Brown Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
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Total mushrooms fount: 622

Edible
Boletus aereus, described by some as the Queen Bolete but just lately given the normal name Bronze Bolete in Britain and Ireland, is a most sought-after edible mushroom. It is merely as good as its famous close relative, Boletus edulis (Cep or Cent Bun Bolete) but its flesh is quite firmer. In the pub marketplaces of France, for example, these excellent boletes can be purchased as well as Boletus edulis and Boletus reticulatus, and customers are evenly happy with whichever of the meaty mushroom varieties can be found. A exceptional find in Ireland and Britain, where it is restricted to southern parts mainly, Boletus aereus is a lot more prevalent in southern European countries. Commonly bought at the sides, beside strolls or in clearings in oak and beech woodlands, Boletus aereus will berry just a little than boletus edulis later, which looks later than the summertime Bolete relatively, Boletus reticulatus. Most boletes, and certainly every one of the common ones within Britain and Ireland, are ectomycorrhizal fungi. Which means that they form mutualistic romantic relationships with the main systems of trees and shrubs or shrubs. The fungi help the tree to obtain moisture and essential minerals from the soil, and in exchange the main system of the tree gives energy-rich nutrients, the merchandise of photosynthesis, to the fungal mycelium. Although most trees and shrubs may survive without their mycorrhizal companions, boletes (and a great many other varieties of forest-floor fungi) cannot endure without trees; subsequently these so-called 'obligately mycorrhizal' fungi do not happen in wide open grassland. The medical name Boletus aerus started in Jean Baptiste Francois Pierre Bulliard's 1789 descriotipon of the varieties. Synonyms of Boletus aereus includeBoletus mamorensis Redeuilh. The universal name Boletus comes from the Greek bolos, indicating lump of clay; the foundation of the precise epithet aereus is Latin and means copper or bronze (in shade) - hence the normal name Bronze Bolete. Some individuals make reference to it as the Dark colored Porcini or the Dark Cover Bolete. Boletus aereus, the dark cep or bronze bolete, is a highly prized and much sought-after edible mushroom in the family Boletaceae. Dark cigar brown, bay to dark sepia, often dark brick-coloured near the margin, minutely cracking making the surface roughly textured, slightly downy at first then smooth. Stem 60-80 x 11-12mm, robust, covered with network which is brown near apex, clay pink or buff around the middle and rusty below. Flesh white, unchanging or becoming dirty vinaceous when bruised. Taste pleasant, smell strong and earthy. Boletus aereus comes with an earthy smell and a pleasurable mild taste. Habitat with broad-leaved trees, especially beech and oak. To Oct in Britain and Ireland august, this bolete are available from Oct to Feb in a few elements of southern European countries. ( Season summer to autumn ) Rare. Edible. Distribution, America and Europe. Cap: First downy but becoming gentle with a finely damaged or granular surface soon, the dark-brown to dark sepia-brown hats of Boletus aereus range between 7 to 20cm size at maturity. The cover margin is a far more reddish brownish than the centre often. When cut, the cover flesh remains white or very gradually converts somewhat purplish usually. Spores: Spores olivaceous snuff-brown, subfusiform, 13,5 - 16 x 4 - 5 µm. Pores and tubes: Tubes white to cream, finally sulphur-yellow. Pores similarly coloured but bruising vinaceous on handling and often flushed rust with age. The pipes of Boletus aereus (seen when the cover is damaged or chopped up) are white or pale cream, becoming smart sulphur yellow at maturity; they terminate in really small creamy white skin pores that become rust-coloured (see remaining) with years. When bruised or cut, the skin pores and pipes of Boletus aereus swiftly do not change shade, but after the right time they create a vinaceous tinge. Stem: A fine brown online structure (reticulum) is obvious on the pale darkish track record of the stem surface, darkest on the apex with the bottom and usually relatively paler and pinker near to the inflamed centre of the stem. Sometimes clavate (club-shaped) but more regularly barrel-shaped, the stem of Boletus aereus is 5 to 12cm high or more to 8cm in size at its widest point. The stem flesh is white and incredibly organization. Habitat & Ecological role: Boletus aereus develops on garden soil beneath broadleaf trees and shrubs, beech and oaks notably. Similar species Boletus edulis has a pale stem with a white reticulum; its dark brown cover has a whitish marginal region. Tylopilus felleus has a darker stem reticulum and a pinkish tinge to its skin pores; it has an extremely bitter taste.
