White to cream Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
Stem type:
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Total mushrooms fount: 479

Inedible
Marasmius rotula (Scop. ex Fr.) Fr. Fallschirm-Schwindling Nyak?rves szegf?gomba Marasme petite roue Collared Parachute. Cap 0.5?1.5cm across, convex, centrally flattened and ribbed like a parachute with the margin scalloped, whitish, sometimes dark brown in the depressed centre. Stem 20?70 x 1mm, white at apex dark brown below. Flesh white in cap, brown in stem. Gills whitish cream, attached to a collar free of the stem. Spore print white. Spores elongate elliptical, 7?10 x 3.5?5um. Cuticular cells subglobose with tiny dense finger-like processes. Habitat gregarious on dead twigs and roots, less frequently on leaves. Season summer to winter. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Choice
Marasmius oreades (Blot. ex Fr.) Fr. Fairy Ring Mushrooms, Nymphe des montagnes, Faux Mousseron, Marasme des Or?ades, Nelkenschwindling, Mezei szegf?gomba, Gambe secche, Weidekringzwam. Cap 2?5cm across, convex then flattened with a large broad umbo, tan when moist drying buff tinged with tan at the centre. Stem 20?100 x 3?5mm, whitish to pale buff, tough, rigid. Flesh thick at the centre of the cap, whitish. Smell of fresh sawdust. Gills white then ochre-cream, distant. Spore print white. Spores pip-shaped, 8?10 x 5?6um. Cuticular cells smooth, subglobose. Habitat often forming rings in the short grass of pasture or lawns. Season late spring to late autumn. Common. Edible and good. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Marasmius epiphyllus (Pers. ex Fr.) Fr. syn. Androsaceus epiphyllus (Pers. ex Fr.) Pat. Adern-Schwindling Apr? szegf?gomba Leaf Parachute. Cap 3?10mm across, flattened, sometimes depressed, white to creamy-white, membranous and radially wrinkled. Stem 15?30 x 1mm, hair-like, whitish near apex, reddish-brown below. Gills white, few, broadly spaced, branched and vein-like. Spore print white. Spores elongate elliptical, 10?11 x 3?4um. Cuticular cells smooth and subglobose. Habitat on fallen twigs and leaf petioles. Season autumn. Rare. Distribution, Found In Europe. Not edible.
Inedible
Marasmiellus ramealis (Bull. ex Fr.) Sing. syn. Marasmius ramealis (Bull. ex Fr.) Fr. Ast-Schwindling F?nterm? szegf?gomb?cska. Cap 3?10(15)mm across, convex then flattened or centrally depressed, whitish pink often darker in the centre, membranous and often wrinkled. Stem 3?20 x 1mm, scurfy, concolorous with cap, darkening towards the curved base. Flesh thin, concolorous. Gills distant, white or pinkish. Spore print white. Spores elongate, elliptical, 8.5?10.5 x 3?4um. Habitat on old stems. Season early summer to autumn. Frequent. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Choice
Macrolepiota rhacodes (Vitt.) Sing. Lepiota rhacodes (Vitt.) Qu?l. New syn. Chlorophyllum rhacdes, Shaggy Parasol, L?piote D?guenill?e, R?tender Schirmpilz, Safranschirmpilz, Pirul? ?zl?bgomba, Lepiota villosa, Knolparasolzwam. Cap 5?15cm across, ovate then expanding to almost flat, disrupting into broad, pallid, often slightly reflexed scales on a fibrous background, giving the cap a shaggy, torn appearance. Stem 100?150?10?15mm, thickened towards the bulb which is usually oblique, whitish tinged dirty pinkish-brown, bruising reddish brown when fresh; ring double, membranous, movable on the stem. Flesh white becoming orange to carmine red on cutting. Taste pleasant, smell strongly aromatic. Gills white, tinged reddish in older specimens, bruising reddish. Spore print white. Spores elliptic with germ-pore, dextrinoid, 10?12?6?7m. Habitat woods and shrubberies of all kinds, often with conifers. Season summer to late autumn. Frequent. Edible but may cause gastric upsets in some people. Distribution, America and Europe.
