Brown Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
Stem type:
Spore colour:
Cap type:
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Total mushrooms fount: 622

Edible
Russula parazurea J. Schaeff. Blaugr?ner Reift?ubling, K?kesz?ld galambgomba, deres galambgomba, Russule presque azur?e, Powdery Brittlegill. Cap 3?8cm across, convex then flattening, with greyish, dark colours, olive, violet-grey, greyish sepia or chestnut or tinged with dull green, wine or violet, firm, rather fleshy, sometimes greasy, usually matt, often as if powdered when dry, half to three quarters peeling. Stem 30?70 x 7?20mm, white. Flesh white. Taste mild or very slightly hot. Gills adnexed, pale buff, often forked. Spore print palish cream (C?D). Spores elliptic with warts up to 0.5? high, some isolated but mostly joined by lines forming a moderately developed network, 5.7?8.5 x 5?6.5?. Cap hyphae with the terminal cell usually tapering and the supporting cells rectangular. Cap cystidia cylindrical to narrow club-shaped, without septa, moderately reacting to SV. Habitat under broad-leaved trees. Season early summer to autumn. Occasional. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous) Found In Europe.
Edible
Russula olivacea (Schaeff. ex Secr.) Fr. Rosastieger Ledert-ubling, Olajbarna galambgomba, v-r-st-nk- galambgomba, Russule oliv-tre, Olive Brittlegill. Cap 6-16cm across, almost globose at first, later flattened or slightly depressed, often irregular, varying considerably in colour from straw, pale ochre, shades of olive or brown to dull purple or purplish-red, firm or hard, thick-fleshed, peeling up to one-third only; margin inrolled at first. Stem 50-100 x 15-40mm, white, usually tinged rose or entirely so, yellowing slightly or browning around base, fairly hard. Flesh white, taste mild, nutty. Gills adnexed, deep buffy straw, forking and with cross connections near stem. Spore print ochre (G-H). Spores ovoid with warts up to 1.5- high, not or occasionally joined by lines, 8-11 x 7-9-. Cap cystidia absent, hyphae with rectangular, barrel- or ampoule-shaped cells, the terminal one sometimes strongly inflated. Phenol solution turns stem livid purple. Habitat under beech. Season summer to autumn. Occasional. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous) Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Russula nigricans (Bull. ex M-rat) Fr. Blackening Russula, Russule noircissante, Dickbl-ttriger Schwarzt-ubling, Szenes galambgomba, rossola nereggiante, Grofplaatrussula. Cap 5-20cm across, convex, soon with a deep depression, dirty white, becoming brown and finally black, dry, fleshy, three-quarters peeling; margin incurved at first. Stem 30-80 x 10-40mm, white, then dull brown and or red, finally black, hard. Flesh white, becoming red on exposure and finally grey to black. Taste slowly hot, smell fruity. Gills adnate, straw to olive, greyish rose on bruising, eventually black, very thick and widely spaced, brittle, with numerous shorter gills between them. Spore print white (A). Spores ovoid with small warts under 0.5- high, mostly connected by fine lines to form a fairly well-developed, but partial network, 7-8 x 6-7-. No cap cystidia. Habitat under broad-leaved trees and conifers. Season summer to late autumn. Very common. Edible but poor in taste (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Russula integra Fr. Barn?sv?r?s galambgomba. Cap 6-15cm across, soon flattened-depressed; firm, fleshy; reddish brown to dull brown; smooth. Gills moderately spaced, broad; deep yellow. Stem 40-60 x 15-25mm, equal, firm; white or slightly yellowish at base. Flesh white. Odor pleasant. Taste mild. Spores broadly ovoid, 8-8.5 x 7?; warts up to 1? high, with almost no connectives. Deposit deep ochre (G). Habitat under beech and oak. Not common. Found in Europe and western and eastern North America. Season August-October. Edible - good. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous)
Edible
Russula heterophylla (Fr.) Fr. Gr?ner Speiset?ubling, Di??z? galambgomba, Russule verte, Greasy Green Brittlegill. Cap 5?10cm across, almost globose at first, later flattening and with a depression, various shades of green, brown or even ochre or (var. chlora) yellow, fairly firm, smooth or with radial branching veins. Stem 30?60 x 10?30mm, white, browning, firm, salmon when rubbed with an iron salt (this distinguishes it from R. cyanoxantha var. peltereaui). Flesh white. Taste mild. Gills slightly decurrent at first, later adnexed, white to very pale cream, very closely spaced, thin, from somewhat flexible with an oily feel to somewhat brittle. Spore print whitish (A). Spores almost globose to elliptic or pear-shaped, with warts 0.2?0.6? high, mostly isolated, occasionally two to three joined together or connected by a line, 5?7 x 4?6? (smallest in genus.) Cap hyphae terminations tapering or sometimes prolonged into a narrow, thick-walled hair, supporting cells rectangular or inflated; cap cystidia club-shaped, cylindrical, spindle-shaped or tapering. Habitat under broad-leaved trees. Season summer to early autumn. Occasional (var. chlora rare). Distribution, America and Europe. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.)