Inedible
Inonotus hispidus (Bull. ex Fr.) Karst. Pelzporling, Almafa rozsd?stapl? (tapl?) Polypore h?ris?e, Shaggy Bracket. Habitat: Commonly between 10-20ft on the trunks of ash, but seen on walnut sometimes, london and apple plane. Strategy: Parasitic creating simultaneous white rot. Value: Brittle fracture at point of decay. The probability of standing timber being created is wonderful for biodiversity Annual bracket ranging from: 6 to 25 cm across 4 to 12 cm wide 2 to 10 cm thick Fan-shaped, usually single but occasionally fusing with others into overlapping groups, surface felty-hairy varying from ochraceous to tobacco-brown, finally blackish and bristly. Red to brown and like velvet on top and usually growing independently. The bracket will blacken with age and finally drop off within the year, remaining on the ground below the tree for a long time. Spores exuded from red to brown pores. Tubes 10-20(50)mm long. Pores 2 - 3 per mm, circular to angular, pale ochraceous at first, later brown and glancing in the light. Spores rust, subglobose, 9?12?4?10m. Habitat usually on ash but commonly on other trees such as elm, apple and walnut. Season summer but persisting on the tree in blackened state throughout the year, annual ( Seen in October ). Frequent. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Ganoderma lucidum (Curt. ex Fr.) Karst. Gl-nzender Lackporling, Pecs-tviasz-tapl-, pecs-tviaszgomba, Ganoderme luisant, Ganoderme laque, Polypore lucide, Lacquered Bracket. Fruit body usually stalked. Bracket 10-25cm in diameter, 2-3cm thick, fan- or kidney-shaped, laterally attached, concentrically grooved and zoned ochraceous to orange brown, later purple-brown to blackish, and like the stem conspicuously glossy as if varnished. Stem up to 250 x 10-30mm, dark brown, glossy. Tubes 0.5-2cm long. Pores 4-5 per mm, circular, whitish then cream, finally tobacco brown, darkening on bruising when fresh. Spores rusty, ellipsoid-ovate with truncate end, 7-13 x 6-8um. Habitat on roots of deciduous trees. Season all year. Rare. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe. ---- Habitat • Near or at the base, at the soil line, or attached to roots of living trees • On stumps and bases of dead trees, and sometimes from buried wood residues where trees have been removed Fruiting Time of Year • Summer through fall, turning black and persisting through to the following year Fruiting (Hymenial) Surface • White with small pores, 4-5 per mm, changing to brown with age Type of Decay • White root and butt rot Mode of Action • A moderately fast progressing root and butt rot The fungus can also kill cambial tissues and cause root death Frequency • Very common Tree Health Symptoms • Thin crowns • Dead branches • Yellowing leaves • Overall poor vigor • Some trees show no apparent health impacts from infection Edibility/Medicinal • Medicinal; used as an anti-inflammatory treatment • Sold in teas and pills in most oriental stores • Documented health benefits in medical literature Identifying Features (see adjacent photos) • Single or clusters of round to half-moon shaped conks usually attached directly to wood but occasionally with a lateral or central stem • 10 cm (4 in) up to 35 cm (14 in) across and 2.5 cm (1 in) or more thick • Cap or the top of the conk “varnished” red to mahogany with or without a white margin • Reddish-brown zonate interior or context • White pore surface that edges brown when fresh
Inedible
