Brown Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
Stem type:
Spore colour:
Cap type:
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Total mushrooms fount: 622

Inedible
Bankera fuligineo-alba (Schmidt ex Fr.) Pouz. syn. Hydnum fuligineo-album Schmidt R?tender Stacheling Drab Tooth Cap 4?15cm across, flat becoming centrally depressed, fleshy, initially pallid becoming yellowish-brown and darkening with age, usually found covered in vegetable debris. Stem 10?50 x 8?25mm, with well-defined white apex, brownish below. Flesh whitish in cap occasionally flushed pink, pallid to yellowish-brown in stem. Smell of fenugreek when dry. Spines 1?6mm long, whitish then greyish. Spores white, oval, minutely spiny, 4.5?5.5 x 2.5?3.5?. Habitat pine woods. Season autumn. Rare except in Highland pine forests. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Edible
Auricularia auricula-judae St. Amans syn. Hirneola auricula-judae (St. Amans) Berk. syn. Auricularia auricula (Hook.)Underwood. Jew's Ear, Oreille de Judas, Judasohr, J?d?sf?legomba, j?d?sf?l, Orechio di Giuda, Judasoor. Fruit body 3?8cm across, ear-shaped, gelatinous when fresh drying hard and horny, outer surface tan-brown with minute greyish downy hairs, inner surface grey-brown, smooth, or often wrinkled and ear-like. Spores white, sausage-shaped, 16?18?6?8?. Basidia elongated cylindric with three transverse septa. Habitat on branches of frondose trees, usually elder. Season all year, especially autumn. Very common. Edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Armillaria gallica Marxm?ller & Romagnesi Syn. A. bulbosa and A. lutea Gum?s (s?rgapelyhes) tusk?gomba. Ricken Cap 3?15cm across, very variable, convex to shield shapped, yellow brown, tawny, to dark brown, often with an olivaceous tinge, covered in darker fibrillose scales especially at the centre. Stem 60?150?5?15mm, often bulbous towards the base, yellowish becoming reddish-brown at the base, initially with a thick whitish to yellow cottony ring. Flesh white. Taste astringent, smell strong. Gills white at first then yellowish becoming pinkish-brown and often darker spotted with age. Spore print pale cream. Spores elliptic, 8?9 x 5?6?. Habitat in clusters on or around trunks or stumps of deciduous and coniferous treesor shrubs. Season summer to early winter. Very common. Edible when cooked but should only be eaten in small amounts as some forms are known to cause stomach upsets. Distribution, America and Europe. The fungus spreads by long black cords called rhizomorphs resembling bootlaces which can be found beneath the bark of infected trees, on roots or in the soil where they can travel large distances to infect other trees. This is one of the most dangerous parasites of trees, causing an intensive white rot and ultimately death; there is no cure and the fungus is responsible for large losses of timber each year.
Poisonous/Suspect
Armillaria caligata (Viv.) Gilbert syn. Tricholoma caligatum (Viv.) Ricken Krokodil pereszke. Cap 5-12cm across, broadly convex with margin sometimes uplifted in age and hung with veil remnants; creamish flesh showing beneath cinnamon-brown patches or scales; dry. Gills adnate, close, narrow to moderately broad; white, staining brownish with age. Stem 50-100x20-30mm; white above the ring, below cinnamon-brown zones and patches of veil remnants. Veil partial veil leaving membranous ring on the upper stem and brownish patches below. Odor fragrant, pleasant or foul, disgusting (see Comment). Taste slight, mild, or bitter (see Comment). Spores broadly ellipsoid, smooth, nonamyloid, 6-7.5 x 4.5-5.5?. Deposit white. Habitat on the ground, sometimes in sandy soil, under hardwoods, particularly oak, in the East; under conifers in the West. Found in Europe and widely distributed in North America. Season July-November. Edible-excellent, much treasured in Japan. Comment Various forms of this mushroom exist. In Colorado and the West, found under spruce, it is usually fragrant and mild tasting; in the East, under hardwoods, I have found the foul, disgusting smelling variety with the bitter taste.