Choice
Macrolepiota procera (Scop. ex Fr.) Sing. syn. Lepiota procera (Scop. ex Fr.) S.F. Gray syn. Leucocoprinus procerus (Scop. ex Fr.) Pat. Parasol Mushroom, L?piote ?lev?e, Coulemelle, Nagy ?zl?bgomba, Parasol, Riesenschirmpilz, Parasol, Bubbola maggiore, Fungo parasole, Mazza da tamburo, Grote parasolzwam. Cap 10?25cm across, button spherical or egg-shaped expanding flattened with a prominent umbo, pale buff or grey-brown covered in darker shaggy scales. Stem 150?300 x 8?15mm, 40mm at the bulb, white, with a grey-brown felty covering which becomes split into snake-like markings as the stem expands; ring large, double, white on upper surface, brown below, movable on the stem. Flesh thin, soft, white. Taste sweet, smell slight, indistinctive. Gills free, white. Spore print white. Spores ovate with a germ-pore, dextrinoid, 15?20 x 10?13um. Habitat in open woods and pastures. Season summer and autumn. Uncommon. Edible ? excellent. Distribution, America and Europe. Note the American form of this fungus is rather more delicate in form than the more robust European variety. The third photograph was taken by Geoffrey Kibby.
Edible
Macrolepiota mastoidea (Fr.) Sing. Syn. Macrolepiota gracilenta syn. Lepiota mastioidea (Fr.) Kummer, L. umbonata (Schum.) Schroet. L?piote Mamelonn?e, Spitzbuckliger Schirmpilz, Karcs? nagy?zl?bgomba (?zl?bgomba), Tepelparasolzwam, Slender Parasol. Cap 8?12cm across, subglobose at first expanding flattened convex with a distinct acute umbo, white to cream-ochre covered in minute pale ochraceous granular scales. Stem 80?100?8?15mm, white with small, densely crowded, yellowish-brown granular scales, slightly swollen at the base; ring white and thick. Flesh thin, white. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills white. Spore print white. Spores elliptic, 12?16 x 8?9.5um. Habitat in open woodland. Season autumn. Uncommon. Edible ? good. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Macrolepiota konradii (Huijsman ex. Orton) Moser syn. Lepiota konradii Huijsman ex. Orton syn. L. gracilenta (Krombh.) Qu?l. s. Rea syn. L. excoriata var. konradii Huijsman. L?piote gr?le, Feinschuppiger Schirmpilz, Barnagy?r?s nagy?zl?bgomba (?zl?bgomba), Lepiota di Konrad. Cap 7?12cm across, ovate then slightly umbonate becoming expanded and even depressed, the brownish cuticle breaking up into large adnate scales exposing the white flesh beneath. Stem 100?150 x 8?12mm, bulbous, tapering upwards, whitish covered in small brownish scales. Smell pleasant. Gills white. Spore print white. Spores ovoid with an apical germ-pore, 13?17 x 8?10um. Habitat pasture, heaths and open woodland. Season late summer to late autumn. Rare. Edible with caution as there are poisonous white mushrooms. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Macrolepiota excoriata (Fr.) Wasser syn. Lepiota excoriata (Schaeff ex. Fr.) Kummer syn. Leucocoprinus excoriatus (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Pat. L?piote excori?e, Coulemelle excori?e, Ackerschirmpilz, Csipk?s ?zl?bgomba, Bubbola buona, Tubiet, Rafeligeparasolzwam. Cap 6?10cm across, ovate at first then convex and slightly umbonate, covered in fine adpressed ochre-buff scales on a white ground. Stem 40?60 x 8?10mm, slightly thickened at the base, smooth, white; ring narrow and persistent. Flesh white. Smell none. Gills white to cream. Spore print white to pale ochraceous. Spores oval, 12?15 x 8?9um. Habitat pastureland. Season late summer to late autumn. Rare. Edible with caution because of other white poisonous mushrooms. Distribution, America and Europe. Unfortunately a specimen of L. leucothites has crept into this collection (bottom right).