Inonotus dryadeus, commonly known as oak bracket, warted oak polypore, weeping polypore or weeping conk, is an inedible species of fungus belonging to the genus Inonotus, which consists of bracket fungi with fibrous flesh. Most often found growing at the base of oak trees, it causes white rot and decay of the trunks. It secretes an amber liquid which weeps from tubes in its upper surface. Bracket 10x65cm across, 5x25cm wide, 2x12cm thick, or sometimes forming large, irregular cushions, corky; Upper surface uneven, white-grey becoming brownish, finally very dark, margin broadly rounded and paler, exuding drops of yellowish liquid. Flesh rusty brown, fibrous. Tubes 5x20mm long, rusty-brown. Pores 3x4 per mm, circular then angular, white-grey becoming rusty. Spores white to yellowish, subglobose, 7x9x6.5x7.5m. Hyphal structure monomitic; generative hyphae lacking clamp-connections. Setae in the tubes dark brown with swollen base and hooked pointed tips. Habitat parasitic on various species of oak, found at the base of trunks. Season all year. Uncommon. ---- Ecology: Parasitic on living oaks in eastern North America and, in the west, on true firs; causing a white butt rot and root rot; annual; growing alone, gregariously, or in shelving clusters; summer and fall (or over winter in warm climates); fairly widely distributed in North America but apparently absent in the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains. Cap: Up to 40 cm across; semicircular, kidney-shaped, cushion-shaped, or irregular; usually convex; finely velvety, becoming bald with age; often lumpy; buff to dull yellow, becoming brown with age; often exuding drops of amber liquid when fresh, especially along the margin; the margin thick. Pore Surface: Buff to yellowish when young, becoming brown; bruising slowly brown; exuding drops of amber liquid when fresh and young; with 4-6 circular to angular pores per mm; tubes to 2 cm deep. Stem: Absent. Flesh: Yellowish brown becoming reddish brown; soft, becoming leathery or corky; zoned. Chemical Reactions: Flesh black with KOH. Spore Print: Yellowish to brownish. Microscopic Features: Spores 6-8 x 5-7 µ; smooth; subglobose; hyaline in KOH; dextrinoid. Setae usually present but sometimes very rare; to about 40 x 15 µ; usually curved. Contextual hyphae thin- to thick-walled; simple-septate. ---- Habitat • At ground level attached to the base and larger roots of living trees • On stumps or dead trees Fruiting Time of Year • Summer through fall Fruiting (Hymenial) Surface • Small pores and gray-brown or darker Type of Decay • White root and butt rot with most of the decay concentrated in larger roots Mode of Action • Moderately slow progressing root rot eventually leading to root failure Frequency • Common Tree Health Symptoms • Often none other than the appearance of the fruiting bodies and extensively decayed root when a tree fails ---- Occurrence A basidiomycetes widespread and fairly common in Britain attacking various species of oak (Quercus), in my experience this year it has been seen on a regular basis. The fungus is sometimes also found on horse chestnut, sweet chestnut, beech, London plane, elm and more rarely on conifers. The fruiting body (Sporophore) is not very regular in its appearance, and quite often several years may elapse between the production of the fruiting body on an infected tree. The fruiting body is usually seen only on large, old living trees and occurs almost invariably near the butt. Fruiting Body It is a thick lumpy bracket, being sessile (without stalk) and can measure up to 300mm across and 80mm thick. Sometimes the fruiting bodies are imbricated (arranged so as to overlap) in groups. The upper surface colour is at first pale chamois yellow, later becoming brown. A constant and very characteristic feature of this fungus is the presence of drops of coloured liquid in little round depressions on the margin of the actively growing fruit-body. These depressions may persist after the drops have evaporated. The underside bears small whitish pores, and the flesh and tubes are rusty brown. The consistency of the flesh is soft at first, later becoming corky and then brittle with age. The fruiting bodies appear in the early Autumn and decompose during the winter turning black. Colonisation Strategy The attack is more or less confined to the heartwood and never spreads very far up the trunk, at most reaching 2 metres above soil level.