Edible
Russula grisea (Pers. ex Secr.) Fr.Braungrauer Reift-ubling, Sz-rk-sz-ld galambgomba, Russule grise, Russule gorge de pigeon. Rather similar to R. ionochlora and only reliably distinguished by its microscopic characters. The cap colours are rather more dingy, being more dull brownish or greyish. Spores are slightly deeper coloured, cream (D) instead of pale cream (B), 6.5-8 x 5.5-6.5-, elliptic; warts up to 0.9-1.2- high, some joined in chains or by fine lines to form an incipient network and only rarely enclosing a mesh. Mainly distinguished by the terminal cells of the cap hyphae being long and narrow, cylindrical or tapering, and not short and broad as in R. ionochlora. Habitat mainly under beech. Season summer to early autumn. Apparently uncommon but perhaps because not easily recognized. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous) Found In Europe.
Inedible
Russula foetens (Pers. ex Fr.) Fr. Fetid Russula, Russule fetide, Stinkt?ubling, B?d?s galambgomba, Rossola fetente, colombina fetida, Stinkende russula. Cap 5?12cm across, globose at first, later convex, finally flattening, at times with a central depression, dull brownish ochre to honey-coloured, thick-fleshed, rigid, slimy or glutinous; margin furrowed and with small, low warts. Stem 50?120 x 15?40mm, whitish to buff, cylindrical or swollen in the middle, hard and rigid but easily breaking. Flesh white, irregular cavities forming in stem. Taste of gills very hot, of stem flesh almost mild, in addition bitter or oily, smell strongly oily or rancid. Gills adnexed, creamy, often brown spotted, thickish and well spaced. Spore print pale to medium cream (B?D). Spores somewhat globose with strong warts, up to 1.5? high, isolated or an occasional fine line joining them, 8?10 x 7?9?. Cap cystidia cylindrical, tapering or spindle-shaped, not reacting to SV. Habitat under broad-leaved trees or conifers. Season late summer to late autumn. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Russula densifolia (Secr.) Gillet syn. R. acrifolia Romagn. Russule ? feuillets denses, Feketed? galambgomba, Crowded Brittlegill. Cap 3?12cm across, flattened convex at first, later with a depression, cup- or funnel-shaped, whitish or dull brown in the centre or all over, eventually blackish, sticky when moist, fleshy; margin incurved at first. Stem 25?80 x 6?30mm, white then dull brown to blackish, reddish on bruising, hard. Flesh white at first when cut, then tinged reddish and soon greyish as well, finally dark grey to brownish blackish. Taste hot or very hot, but sometimes almost mild, smell not distinctive. Gills slightly decurrent, white to pale cream, closely spaced, rather narrow and not thick, interspersed with shorter gills. Spore print whitish (A). Spores ovoid with small warts under 0.5? high, joined by numerous fine lines to form a well-developed network, 7?9 x 6?7?. Cap hyphae cylindrical or narrowing towards the apex, 3?4? wide; cap cystidia few, narrow, not reacting to SV. Habitat under both broad-leaved trees and conifers. Season summer to autumn. Common. Edibility suspect- not recommended; other members of this group have caused poisonings. Distribution, America and Europe
Edible
Russula decolorans (Fr.) Fr. Orangeroter Graustielt?ubling, Tarkah?s? galambgomba, Russule d?color?e, Copper Brittlegill Cap 4.5?11cm across, subglobose at first then convex and flattening, finally with a depression, brownish red or orange, reddish sienna, tawny or cinnamon, staining black or brown, firm, sticky when moist, peeling at margin only; margin finally furrowed. Stem 45?100 x 10?25mm, white, greying strongly, firm, often with club-shaped base. Flesh thick, greying strongly on exposure. Taste mild. Gills adnexed, pale ochre, blackening, connected by veins at their bases. Spore print deep cream to pale ochre (E or F). Spores ovoid to elliptic with spines of various heights up to 1.5?, mostly isolated but some connected by thin lines to form a very incomplete network with only 1?2 meshes, 9?14 x 7?12?. Cap surface with numerous slightly club-shaped dermatocystidia with one or no septa. Habitat under conifers. Season summer to autumn. Uncommon in the UK ? confined to the Highland region of Scotland. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous) Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Russula cyanoxantha (Schaeff. ex Secr.) Fr. Charcoal Burner, Russule charbonni?re, Charbonnier, Frauent?ubling, K?kh?t? galambgomba, Colombina iridescente, colombina maggiore, moreleto, Regenboogrussula. Cap 5?15cm across, first globose, later flattening to depressed at the centre, sometimes one colour but usually a mixture, dullish lilac, purplish, wine-coloured, olive, greenish or brownish, sometimes entirely green (var. peltereaui), firm to hard, greasy when moist, with faint branching veins radiating from centre, half peeling. Stem 50?100 x 15?30mm, white, sometimes flushed purple, hard, giving no or a slightly greenish reaction when rubbed with iron salts not salmon as in most Russulas. Flesh white. Taste mild. Gills adnexed to slightly decurrent, whitish to very pale cream, rather narrow, oily to the touch and flexible, not brittle as in most Russulas, forked at times. Spore print whitish (A). Spores broadly elliptic, with low, up to 0.6? high warts; fine lines absent, 7?9 x 6?7?. Cap cystidia scattered, small, short and narrow (2?4?), cylindrical, teat-ended. Habitat under broad-leaved trees. Season summer to late autumn. Very common. Edible ? good.(Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous)Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Russula caerulea (Pers.) Fr. Buckelt?ubling, P?pos galambgomba, Russule bleue, Humpback Brittlegill Cap 3?8cm across, almost conical at first, later with a pointed to broad umbo (rarely absent), livid violet, dark livid, dark wine-coloured or chestnut, hardly sticky when wet, fairly fleshy, one quarter to two thirds peeling; margin finally furrowed. Stem 40?90 x 10?20mm, white, narrow, club-shaped, firm. Flesh white. Taste mild but cap skin bitter. Gills adnexed to almost free, pale ochre, somewhat closely spaced at first. Spore print palish ochre (G). Spores ovoid, with warts or spines up to 1?1.2? high, some isolated, others joined in chains or by a few fine lines to form at most a rather scanty network with 0?2 meshes, 8?10 x 7?9?. Cap surface without cystidia, but scattered hyphae with sparse incrustations staining in fuchsin. Habitat under pine and frequent where these occur. Season summer to autumn. Occasional. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Found In Europe.
Edible
Russula brunneoviolacea Crawshay Braunvioletter T-ubling, Russule brun-violet Cap 3-7cm across, flattened convex, later with a depression, livid violet, livid purple or dark wine-coloured, or browner, somewhat brittle, three-quarters peeling; margin becoming furrowed. Stem 30-60 x 7-15mm, white, with brown stains, cylindrical or narrow club-shaped, soft, brittle. Flesh white. Taste mild. Gills almost free, cream. Spore print cream (C-E). Spores ovoid with spines 1-2.2- high, only a few connected by fine lines, 7-9 x 6-7.5-. Cap surface hyphae tapering; cap cystidia cylindrical to club-shaped with 0-3 septa. Habitat under broad-leaved trees especially oak. Season summer to early autumn. Occasional. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous) Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Russula amoenolens Romagnesi. Cap 3-10cm across, globose then expanded depressed, margin striate-tuberculate; deep grayish yellow to brown, often spotted with darker reddish brown; viscid when wet; cuticle thin, peels one-quarter to one-half the radius. Gills actuate, rather crowded; pale yellow ochre. Stem 35-70 x 10-27mm, firm, soon hollow, brittle; yellowish white, soon stained strongly yellowish brown at base. Odor rancid, cheesy. Taste oily, unpleasant, slowly very hot. Spores ellipsoid, 6-8.5 x 4.5-7-; warts up to 1- high, with few connectives, rarely a partial reticulum. Deposit pale orange-yellow (C-D). Habitat in mixed woods. Found in northeastern North America. Season July-October. Not edible
Edible
Russula albonigra (Krombh.) Fr. syn. R. anthracina Romagn. Schwarzweisser T?ubling, Sz?nv?lt? galambgomba, Russule blanc-noir. Cap 7?12cm across, flattened convex, later with a depression or saucer shaped, dirty white, very soon blackish brown to black, firm, slightly sticky, soon dry, somewhat thin-fleshed, three-quarters peeling; margin inrolled. Stem 30?60 x 15?30mm, concolorous with cap. Flesh white, blackening on exposure to air, or on bruising. Taste mild to slightly hot, slightly bitter. Gills slightly decurrent, narrow, arc-shaped, somewhat closely spaced, interspersed with numerous shorter ones, whitish to buff. All parts blacken on bruising or with age. Spore print white (A). Spores ovoid-elliptic, with small warts up to 0.4μ high, joined by fine lines to form a fairly well-developed network, 7?9 x 7?8μ. Cap surface of prostrate hyphae, 2?6μ wide; cystidia absent. Habitat under conifers and broad-leaved trees. Season summer to autumn. Occasional. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Russula adusta (Pers. ex Fr.) Fr. Rauchbrauner Schwarzt-ubling S-t-ted- galambgomba Russule br-l-e Winecork Brittlegill resembles R. densifolia but the taste is mild and the flesh only becomes slightly pinkish in the first half-hour after exposure, sometimes remaining so in the cap, but in the stem becoming pale smoky grey and not dark grey or blackish. Cap 5-17cm across, sticky when moist. Stem 40-110 x 10-30mm. Smell of old wine casks. The oval spores (7-9 x 6-8μ) have only very small warts, rarely exceeding 0.2-0.3μ high, which are joined by very fine lines to form a well-developed but partial network with numerous small meshes. Cap hyphae narrow, 2-4μ wide. Habitat under pines. Season early summer to late autumn. Uncommon. Edible - poor -avoid. Found in north America and Europe.