Edible
Lycoperdon pyriforme Schaeff. ex Pers. Birnenst?ubling K?rtealak? (k?rte alak?) p?feteg Vesse-de-loup en poire, Stump Puffball. Fruit body 1.5?4cm across, 3.5cm high, subglobose to club-shaped, attached to the substrate by mycelial strands, whitish at first finally yellowish- or greyish-brown, outer layer of scurfy spines, warts, or granules, inner wall becoming smooth and papery, opening by an apical pore. Gleba olive-brown; sterile base occupying the stem spongy, but the cavities forming rather small cells. Spores olive-brown, globose, smooth, 3?4um in diameter. Capillitium distinctive in being formed of brownish branched threads which lack all trace of tiny hyaline pores, all other members of the genus have poroid capillitial threads. Habitat in groups or swarms on rotten logs or stumps, often appearing to grow in soil but in reality attached to buried wood by the characteristic white mycelial cords. Season summer to late autumn. Common. Edible when young. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Lycoperdon perlatum Pers. syn. L. gemmatum Batsch Flaschenst?ubling, Flaschenbovist, Bimb?s p?feteg, Vesse-de-loup ? pierreries, Common Puffball. Fruit body 2.5?6cm across, 2?9cm high, subglobose with a distinct stem, white at first becoming yellowish brown, outer layer of short pyramidal warts especially dense on the head, rubbing off to leave an indistinct mesh-like pattern on the inner wall which opens by a pore. Gleba olive-brown at maturity; sterile base spongy, occupying the stem. Spores olivaceous-brown, globose, minutely warted, 3.5?4.5m. Habitat woodland. Season summer to late autumn. Common. Edible and good -when the flesh is pure white. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Leucocortinarius bulbiger (Alb. & Schw. ex Fr.) Sing. syn. Armillaria bulbigera (Alb. & Schw. ex Fr.) Kummer Knolliger Schleierritterling Gum-s pereszke Leucocortinaire bulbeux White Webcap. Cap 5-9cm across, convex, pale clay-brown, sometimes with debris of veil leaving brownish cobwebby patches, especially near the margin. Stem 50-100 x 10-12mm, base swollen into a large flattened bulb 25-30mm across, whitish, the remains of the cobwebby veil leaving a distinct ring zone. Flesh white, becoming pale clay in the stem. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills white at first becoming cream to pale clay, never rust. Spore print white. Spores broadly elliptic, 7-9 x 4-5um. Habitat with conifers. Season autumn. Rare. Edibility suspect -avoid. Found In Europe. Note the curved appearance of my specimens is caused by them expanding lying down in a box after I collected them.
Edible
Leucoagaricus leucothites (Vitt.) Wasser syn. Lepiota leucothites (Vitt.) Orton syn. L. naucina (Fr.) Kummer L?piote pudique Rosabl?tteriger Schirmpilz Tarl?gomba. Cap 5?8cm across, convex expanding to almost flattened, smooth and silky, whitish becoming flushed flesh-colour or pale cream-ochre. Stem 60?80 x 8?20mm, concolorous with the cap; ring concolorous, narrow, free of the stem. Flesh thick and white in the cap, browning in the stem. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills white becoming pale flesh-colour with age. Spore print white. Spores ovoid, dextrinoid, 7?9 x 4.5?5um. Habitat in gardens or at roadsides. Season autumn. Uncommon. Edible but best avoided due to possible confusion with poisonous species. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Lepiota ignivolvata Bousset-Joss. L-piote - base couleur de feu, Braunbuckliger Schirmpilz, Cs-kosgall-r- (v-r-sl-b-) -zl-gbomba. Cap 4-10cm across, convex then expanded and umbonate, centre reddish-brown, disrupting into tiny crowded ochraceous cream scales which become more dispersed towards the margin. Stem 60-120 x 6-15mm, slightly bulbous, with bright orange zone on the edge of the bulb which often becomes more obvious after collection; there is often a similar orange colour on the underside of the ring. Flesh white. Taste foul, smell strong and rank. Gills white to cream. Spore print white. Spores fusoid, 11-13 x 6um. Habitat deciduous and coniferous woods. Season autumn. Rare. Not edible -avoid. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Lepiota crostata Kummer. L?piote cr?t?e, L?piote cr?pe, Kleiner Stinkschirmling, B?d?s ?zl?bgomba, Lepiota crestata, Stinkparasolzwam, Stinking Dapperling. Cap 2?5cm across, irregularly bell-shaped and umbonate, cuticle reddish-brown and soon broken up, except at centre, into small scales on a white silky background. Stem 20?35 x 3?4mm, white tinged flesh-colour; ring membranous and deciduous. Flesh thin, white. Taste pleasant, smell unpleasant, strongly fungusy. Gills white, becoming brownish with age. Spore print white. Spores bullet-shaped, dextrinoid, 6?7.5 x 3?3.5um. Habitat in woods, garden refuse or in leaf litter. Season summer to autumn. Frequent. Edibility suspect ? avoid. Distribution, America and Europe. The collection on the blue background was made in America, but differs from European material in the much longer stem.