Inedible
Phallus duplicatus syn. Phallus duplicatus syn. Phallus indusiatus Vent. & Pers. syn. Dictyophora indusiata. Long-net tinkhorn, Crinoline Stinkhorn, Bridal Veil Fungus or Veiled Lady. Stem up to 30cm, with a very large distinctive white 'Veil' hanging often to the ground. The cap is covered in a brownish-green slime that contains the spores, which is scented like rotten meat to attract flies, the flies alight on the sticky mass and thus disperse the spores on their feet. In China it is cultivated and dried for sale as an aphrodisiac. Found in Mexico and further south and quite common in China, india and Malasia. The habitat is usually on wood chips or remains of wood in forests including bamboo. Possible typo: dictyophota ( Dictyophora indusiata )
Inedible
Verpa bohemica (Krombh.) Schroer. B-hmische Verpel, Cseh kucsmagomba, Rapunzelverpel. Cap 1-2.5cm high, thimble- to bell-shaped; dull yellow-brown to sepia; surface deeply wrinkled and convoluted; margin completely free from the stem, cap attached only at top. Stem 50-100 x 10-25mm, slightly clavate; white; smooth to scurfy-granular, often ridged. Flesh white. Odor pleasant. Taste pleasant. Asci each ascus holds only 2 spores. Spores huge, ellipsoid, smooth, 60-80 x 15-18-. Deposit yellow. Habitat in damp woods along stream banks, pathsides. Found in Europe and throughout most of North America although rare in the East. Season March-early May. Edible with caution. Although widely eaten, it has caused adverse symptoms in some people.
Poisonous/Suspect
Tylopilus felleus (Fr.) Karst. syn Boletus felleus Fr. Bitter Boletus, Bolet de fiel, Bolet amer, Bolet chicotin, Gallenr?hrling, Epe?z? tin?ru, Boleto felleo, porcino di fiele, Bittere boleet. Cap 6?12cm, fulvous to snuff-brown, slightly downy at first, smooth with age. Stem 70?100 x 20?30 (60 at base) creamy ochre, lighter at apex, covered in a coarse snuff-brown network. Flesh soft, white to cream, clay-pink beneath cap cuticle. Taste very bitter, like bile, smell slightly unpleasant. Tubes slightly salmon or coral. Pores similarly coloured, bruising brownish. Spore print clay-pink to vinaceous. Spores subfusoid, 11?15?4?5m. Habitat coniferous and deciduous woodland. Season late summer to autumn. Occasional. Not edible due to very bitter taste. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tulostoma brumale Pers. ex Pers. Zitzenbovist, ?ves nyelesp?feteg, nyeles p?feteg, Tulostome mamelonn?, Winter Stalkball. Fruit body consisting of a globose head 1?2cm across attached to a slender fibrous stem 20?50 x 3?4mm. Head opening by a circular pore surmounting a pale ochre to whitish cylindrical mouth. Spores globose and finely warted, 3.5?5m in diameter. Habitat in sandy calcareous soil or dunes usually amongst moss, formerly found on old stone walls where mortar was used instead of cement. Season autumn. Rare. Not edible. Found In Europe and possibly in north America.
