ttriger Holzritterling Sz?leslemez? f?l?ke Collybie ? feuillets ?pais, Collybie ? chapeau ray?. Cap 4?10cm across, hemispherical soon expanded with depressed centre, dark grey-brown with an ochraceous tint, somewhat streaky surface sometimes disrupting in minute scurfy scales towards the margin. Stem 30?50 x 10?13mm, tough, whitish fibrillosely striate often flushed with cap colour, passing into long rooting mycelial strands. Flesh white. Taste bitter, smell not distinctive. Gills very broad, whitish cream. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, swollen pear-shaped, 50?60 x 15?25um. Spore print white. Spores subglobose 6?8 x 6?7um. Habitat attached to deciduous stumps or pieces of buried wood by the tough white mycelial strands. Season summer to autumn. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Leucocortinarius bulbiger (Alb. & Schw. ex Fr.) Sing. syn. Armillaria bulbigera (Alb. & Schw. ex Fr.) Kummer Knolliger Schleierritterling Gum-s pereszke Leucocortinaire bulbeux White Webcap. Cap 5-9cm across, convex, pale clay-brown, sometimes with debris of veil leaving brownish cobwebby patches, especially near the margin. Stem 50-100 x 10-12mm, base swollen into a large flattened bulb 25-30mm across, whitish, the remains of the cobwebby veil leaving a distinct ring zone. Flesh white, becoming pale clay in the stem. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills white at first becoming cream to pale clay, never rust. Spore print white. Spores broadly elliptic, 7-9 x 4-5um. Habitat with conifers. Season autumn. Rare. Edibility suspect -avoid. Found In Europe. Note the curved appearance of my specimens is caused by them expanding lying down in a box after I collected them.
Edible
Lepista sordida (Fr.) Sing. syn. Tricholoma sordidum (Fr.) Kummer Fleischbrauner R?telritterling Sz?rk?slila pereszke (t?lcs?rpereszke). Cap 3?8cm across, convex becoming flattened, depressed or slightly umbonate, often wavy, lilac to lilac-brown, fading with age. Stem 40?60?5?8mm, concolorous with cap, fibrous, often slightly thickened at base. Flesh greyish tinged with lilac. Taste mild, smell scented. Gills lilac fading or becoming lilac-brown with age. Spore print pale, greyish-lilac. Spores elliptic, minutely roughened, 6?7 x 3.5?4um. Habitat woodland, often around piles of rotting vegetation. Season summer to late autumn. Uncommon. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Found In Europe.
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