Inedible
Apiognomonia veneta The fungus that attacks London Plane trees with its Discula anamorph. In spring Planes get a severe leaf drop as the fungus develops, it occurs when the new leaves are approaching full size and seems to affect around 5% of leaves. It attacks the petioles and leaf stems infecting up into the leaf veins. The trees then carry on seeming to be able to survive and continue to build foliage throughout the season. The oriental plane is more resistant, the American plane less resistant to this disease, the London Plane being a hybrid seems to fall somewhere in the middle. Not Edible. USA and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita spreta (Pk.) Sacc. Cap 5-11 cm across, convex becoming more flatly convex with a shortly striate margin, grayish brown; smooth, occasionally a few white, membranous patches of volval remnants. Gills bee to just reaching the stem, moderately crowded, numerous; white. Stem 55-95 x 7-14mm, stuffed, tapering slightly toward the top; whitish; smooth to minutely hairy, moderately hairy toward the base; no basal bulb but membranous, white, cuplike volva at the base; small, white, membranous, persistent, drooping ring toward the top of the stem. Flesh white. Spores elongate to cylindrical, nonamyloid, 10.8-12.5 x 6.5-7.5?. Deposit white. Habitat a, the ground in mixed coniferous and deciduous woods. Quite common. Found in southeasterneastern North America as far north as New Hampshire. Season August. Many amanitas contain deadly toxins -avoid..
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita sinicoflava Tulloss Cap 2.5 x 6.5cm across, broadly bell-shaped, then convex becoming flatter with a small, distinct umbo and down curving lined margin; olive-tan to brownish olive, sometimes darker at the disk, occasionally paler at the margin; slightly sticky to dry. Gills free to narrowly adnate, close, broad; white or creamy, faintly tinged orange. Stem 68-135x6-12mm (23/4-5'/4x'/4-'/2in), hollow, tapering toward the top; whitish to graying, paler toward the top; hairy, becoming darker when handled, with faint longitudinal lines particularly near the base; no ring; no basal bulb, but remains of a whitish to gray sub-membranous sac, sometimes dotted with brown-red spots, collapsed around the base. Flesh white. Odor none. Spores subglobose or occasionally ellipsoid, nonamyloid, 9.1 - 12.2 x 8.4-11.5?. Deposit white. Habitat singly or occasionally in small groups in sandy or loamy soil or in moss in mixed coniferous or deciduous woods. Infrequent. Found quite widely distributed in eastern North America. Season June-October. Many amanitas contain deadly toxins -avoid.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita regalis Fr. Barna gal?ca. Developing from a white volval sac. Cap up to 15cm or even larger, yellow-brown to greenish-brown, the flesh under the cap skin is yellowish; veil flakes white (whitish) the whole appearance like a brownish Amanita muscaria. Stem with prominent bulb and ring tending to be flaky. Gills white. Spores elliptical 9-12 x6-9??. Found, mainly in pine and spruce woods, more especially in northern Scandinavia. Poisonous found in Europe. Rare.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita porphyria (Alb. & Schw. ex Fr.) Secr. Grey Veiled Amanita, Amanite porphyre, Porphyrbrauner Wulstling, Agarico porporino, Porfieramaniet, B?bor gal?ca. Cap 5?9cm across, convex becoming flattened, pale greyish-brown with vinaceous flush, smooth. Stem 100?130 x 10?15mm, whitish, ring thin and fragile, basal bulb encased in a short volva. Flesh whitish becoming brown. Taste unpleasant, smell slight. Gills free to adnexed, white. Spore print white. Spores globose, amyloid, 7.5?9.5? diameter. Habitat in coniferous or mixed woods. Season late summer to autumn. Occasional. Not edible many amanitas contain poisonous toxins -avoid. Distribution, north America and Europe.
