Black or blackish Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
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Spore colour:
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Total mushrooms fount: 119

Inedible
The top surface of the cap shows typical concentric zones of different colours. The flesh is 1–3 mm thick and has leathery texture. Older specimens, such as the one pictured, can have zones with green algae growing on them, thus appearing green. It commonly grows in tiled layers. The cap is rust-brown or darker brown, sometimes with blackish zones. The cap is flat, up to 8 x 5 x 0.5–1 cm in area. It is often triangular or round, with zones of fine hairs. The pore surface is whitish to light brown, pores round and with age twisted and labyrinthine. 2-5 pores per millimeter.
Inedible
Xylaria polymorpha (Pers. ex M-rat) Greville. Dead Man-s Fingers, Xilaire polymorphe, Vielgestaltige Holzkeule, Bunk-s agancsgomba, Houtknotszwam. Fruit body 3-8cm high, 1-3cm wide, irregularly club-shaped passing into a short cylindrical stalk below, black with a finely wrinkled or roughened surface. Flesh tough, white; the section shows the distinctive pattern of the spore-producing cavities, the perithecia, just below the surface crust. Asci 200 x 10um. Spores blackish, fusiform, 20-32 x 5-9um. Habitat in groups on stumps, usually beech. Season all year. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe. The two super latest shots were sent to me by David Tuckett. Thanks David.
Inedible
Xylaria longipes Nitschke. Langstielige Holzkeule, Nyeles agancsgomba, Dead Moll's Fingers. Similar to X. polymorpha but altogether more slender. Spores smaller, 12?16 x 5?7um. Habitat on stumps and fallen branches usually of sycamore. Season all year. Occasional. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Inedible
Xylaria hypoxylon (L. ex Hook.) Greville. Stag?s Horn or Candlesnuff Fungus, Xilaire du bois, Geweihf?rmige Holzkeule, Geweizwam, Szarvasagancsgomba. Fruit body 1?7cm high, subcylindric at first becoming flattened and branched into an antler-like shape, the upper branches powdered white, finally tipped black when mature, stalk black and hairy. Asci 100 x 8um. Spores black, bean-shaped, 11?14 x 5?6um. Habitat on dead wood. Season all year. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Xylaria carpophila (Pers.) Fr. Kleine Holzkeule. Similar to X. hypoxylon but generally much more slender. Habitat on old, rotting beech masts. Season all year. Occasional. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Inedible
Ustulina deusta (Fr.) Petrak syn. Kretzschmaria deusta (Hoffm.:Fr.) P. Martin. Korsthoutskoolzwam Szenes ripacsosgomba. Fruit body forming irregular wavy cushions or encrusting the substrate, greyish white in the early stages soon becoming brittle enough to crush between the fingers, finally black and very brittle resembling charred wood. Asci 300 x 15m. Spores black, fusiform, 28?34 x 7?10um. Habitat on old dead stumps or roots of deciduous trees especially beech. Season late spring to summer, although the blackened state may be seen all year round. Common. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Choice
Ustilago maydis (DC) Corda syn. Ustilago zeae Ung. Corn Smut, Kukorica?sz?g, Cuitlacoche, Huitlacoche. This smut fungus attacks maize or corn causing a bulbous greyish-white fungal growth with a black interior to form on the corn ears, and sometimes a series of grey-black patches on leaves or stems. For farmers all over the world it has been considered a pest, but in Mexico the sweet corn infected with the fungus is a culinary delicacy known as Cuitlacoche or Huitlacoche (the name taken from the ancient Nauhatl). Pseudohyphae and short hyphae with clamp connections are sometimes present. The blastoconidia are irregular, spindle shaped. The teliospores are generated in the corn cob and on maturity are dispersed by wind, they then can overwinter in the soil and infect the next year's growth. For best eating, cuitlacoche should be harvested 16-18 days after infection, once the teliospores are mature. Edible and choice when maturing on corn cobs. Found all over the world, but most easily found in Mexico and some parts of the USA where deliberate infection takes place in order to produce a crop for sale. The images of Cuitlacoche in the edible stage has been lent to me by Jane Levi and Alex Veness.
Choice
Tuber melanosporum Vitt., Perigord Truffle, Truffe du P?rigord, Die Perigord-Tr?ffel, Francia szarvasgomba, Tartufo nero di Norcia, tartufo di P?rigord, Perigordtruffel. Spherical or lumpy, 2-10cm across with a covering of polygonal warts, and the cut flesh turning violaceous-black with white river like lines throughout, wonderfully scented. Asci with up to 6 spoes 90-100 x 80-120um Spores elliptic, completely covered in spines 2-4um long, 29?55 x 22?35um. A specialty of the Perigore region of France, but also known from other countries around the Mediterranean, north Africa and Asia. Edible ? excellent considered the best truffle. Found In Europe, under trees especially cork oak.