Edible
Rozites caperatus (Pers. ex Fr.) Karst. syn. Pholiota caperata (Pers. ex Fr.) Kummer syn. Cortinarius caperatus (Pers. ex Fr.) Fr. Reifpilz R?ncos feny?gomba Roziote rid?, Pholiote aux ch?vres The Gypsy. Cap 5?10cm across, convex then expanded and umbonate, ochre-buff to ochre-brown, covered in silky white cobwebby fibrils, more densely at the centre. Stem 40?70 x 10?15mm, slightly swollen at the base or bulbous, whitish; ring whitish, narrow, spreading. Flesh whitish tinged ochre. Taste and smell mild and pleasant. Gills pale clay. Spore print ochre-brown. Spores elliptic, finely warted, 10?13 x 8?9um. Habitat on damp acid soils, usually in open situations amongst conifers and heather. Season autumn. Rare in Europe, more common in the USA. Edible, in America it is said to be choice. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Rhizina undulata Fr. syn. R. inflata (Schaeff.) Karst Wellige Wurzellorchel Gy-keres cs-szegomba Pine Firefungus. Fruit body 4-12cm across, 2-8cm high, chestnut brown to black with a paler margin, forming irregularly lobed, wavy cushions. Flesh tough, thick, reddish-brown. Attached to the substrate by numerous whitish rhizoids growing down from the underside. Asci 400 x 20-. Spores fusiform, containing two or more oil drops, 22-40 x 8-11-. Habitat on conifer debris especially on fire sites. Season early summer to autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe. Causes a serious disease of conifers known as group dying. The photograph on the left is by Geoffrey Kibby.
Hallucinogenic
Psilocybe merdaria (Fr.) Ricken Stropharia merdaria (Fr.) Qu-l. syn. Dung-Tr-uschling. Cap 2-5cm across, obtusely bell-shaped then flattened convex, ochraceous, more cinnamon when moist, viscid. Stem 50-75 x 4-6mm, dry, whitish flushed straw-yellow, base covered in white down. Flesh white, becoming brownish in stem when old. Smell none. Gills pallid then purplish-brown. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, hyaline, lageniform. Spore print brown-black. Spores broadly elliptical and often somewhat angular, with germ-pore, 10-16 x 8-9um. Habitat on horse dung. Season late summer to autumn. Uncommon. Edibility unknown, possibly slightly hallucinogenic although it has not been investigated in detail, all hallucinogenic mushrooms can be dangerous to eat. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Pseudohydnum gelatinosum (Scop. ex Fr.) Karst. syn. Tremellodon gelatinosum (Scop. ex Fr.) Fr. Jelly Tongue, Tremellodon g?latineux, Tremelle g?latineuse, Gallertiger Zitterzahn, Kocsony?s ?lgereben, Eispilz, Stekeltrilzwam or IJszwammetje. Fruit body 2?6cm across, spatula-like or fan-shaped, gelatinous, bluish-grey becoming brownish, upper surface finely roughened or downy; lower surface covered in whitish spines 2?5mm long. Spores white, broadly ovate to subglobose, 5?7 x 5?. Basidia resembling a hot cross bun when seen from above. Habitat on conifer stumps. Season autumn. Uncommon. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Psathyrella hydrophila (Bull. ex M?rat) Maire syn. Hypholoma hydrophilum (Bull. ex M?rat) Qu?l. W?ssriger Saumilz Hypholome hydrophile Barna porhany?sgomba. Cap 2?3cm across, convex becoming flattened, tan to dark chestnut or date-brown drying paler often with a tan flush at the centre, margin appendiculate with remnants of the fibrillose veil. Stem 40?100 x 5?10mm, white flushed with cap colour below, fragile. Flesh thin, whitish. Taste bitter, smell not distinctive. Gills crowded, clay-brown becoming chocolate brown with age. Cystidia thin-walled, hyaline, fusiform. Spore print dark brown. Spores elliptic, 4.5?7 x 3?4um. Habitat in dense tufts in damp deciduous woodland. Season late spring to late autumn. Common. Edible ? bitter and not worthwhile -avoid. Distribution, America and Europe.
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