Inedible
Amanita fulva (Schaeff.) Secr. syn. Amanitopsis vaginata var. fulva (Schaeff.) Fr. Tawny Grisette, Rotbrauner Scheidenstreifling, Falso farinaccio fulvo, Roodbruine slanke amaniet, R?t selyemgomba. Cap 4-9cm across, ovoid at first, expanding to almost flat with a low umbo and a distinctly grooved margin; orange-brown; slightly paler toward the margin; smooth, slightly sticky when moist then dry. Gills free, close, broad; white to creamy. Stem 70-150 x 5-12mm, slender, hollow, quite fragile, tapering toward the top; white tinged with orange-brown and very fine white hairs; no ring; no basal bulb, but base of stem encased in large baglike volva, white tinged with orange-brown. Flesh white. Odor not distinctive. Taste not distinctive. Spores globose, nonamyloid; 9.7-12.5 x 9.7-12.5?. Deposit white. Habitat singly or in small groups on the ground in deciduous and coniferous woods. Fairly common. Found widely distributed throughout North America. Season July-September (January-March in California). Edible but I advise avoiding it as I would all amanitas, because there are so many deadly poisonous species.
Poisonous/Suspect
Poisonous/Suspect
Inedible
Agrocybe erebia (Fr.) K?hn. syn. Pholiota erebia (Fr.) Gillet Lederbrauner Erdsch?ppling S?t?t r?tgomba Dark Fieldcap. Cap 3?6cm across, convex becoming flattened with a broad umbo, the margin wavy in older specimens, dull clay-brown when dry, darker and slightly viscid when moist. Stem 60?80 x 8?12mm, whitish at first gradually darkening brown from base upwards, with whitish grooved ring. Flesh pale brownish. Gills pale at first then dark umber brown. Spore print very dark brown. Spores ellipsoid, 10?13 x 5?6?. Cap cuticle cellular. Habitat on bare soil or in leaf litter in deciduous woods. Season autumn. Frequent. Not edible ? easily confused with poisonous species. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Poisonous/Suspect
Agaricus vaporarius (Vitt.) Mos. syn. Psalliota vaporaria (Vitt.) M?ller & Schaeff. Garten-Egerling Agaric de Bernard, Psalliote de Bernard, Komposztcsiperke, ?ves csiperke, Clustered Mushroom. Cap 10?15cm across, subglobose at first expanding to flattened convex, dirty brown soon breaking up into large scales. Stem 60?120 x 25?50mm, tapering at the base which is deeply buried in the soil, white and smooth although initially with brown fibrous scales; ring thick and white, pendulous. Flesh white, reddening only slightly on cutting. Taste nutty, smell mushroomy. Gills pale pink at first later chocolate brown. Cheilocystidia numerous, thin-walled, clavate, hyaline, 18?28 x 4?10?. Spore print brown. Spores subglobose, 6?7?4.5?6m. Habitat gardens and deciduous woods often developing below ground and pushing up through the soil as it expands. Season autumn. Rare. Edibility suspect -avoid. Found In Europe.
Edible
Agaricus subrutilescens (Kauffman) Hot. & Stuntz Cap 5-13cm across, convex; whitish; fibrillose-striate, to slightly scaly; fibers deep vinaceous brown. Gills free, crowded, narrow; whitish pink then deep brown. Stem 60-150 x 10-25mm, clavate; whitish; smooth above the ring, with white to vinaceous veil remnants below, often in bands; ring large, thin, woolly below, high on stem. Flesh white. Odor pleasant. Taste pleasant. Spores ellipsoid, 4.5-6 x 3-4?. Deposit deep brown. Habitat in mixed woods. Found on the West Coast of north America. Season August-December. Edible. Dan Manders wrote:I eat it whenever I find it, it's quite good. It's listed in David Arora's book as being a good edible, though less meaty than most other Agaricus, which I've found to be true as well. In Oregon I find it mostly on slopes in mixed company with sword ferns & Oregon grape.
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