Inedible
Lenzites betulina (Fr.) Fr. Fak? lemezestapl? (tapl?). Fruit body annual; no stem; broadly attached or with a small stem-like attachment. Bracket up to 8cm across, 5cm wide, 2cm thick, flat, semicircular or fan-shaped, with an even or lobed margin; upper surface white, cream, grayish, or brownish, older specimens often have a green tinge because of algae growing in the fine hairs; tough and leathery with an uneven surface, concentrically grooved, zoned and hairy. Gills forked and fused together in places; white then cream to yellowish brown; undulating or flexuous. Flesh 1-2mm thick, thin, fibrous; white, lighter than the gills. Spores subcylindrical, slightly curved, smooth, 5-6 x 2-3?. Deposit white. Hyphal structure trimitic; clamps present. Habitat singly or in overlapping groups on hardwoods and coniferous wood. Common. Found in Europe and in mid western and eastern North America, the Pacific Northwest, and California, but extremely rare elsewhere. Season July-November. Not edible.
Edible
Lentinus lepideus (Fr. ex Fr.) Fr. New syn. Neolentinus lepideus Pikkelyes fagomba The Train Wrecker. Cap 5-12cm across, convex to nearly flat, with an incurved margin that becomes straight in age; whitish to buff with cinnamon-brown scales; shiny, dry and scaly. Gills adnexed, close, broad, with toothed edges; whitish to buff bruising brownish. Stem 30-100 x 10-15mm, solid, either narrow at the base or bulbous; white, to reddish brown in age; minutely hairy above ring, scaly below; partial veil forms membranous whitish ring on the upper stalk. Flesh white, aging or bruising dirty yellowish. Odor fragrant, like anise. Taste rather disagreeable. Spores almost cylindrical, smooth, nonamyloid, 9-12 x 4-5?. Deposit white. Habitat growing singly, scattered, or in clusters on logs, stumps, fence posts, railroad ties, decaying coniferous wood, and occasionally hardwoods. Common. Found in Europe and widely distributed throughout much of North America. Season May-September (later in California). Edible-good. Comment The stem of this mushroom is extremely tough and woody. Even larger forms of this mushroom can be found in the Southwest; I found a specimen 28cm across in northern Arizona
Inedible
Leccinum holopus (Rostk.) Watling syn. Boletus holopus Rostk. Moor-Birkenpilz L-pi -rdestin-ru (-tin-ru) Ghost Bolete. Cap 4-7(10)cm, dirty white to pale buff becoming darker and flushed greenish with age, smooth, viscid when fresh. Stem 80-110-8-15(30)mm, white or pale buff, covered with white scales discolouring cinnamon with age. Flesh soft, white, blue green in stem base, often pink elsewhere or unchanging. Taste and smell pleasant. Tubes white to clay-buff. Pores white to buff, flushed cinnamon with age or on bruising. Spore print cinnamon-ochraceous buff. Spores subfusiform, 17.5-20-5.5-6.5m. Habitat amongst sphagnum under birches. Season autumn. Rare. Edible - not worthwhile. Distribution, America and Europe. Thanks to the Pash family for the last picture.
Choice
Langermannia gigantea (Batsch ex Pers.) Rostk. syn. Lycoperdon giganteum Batsch ex Pers. syn. Calvatia gigantea (Batsch ex Pers.) Lloyd syn. Lasiosphaera gigantea (Batsch ex Pers.) Giant Puffball, Smarda Riesenbovist Vesse-de-loup g?ante, ?ri?sp?feteg (p?feteg). Fruit body 7?80cm across, subglobose, whitish and leathery, the outer wall breaking away to expose the spore mass, attached to the substrate by a root-like mycelial cord which breaks leaving the fruit body free to roll around and so scatter the millions of spores. Gleba olivaceous-brown and powdery at maturity; sterile base absent or rudimentary. Spores tawny brown, globose, finely warted, 3.5?5.5m in diameter. Habitat in gardens, pasture and woods. Season summer to autumn. Uncommon but locally frequent. Edible when still white and firm ? good. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Lactarius zonarius (Bull. ex St. Amans) Fr. Bleicher Milchling, Beg-ngy-ltsz-l- tejel-gomba, Lactaire zon-. Cap 3.5-10cm across, convex with a central funnel-shaped depression, pale yellowish-buff at first with paler margin, later ochre-buff to reddish-ochre with several, indistinct, darker concentric bands, slightly sticky, margin inrolled and hairless. Stem 25-45 x 10-20mm, whitish to buff then ochre-buff, sometimes with indistinct spots. Flesh whitish, often hollow in stem. Gills decurrent, narrow and crowded, forked near the stem, yellowish-buff later ochre-buff. Milk white; taste very hot. Smell of geraniums. Spore print buff (E-F). Spores ovoid, warts mainly joined by ridges that tend to run across the spore, forming a partial network, 7-9.5 x 5-7.2-. Habitat deciduous woods, especially with oak. Season late summer to autumn. Rare. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
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