White to cream Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
Stem type:
Spore colour:
Cap type:
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Total mushrooms fount: 479

Inedible
Stropharia semiglobata (Batsch. ex Fr.) Qu?l. Dung Roundhead, Strophaire semi-globuleux, Halbkugeliger Tr?uschling, Dombor? harmatgomba, f?lg?mbalak? harmatgomba, Kleefsteel-stropharia. Cap 1?3cm across, hemispherical, light yellow, viscid. Stem 60?100 x 2?3mm, yellowish, apex paler, viscid below the ring; ring incomplete, often represented by zone of blackish fibrils. Flesh thin, pallid. Gills purplish-brown becoming black-spotted. Spore print dark purplish-brown. Spores elliptic, 15?17 x 9?10um. Habitat on dung. Season spring to late autumn. Common. Not edible -avoid. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Stropharia rugosoannulata Farlow ex Murr. King Stropharia, Wine Cup, -ri-s harmatgomba. Cap 5-20cm across, convex-flattened to umbonate; deep purplish red to dull brown or even grayish or white with age; smooth, not viscid. Gills adnate, crowded; pallid then gray and finally purple-brown. Stem 100-180x 10-25mm, equal to clavate; white; smooth; ring large, prominent, deeply wrinkled or segmented below, very thick, white. Flesh firm; white. Odor pleasant. Taste pleasant. Spores ellipsoid, with germ pore, 10-13 x 7.5-9-. Deposit purple-brown. Habitat on wood chips and bark mulch and around flower beds. Very common. Found Europe and widely distributed in northern North America. Season June-October. Edible-delicious. Comment An almost pure white form is not infrequent; also a closely related (probably undescribed) yellow species with viscid cap may be found at the same time.
Inedible
Stropharia coronilla (Bull. ex Fr.) Qu?l. syn. S. obturata (Fr.) Qu?l. Stropharia coronilla Kr?nchen-Tr?uschling S?rga harmatgomba Strophaire coronille Garland Roundhead. Cap 2?4cm across, convex then flattened, light yellow, slightly viscid or greasy. Stem 25?40 x 6?8mm, white tapering towards base; ring white, but often accentuated by trapped deposit of dark spores. Flesh thick, white. Gills white then clay-brown. Pleurocystidia broadly lanceolate with acutely pointed apex, staining deeply in aniline blue in lactic acid. Spore print purple-brown. Spores elliptic with indistinct pore, 7?9 x 4?6um. Habitat lawns and pasture. Season autumn. Common. Edible ? not worthwhile. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Stereum gausapatum (Fr.) Fr. syn. Stereum spadiceum (Fr.) Fr. Brauner Schichtpilz Nemezes r?teggomba Bleeding Oak Crust. Fruit body resupinate or forming small tiered brackets 1?4cm across, tough and leathery, thin-fleshed; upper surface zoned ochre-brown to greyish, finely hairy, margin white. Fertile or lower surface pallid to dark chestnut, smooth, bleeding red if cut when fresh. Spores white, oblong, amyloid, 7?8 x 3?3.5um. Habitat on stumps, logs and fallen branches of deciduous trees, especially oak. Season all year. Common. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Inedible
Sphaerobolus stellatus Tode syn. S. carpobolus (L.) Schroet. syn. Carpobolus stellatus (Mich.) Desm. Kugelwerfer Shooting Star. Fruit body 1.5?2.5mm across, initially globose and whitish becoming more ochraceous and splitting above into 5?9 minute orange-coloured rays, exposing the peridiole as a brownish ball containing the spores. This is projected over a range of up to 5.5 metres (14 feet) to disperse the spores by the sudden reversal of the receptacle which then appears as a translucent white sphere sitting on the star-shaped outer wall. Spores oblong, 7.5?10 x 3.5?5um. Habitat on sticks, sawdust, dung and other organic debris. Season autumn. Occasional but possibly often overlooked. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Choice
Sparassis crispa Wulf. ex Fr. Cauliflower or Brain Fungus, Sparassis Cr?pu, Clavaire Cr?pue, Krause Glucke, Fodros k?posztagomba, Creste di gallo, Grote Sponszwam. Fruit body 20?50cm across, subglobose, cauliflower-like, comprising numerous flattened, crisped lobes on a short thick rooting stem, pale ochraceous to buff, darkening with age. Smell sweetish, pleasant. Spores whitish to pale yellow, pip-shaped, 5?7 x 4?5um. Habitat at the base of conifer trees or near by. Season autumn. Occasional. Edible and delicious when young and fresh; must be thoroughly cleaned. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Scleroderma cepa (Vaill.) Pers. Fruit body 1.5-9cm across, subglobose, flattened, or lobed; no stem or almost none, attached by a thick mass of tough, hairy mycelium. Peridium (outer skin) 1-3mm thick; when fresh, hard, quite tough; white in cross-section, becoming reddish or pinkish brown when cut. Surface whitish when young, becoming straw-colored to yellowish brown or leather brown, turning deep pinky-brown if rubbed; smooth becoming very finely cracked and scaly, especially on the top where exposed to light. Spore mass white and firm when young, soon becoming black or purple-black, then paler or browner and powdery. Odor none. Spores globose, spiny but not reticulate, 7-10 x 7-10-. Habitat singly, scattered, or in groups under deciduous and coniferous trees in woods, in gardens, and along roadsides. Common. Found widely distributed in North America. Season July-October. Poisonous.