Choice
Tuber aestivum Vitt. Summer Truffle, Truffe de ?t?, Truffe de la Saint-Jean, Sommertr?ffel, Ny?ri szarvasgomba, Tartufo d'estate, tartufo nero d'estate, tartufo nero nostrale, Zommertruffel. Fruit body 3?14cm across, globose, covered in pyramidal warts, blackish brown. Flesh whitish becoming marbled grey-brown. Taste nutty, smell sweet. Spores ovoid, reticulate, 20?40 x 15?30um. Habitat buried usually near beech on calcareous soil. Season late summer to autumn. Rare. Edible ? good. Found In Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma virgatum (Fr. ex Fr.) Kummer. Tricolome verget?, Brennender Erdritterling, Cs?p?s pereszke, Tricoloma vergato, Scherpe ridderzwam, Ashen Knight. Cap 3?7cm across, convex with a low broad umbo, brownish-black or greyish initially with violaceous tints, streaked with very fine black fibrils. Stem 50?90 x 10?18mm, white and smooth, often flushed grey. Flesh white to greyish. Taste bitter and peppery, smell musty. Gills greyish tinged flesh-colour, often browning at the edges. Spore print white. Spores 6.5?8 x 5?6um. Habitat deciduous and coniferous woods. Season autumn. Uncommon. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Tricholoma orirubens Qu?l. syn. T. horribile Rea. Tricolome ? marge rougissante, R?tlicher Erdritterling, R?zs?slemez? pereszke, Blozende ridderzwam. Cap 4?8cm across, conical then expanded with an acute umbo, dark grey often paler at the margin, covered in black cottony or felty scales. Stem 40?80 x 10?15mm, white becoming flecked with red often marked green or blue at the base, arising from pale sulphur yellow mycelium. Flesh white, eventually reddening. Taste not distinctive, smell strongly of meal. Gills white to greyish when young, then often turning pink and sometimes spotted. Spore print white. Spores broadly ovate to subglobose, 4?6.5 x 3?4.5um. Habitat in deciduous, or less frequently, coniferous woods. Season autumn. Rare. Edible with caution. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma myomyces (Fr.) Lange, Feny?pereszke, eg?rsz?rke pereszke. Cap I-7cm across, obtusely conic expanding to convex, then flat with a low umbo; margin incurved at first, then often wavy; dark drab gray to brownish gray or blackish gray, generally paler on the margin; dry, densely matted, and hairy on the disc and hairy to scaly elsewhere. Gills arcuate to sinuate, close, broad; light gray, fading near the stem in age, very rarely discoloring with dull yellow spots. Stem 15-70 x 5-10mm, solid or hollow, generally rounded or abruptly tapered; white to pale gray; silky with white or gray hairs. Veil a cortina of white or gray hairs that leaves a faint, quickly disappearing zone on the stem. Flesh pale gray. Spores ellipsoid, smooth, nonamyloid, 6.7-7.6 x 4.3-4.8? (4-spored form), 8.6-1 1.4 x 3.8-5.7? (2-spored form). Deposit white. Habitat in groups or dense clusters under conifers in woods or on lawns. Frequent and sometimes abundant. Found in Europe and widely distributed in northern North America. Season August-October. Edibility not known -avoid.
Edible
Tricholoma atrosquamosum (Chev.) Sacc. syn. T. terreum var. atrosquamosum (Chev.) Schwarzschuppiger Ritterling, Feketepikkelyes (pikkelyest?nk?) pereszke, Massee, Zwartschubbige ridderzwam, Dark Scaled Knight. Cap 4?12cm across, flattened convex with a slight umbo, grey or pale clay densely covered in blackish-grey pointed scales. Stem 30?80 x 10?20mm, paler than the cap, greyish with blackish scales. Flesh greyish. Taste slightly mealy, smell aromatic or peppery. Gills white to grey with black dotted edge. Spore print white. Spores 4.5?9 x 3?6um. Habitat in coniferous and deciduous woods. Season autumn. Rare. Edible -caution. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Trichoglossum hirsutum (Pers. ex Fr.) Boud. Hairy Earthtongue. Fruit body 2?8cm high, 0.3?0.8cm wide, black, fertile head varying from flattened-cylindric to more club-shaped tapering into the slender compressed, velvety stalk. Asci 220 x 20?. Setae projecting between the asci numerous, thick-walled, black, stiff and pointed. Spores brown, subcylindric, 100?150 x 6?7?, fifteen-septate at maturity. Habitat in grassland or amongst sphagnum on acid solid. Season late summer to autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe. Trichoglossum hirsutum var. capitatum Trichoglossum hirsutum var. capitatum (Pers. ex Fr.) Boud. Differing from T. hirsutum only in the distinctly spade-shaped fertile head, identical in all other respects. Found In Europe.