Inedible
Tubaria furfuracea (Pers. ex Fr.) Gillet. Sch?ppchen-Trompetenschnitzling Gyakori szem?tgomba, t?li szem?tgomba Scurfy Twiglet. Cap 1?4cm across, convex then flattened or centrally depressed, cinnamon to tan and striate from margin inwards when moist drying pale buff and slightly scurfy. Stem 20?50 x 2?4mm, more or less concolorous with the cap, base covered in white down. Flesh concolorous. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills broad, distant, adnate to slightly decurrent, cinnamon. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, hyaline, cylindric to clavate. Spore print pale ochre. Spores elliptic with rounded apex, 7?9?4.5?5m. Habitat on twigs and woody debris. Season all year, usually autumn to early winter. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma vaccinum (Pers. ex Fr.) Kummer. Tricolome ?cailleux, Tricolome de vache, Zottiger Ritterling, Szak?llas pereszke, Agarico vaccino, Ruige ridderzwam, Scaly Knight. Cap 4?7cm across, slightly umbonate, flesh-brown, darker towards the centre, disrupting into woolly scales. Stem 30?45 x 8?12mm, fibrous, paler than cap. Flesh pallid to rosy, often hollow in stem. Taste bitter, smell mealy. Gills white at first, later pallid flesh-colour. Spore print white. Spores ovate, 5?7 x 4?5um. Habitat conifer woods. Season late summer to late autumn. Uncommon. Inedible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma ustaloides Romagn. Kastanienbrauner Ritterling, Gesztenyebarna pereszke. Cap 4?9cm across, hemispherical to convex, chestnut brown, paler towards the inrolled margin, viscid. Stem 60?100 x 8?15mm, white at the apex, rusty-brown and speckled towards the base; a fragile and very short-lived cortina is sometimes present near the top of the stem in young specimens. Flesh white. Taste and smell strongly of meal. Gills whitish becoming spotted with rust. Spore print white. Spores 6?7 x 4?5um. Habitat deciduous woods. Season autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Tricholoma ustale (Fr. ex Fr.) Kummer. Tricolome br?l?, Brandiger Ritterling, Szenesed? (feketed?) pereszke, Beukridderzwam, Burnt Knight. Cap 4?8cm across, convex then expanded, viscid in wet weather, chestnut brown, paler at margin, blackening with age. Stem 30?60 x 10?15mm, fibrous, reddish-brown, apex paler. Flesh whitish, sometimes reddening slightly. Taste slightly bitter, smell not distinctive. Gills white, becoming rust-spotted, edges blackening with age. Spore print white. Spores elliptic-ovate, 5.5?7 x 4?5um. Habitat deciduous woods, especially beech. Season late summer to late autumn. Rare. Poisonous. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Tricholoma squarrulosum Bres. syn. T. atrosquamosum var. squarrulosum (Bres.) Pearson & Dennis. Schuppenritterling, Pikkelyest?nk? pereszke, Spikkelsteelridder. Cap 4?5cm across, flattened convex, grey-brown, darker towards the centre, covered in blackish-brown scales. Stem 40?50 x 5?8mm, greyish covered in fine blackish-brown scales. Flesh whitish to grey. Smell mealy. Gills whitish grey often slightly flesh-coloured. Spore print white. Spores pip-shaped, 7?8 x 4?5um. Habitat conifer woods. Season autumn. Rare. Edible with caution. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma sejunctum (Sow. ex Fr.) Qu?l. Jaunet, Braungelber Ritterling, Z?ldess?rga pereszke, Streephoedridderzwam, Deceiving Knight. Cap 4?10cm across, conico-convex then expanded, yellowish-green more brown or greyish-brown towards the centre, radially streaky, moist. Stem 50?80 x 10?30mm, white flushed yellowish. Flesh white, yellowing below the cap cuticle in older specimens. Taste mealy. Gills whitish. Spore print white. Spores 5?7 x 4?5um. Habitat deciduous woods. Season autumn. Uncommon. Non edible ? nauseating. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Tricholoma scalpturatum (Fr.) Qu?l. Gillet syn. Tricholoma argyraceum (Bull. ex St. Amans) syn. T. chrysites (Fr.) Gillet Silbergrauer Erdritterling S?rgul? pereszke Tricolome grav? Yellowing Knight. Cap 4?8cm across, pale grey or grey-brown to almost white, the cuticle often breaking into felty scales leaving the cap even paler in colour, often tinged yellowish-brown at the centre. Stem 40?80 x 6?12mm, white often faintly flushed with the cap colour. Flesh white in cap, greyish in stem. Taste and smell mealy. Gills emarginate, white becoming spotted with yellow especially when old and beginning to decay. Spore print white. Spores 5?6 x 3?4um. Habitat in pine or beech woods. Season early summer to late autumn. Occasional. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Found In Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma saponaceum (Fr.) Kummer. Soapy Knight or Soap Tricholoma, Tricolome ? odeur de savon, Seifenritterling, Szappanszag? pereszke, Agarico saponaceo, Zeepzwam. Cap 5?10cm across, convex at first then expanded with a broad umbo, grey-brown often with rusty or olivaceous tints, darker at the centre. Stem 50?100 x 10?30mm, white with reddish or olivaceous tints. Flesh white becoming more or less pink. Taste mushroomy, smell of soap. Gills rather distant, whitish sometimes with greenish tints or finally spotted reddish. Spore print white. Spores elliptical, 5?6 x 3.5?4um. Habitat in troops in deciduous or coniferous woods. Season late summer to late autumn. Occasional. Edible ? poor. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe. Note the first pictures shows a rather red form that will probably become a seperate variety, in fact this species contains a rather divers group of mushrooms that may well be split in the future. Comment Tricholoma saponaceum var. ardosiacum Bres. differs from the type in having a much darker, bluish-gray, almost black cap and sometimes gray or brown scales on the stem (the last of our pictures).