Edible
Russula virescens (Schaeff. ex Zantedschi) Fr. Gefelderter Gr-nt-ubling, Varas z-ld galambgomba, varash-t- galambgomba, Russule verdoyante, Bise verte, Greencracked Brittlegill. Cap 5-12cm across, globose, later convex, finally flattening and often wavy and lobed, verdigris to dull green often ochre-buff to cream in places, half peeling; surface breaking up into small, flattened, angular, scurfy scales. Stem 40-90 x 20-40mm, whitish to pale cream, browning slightly, powdered above, firm. Flesh white. Odor pleasant. Taste mild, nutty. Gills almost free, cream, somewhat brittle, with veins connecting the bases. Spore print whitish to pale cream (A-B). Spores ellipsoid-ovoid to somewhat globose with warts 0.2-0.5- high, fine lines absent to fairly numerous and forming a fairly well-developed network, 7-9 x 6-7-. Cap cystidia none; gill cystidia few, not or hardly reacting with SV. Cap hyphae forming a loose, cellular layer of variously shaped or inflated cells, the terminal ones tapering. Habitat under broad-leaved trees, especially beech. Season summer to early autumn. Uncommon. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Russula sororia (Fr.) Romell (R. amoenolens Romagn.) Scharfer Bratt?ubling, Barna galambgomba, Russule soeur, Sepia Brittlegill. Cap 3?6cm across, convex, later flattening and with a depression, sepia to greyish sepia, rarely white, thinnish-fleshed, slightly sticky when moist, half-peeling; margin furrowed, with small, low warts. Stem 30?60 x 10?20mm, whitish, fairly firm to soft and fragile. Flesh white. Taste unpleasant, oily, slowly very hot; smell rancid or suggesting Camembert cheese. Gills adnexed, creamy to dirty whitish, edge browning. Spore print pale cream (B?D). Spores broadly elliptic with warts up to 0.7? high, a few joined by fine lines, no network, 7?9 x 5?7?. Cap cystidia narrow, tapering, poorly reacting to SV. Habitat under oak. Season summer to autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Russula sanguinea (Bull. ex St. Amans) Fr. Blut-T?ubling, V?rv?r?s galambgomba, Russule sanguine, Bloody Brittlegill. Cap 5?10cm across, convex, later flattening or saucer-shaped, blood to purplish-red or rose, often with whitish areas, fleshy, rigid or even hard, peeling at margin only; surface soon dry and matt, rough or veined. Stem 40?100 x 10?30mm, white, pink or red, firm. Flesh white. Taste slightly to moderately hot, also sometimes bitter. Gills adnate-decurrent, cream or pale ochre, narrow, forking or with cross-connections. Spore print pale to deep cream (C?F). Spores ovoid with warts up to 1? high, with very few connecting lines, 7?10 x 6?8?. Cap cystidia cylindrical to narrow club-shaped, often teat-ended, with 0?2 septa, somewhat poorly reacting to SV. Habitat under conifers. Season summer to autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Russula nigricans (Bull. ex M-rat) Fr. Blackening Russula, Russule noircissante, Dickbl-ttriger Schwarzt-ubling, Szenes galambgomba, rossola nereggiante, Grofplaatrussula. Cap 5-20cm across, convex, soon with a deep depression, dirty white, becoming brown and finally black, dry, fleshy, three-quarters peeling; margin incurved at first. Stem 30-80 x 10-40mm, white, then dull brown and or red, finally black, hard. Flesh white, becoming red on exposure and finally grey to black. Taste slowly hot, smell fruity. Gills adnate, straw to olive, greyish rose on bruising, eventually black, very thick and widely spaced, brittle, with numerous shorter gills between them. Spore print white (A). Spores ovoid with small warts under 0.5- high, mostly connected by fine lines to form a fairly well-developed, but partial network, 7-8 x 6-7-. No cap cystidia. Habitat under broad-leaved trees and conifers. Season summer to late autumn. Very common. Edible but poor in taste (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Russula