Inedible
Thelephora terrestris (Ehrh.) Fr. Earthfan, T?l?phore terrestre, Erdledepilz, Talajlak? szem?lcsgomba (szem?lcs?sgomba), Franjezwam. Fruit body 3?6cm across, fan-shaped, vertical to horizontal, forming large clustered groups, reddish- to chocolate-brown, darkening to almost black with age, covered in radiating fibres, becoming paler and fringed at the margin. Lower or fertile surface clay-brown to pallid, irregularly wrinkled. Spores purple-brown, angular and warted, 8?9 x 6?7?. Habitat in conifer woods or heaths, usually on sandy soil. Season late summer to early winter. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Russula nigricans (Bull. ex M-rat) Fr. Blackening Russula, Russule noircissante, Dickbl-ttriger Schwarzt-ubling, Szenes galambgomba, rossola nereggiante, Grofplaatrussula. Cap 5-20cm across, convex, soon with a deep depression, dirty white, becoming brown and finally black, dry, fleshy, three-quarters peeling; margin incurved at first. Stem 30-80 x 10-40mm, white, then dull brown and or red, finally black, hard. Flesh white, becoming red on exposure and finally grey to black. Taste slowly hot, smell fruity. Gills adnate, straw to olive, greyish rose on bruising, eventually black, very thick and widely spaced, brittle, with numerous shorter gills between them. Spore print white (A). Spores ovoid with small warts under 0.5- high, mostly connected by fine lines to form a fairly well-developed, but partial network, 7-8 x 6-7-. No cap cystidia. Habitat under broad-leaved trees and conifers. Season summer to late autumn. Very common. Edible but poor in taste (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Russula densifolia (Secr.) Gillet syn. R. acrifolia Romagn. Russule ? feuillets denses, Feketed? galambgomba, Crowded Brittlegill. Cap 3?12cm across, flattened convex at first, later with a depression, cup- or funnel-shaped, whitish or dull brown in the centre or all over, eventually blackish, sticky when moist, fleshy; margin incurved at first. Stem 25?80 x 6?30mm, white then dull brown to blackish, reddish on bruising, hard. Flesh white at first when cut, then tinged reddish and soon greyish as well, finally dark grey to brownish blackish. Taste hot or very hot, but sometimes almost mild, smell not distinctive. Gills slightly decurrent, white to pale cream, closely spaced, rather narrow and not thick, interspersed with shorter gills. Spore print whitish (A). Spores ovoid with small warts under 0.5? high, joined by numerous fine lines to form a well-developed network, 7?9 x 6?7?. Cap hyphae cylindrical or narrowing towards the apex, 3?4? wide; cap cystidia few, narrow, not reacting to SV. Habitat under both broad-leaved trees and conifers. Season summer to autumn. Common. Edibility suspect- not recommended; other members of this group have caused poisonings. Distribution, America and Europe
Edible
Russula albonigra (Krombh.) Fr. syn. R. anthracina Romagn. Schwarzweisser T?ubling, Sz?nv?lt? galambgomba, Russule blanc-noir. Cap 7?12cm across, flattened convex, later with a depression or saucer shaped, dirty white, very soon blackish brown to black, firm, slightly sticky, soon dry, somewhat thin-fleshed, three-quarters peeling; margin inrolled. Stem 30?60 x 15?30mm, concolorous with cap. Flesh white, blackening on exposure to air, or on bruising. Taste mild to slightly hot, slightly bitter. Gills slightly decurrent, narrow, arc-shaped, somewhat closely spaced, interspersed with numerous shorter ones, whitish to buff. All parts blacken on bruising or with age. Spore print white (A). Spores ovoid-elliptic, with small warts up to 0.4μ high, joined by fine lines to form a fairly well-developed network, 7?9 x 7?8μ. Cap surface of prostrate hyphae, 2?6μ wide; cystidia absent. Habitat under conifers and broad-leaved trees. Season summer to autumn. Occasional. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Russula adusta (Pers. ex Fr.) Fr. Rauchbrauner Schwarzt-ubling S-t-ted- galambgomba Russule br-l-e Winecork Brittlegill resembles R. densifolia but the taste is mild and the flesh only becomes slightly pinkish in the first half-hour after exposure, sometimes remaining so in the cap, but in the stem becoming pale smoky grey and not dark grey or blackish. Cap 5-17cm across, sticky when moist. Stem 40-110 x 10-30mm. Smell of old wine casks. The oval spores (7-9 x 6-8μ) have only very small warts, rarely exceeding 0.2-0.3μ high, which are joined by very fine lines to form a well-developed but partial network with numerous small meshes. Cap hyphae narrow, 2-4μ wide. Habitat under pines. Season early summer to late autumn. Uncommon. Edible - poor -avoid. Found in north America and Europe.
Inedible
Rhizina undulata Fr. syn. R. inflata (Schaeff.) Karst Wellige Wurzellorchel Gy-keres cs-szegomba Pine Firefungus. Fruit body 4-12cm across, 2-8cm high, chestnut brown to black with a paler margin, forming irregularly lobed, wavy cushions. Flesh tough, thick, reddish-brown. Attached to the substrate by numerous whitish rhizoids growing down from the underside. Asci 400 x 20-. Spores fusiform, containing two or more oil drops, 22-40 x 8-11-. Habitat on conifer debris especially on fire sites. Season early summer to autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe. Causes a serious disease of conifers known as group dying. The photograph on the left is by Geoffrey Kibby.
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