Poisonous/Suspect
Tricholoma psammopus (Kalchbr.) Qu?l. Schwammiger Ritterling, V?r?sfeny? pereszke, Larix-ridderzwam, Larch Knight. Cap 3?8cm across, convex then expanded, yellowish-brown to pale tan. Stem 40?80 x 10?15mm, apex whitish, becoming densely covered in minute reddish-brown cottony scales towards the base. Flesh yellowish-brown. Taste bitter, smell none. Gills white at first then straw-yellow becoming rust-spotted. Spore print white. Spores 6?7 x 4?5um. Habitat under larch. Season autumn. Uncommon. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma imbricatum (Fr. ex Fr.) Kummer. Tricolome Imbriqu?, Feinschuppiger Ritterling, Apr?pikkely? pereszke, Fijnschubbige ridderzwam, Matt Knight. Cap 3?9cm across, conico-convex, smooth at first then minutely scaly, dull brown or reddish brown. Stem 35?45 x 10?12mm, whitish at apex, concolorous with cap below. Flesh white. Taste slightly bitter. Gills whitish becoming spotted reddish-brown. Spore print white. Spores 5?8.5 x 4?5.5um. Habitat in coniferous woods, especially with pines. Season autumn. Occasional. Edible ?not recommended. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma fulvum (DC. ex Fr.) Sacc. syn. T. flavobrunneum (Fr. ex Pers.) Kummer. Tricolome brun et jaune, Gelbbl?ttriger Ritterling, S?rgalemez? pereszke, Tricoloma giallo-bruno, Berkeridderzwam, Birch Knight. Cap 4-8cm across, expanded convex with a slight umbo, brown to reddish-brown and finely streaky. Stem 30-70 x 8-14mm, concolorous with the cap, fibrous. Flesh whitish in cap, yellow in stem. Taste mild, smell mealy. Gills yellowish becoming spotted brownish with age. Spore print white. Spores elliptical, 5-7 x 3-4.5um. Habitat in deciduous or mixed woods, usually with birches. Season autumn. Commmon. Edible ? poor. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe. Wikipedia: Edible.
Inedible
Tricholoma albobrunneum (Pers. ex Fr.) Kummer. Tricolome brun et blanc, Weissbrauner Ritterling, Keserny?s pereszke, Agarico bianco e bruno, Witbruine ridderzwam. Cap 5?8cm across, conico-convex, reddish-brown and covered in fine innate radiating fibrils, greasy or viscid. Stem 60?80 x 10?15mm, whitish above the distinctive ring zone but reddish brown below remaining slightly scaly in the upper portion. Flesh white tinged brownish below the cap cuticle and towards the stem base. Smell faintly mealy. Gills white, reddish-brown with age. Spore print white. Spores broadly elliptical, 5 x 3?4um. Habitat with conifers. Season autumn. Rare. Edible ? poor and indigestible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
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