foetens (Pers. ex Fr.) Fr. Fetid Russula, Russule fetide, Stinkt?ubling, B?d?s galambgomba, Rossola fetente, colombina fetida, Stinkende russula. Cap 5?12cm across, globose at first, later convex, finally flattening, at times with a central depression, dull brownish ochre to honey-coloured, thick-fleshed, rigid, slimy or glutinous; margin furrowed and with small, low warts. Stem 50?120 x 15?40mm, whitish to buff, cylindrical or swollen in the middle, hard and rigid but easily breaking. Flesh white, irregular cavities forming in stem. Taste of gills very hot, of stem flesh almost mild, in addition bitter or oily, smell strongly oily or rancid. Gills adnexed, creamy, often brown spotted, thickish and well spaced. Spore print pale to medium cream (B?D). Spores somewhat globose with strong warts, up to 1.5? high, isolated or an occasional fine line joining them, 8?10 x 7?9?. Cap cystidia cylindrical, tapering or spindle-shaped, not reacting to SV. Habitat under broad-leaved trees or conifers. Season late summer to late autumn. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Russula fellea (Fr.) Fr. Geranium-scented Russula, Russule trompeuse, Russule de fiel, Gallent-ubling, Epe-z- galambgomba, Rossola di fiele, Okerkleurige beukerussla. Cap 4-9cm across, convex, soon flattening, often with a broad umbo, straw-coloured to pale ochre-honey or buff, fairly fleshy, slightly sticky when moist, peeling at margin only, which is smooth to slightly furrowed. Stem 20-60 x 10-20mm, coloured as cap but slightly paler, firm, cream if rubbed with iron salts. Flesh white. Taste very hot, smell of geraniums. Gills adnexed, coloured as stem. Spore print whitish to pale cream (A-C). Spores ovoid with warts up to 0.7- high, mostly joined by fine lines to form a well-developed network, 7.5-9 x 6-7-. Cap cystidia abundant, cylindrical to narrow club-shaped, strongly reacting with SV. Habitat under beech. Season late summer to late autumn. Very common. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Russula emetica (Schaeff. ex Fr.) S.F. Gray. Sickener, Emetic Russula, Russule -m-tique, Colombe rouge, Kirschroter Speit-ubling, H-nytat- galambgomba, Colombina rossa, rossetta, Berijpte russula. Cap 3-10cm across, convex, later flattening or with a shallow depression, scarlet, cherry or blood red, sometimes with ochre-tinted to white areas, somewhat thin-fleshed, fragile, shiny, sticky when moist; skin easily peeling to show pink to red coloured flesh beneath, margin often furrowed when old. Stem 40-90 x 7-20mm, white, cylindrical or more usually somewhat swollen towards the base, fragile. Flesh white, red immediately beneath cap cuticle. Taste very hot, smell slightly fruity. Gills adnexed to free, cream then pale straw. Spore print whitish (A). Spores broadly ovoid; with large warts, 1.2- high, connected by fine lines to form a large-meshed, almost complete network, 9-11 x 7.5-8.5-. Cap cystidia mostly narrowly club-shaped with 0-1 septa. Habitat under pines. Season summer to late autumn. Common. Poisonous. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Russula densifolia (Secr.) Gillet syn. R. acrifolia Romagn. Russule ? feuillets denses, Feketed? galambgomba, Crowded Brittlegill. Cap 3?12cm across, flattened convex at first, later with a depression, cup- or funnel-shaped, whitish or dull brown in the centre or all over, eventually blackish, sticky when moist, fleshy; margin incurved at first. Stem 25?80 x 6?30mm, white then dull brown to blackish, reddish on bruising, hard. Flesh white at first when cut, then tinged reddish and soon greyish as well, finally dark grey to brownish blackish. Taste hot or very hot, but sometimes almost mild, smell not distinctive. Gills slightly decurrent, white to pale cream, closely spaced, rather narrow and not thick, interspersed with shorter gills. Spore print whitish (A). Spores ovoid with small warts under 0.5? high, joined by numerous fine lines to form a well-developed network, 7?9 x 6?7?. Cap hyphae cylindrical or narrowing towards the apex, 3?4? wide; cap cystidia few, narrow, not reacting to SV. Habitat under both broad-leaved trees and conifers. Season summer to autumn. Common. Edibility suspect- not recommended; other members of this group have caused poisonings. Distribution, America and Europe
Inedible
Russula delica Fr. Milk-white Russula, Russule sans lait, Blaubl?ttriger T?ubling, F?ldtol? galambgomba, Colombina bianca, roseola delicata, Witte russula. Cap 5?16cm across, convex, cup- or funnel-shaped, whitish, often tinged yellow brownish, matt, dry, thick-fleshed; margin strongly inrolled. Stem 20?60 x 20?40mm, white, often bluish at apex, hard. Flesh white, unchanging. Taste hot and acrid with a bitter tang; smell distinctive, slightly of bugs and reminiscent of certain Lactarius, sometimes fishy. Gills decurrent, whitish, often tinged bluish towards the stem, often forked or with cross-connections, interspersed with numerous short gills. Spore print white, to slightly creamy (A?B). Spores ovoid with warts 0.5?1.5? high, often in chains or occasionally joined by fine lines not enclosing meshes, or sometimes more abundant and forming a network, 8?12 x 7?9?. Cap cystidia worm-like to narrow cylindrical, hardly reacting to SV. Habitat under both broad-leaved and coniferous trees. Season autumn. Common. Edible ? poor, unpleasant tasting -avoid. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous) Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Ramaria botrytis (Fr.) Ricken. Hahnenkamm R?zs?s (r?zs?s?g?) korallgomba, Clavaire chou-fleur, Rosso Coral. Fruit body 7?15cm high, 6?20cm wide, white at first becoming tan or ochraceous with pink, red or purplish tips, numerous thick, much-branched, crowded branches arising from stout stem (3?4 x 1.5?6cm). Taste and smell pleasant, fruity. Spores ochraceous, oblong-elliptic, longitudinally striate, 14?16(20) x 4.5?5.5?. Habitat terrestrial, in broad-leaved woods. Season late summer to late autumn. Rare. Edible with caution. Distribution, America and Europe.
Hallucinogenic
Psilocybe semilanceata (Fr. ex Secr.) Kummer. Liberty Cap or Magic Mushroom, Spitzkegeliger Kahlkopf, Hegyescs?cs? badargomba, Puntig kaalkopje. Cap 0.5?1.5cm across, elongate conical with a distinct sharply pointed umbo, puckered at margin, hygrophanous, yellowish-brown with olivaceous tinge drying ochre-buff, covered with a viscid pellicle. Stem 25?75 x 1?2mm, white to cream, sometimes with a bluish tinge at the stem base. Flesh cream to pallid. Gills pale clay at first, finally dark purple-brown. Spore print dark purplish-brown. Spores elliptic, 11.5?14.5 x 7?9um. Habitat lawns, pasture and roadsides. Season late summer to late autumn. Frequent. Hallucinogenic. Edible but not recommended. Hallucinogenic and widely collected for this purpose, but should be regarded as mildly poisonous; also, there is the possibility of misidentification. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Psathyrella multipedata (Peck) Smith B?scheliger Faserling Clustered Brittlestem Csoportos porhany?sgomba. Fruit bodies growing in very dense tufts of up to seventy individuals arising from a common base. Cap 1?3cm across, conical-convex, dingy clay-brown drying or ageing cream, striate. Stem 70?120 x 2?4mm, whitish. Flesh thin, whitish. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills dark purplish-brown. Cystidia thin-walled, narrowly fusoid with somewhat swollen base. Spore print dark brown. Spores elliptic, 6.5?10 x 3.5?4.5um. Habitat amongst grass in open deciduous woodland and roadsides. Season summer. Rare. Edibility unknown -avoid. Distribution, America and Europe.
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