Found in fields Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
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Total mushrooms fount: 143

Choice
The meadow mushroom, Agaricus campestris, is a beautiful white mushroom that is closely related to the cultivated "button mushrooms" (Agaricus bisporus) sold in North American grocery stores. In most areas it is a fall mushroom and, as its common and Latin names suggest, it comes up in meadows, fields, and grassy areas, after rains. It is recognized by its habitat, its pink gills (covered up by a thin white membrane when the mushroom is young) which become chocolate brown as the mushroom matures, its quickly collapsing white ring, and the fact that it does not discolor yellow when bruised. Description: Ecology: Saprobic; growing alone, gregariously, or sometimes in fairy rings, in meadows, fields, lawns, and grassy areas; late fall to early winter (occasionally in summer; sometimes year-long in California); widely distributed and common in North America. Cap: 3-11 cm; convex to broadly convex, occasionally nearly flat; whitish; smooth and glossy to fibrous to nearly wooly or scaly. Gills: Free from the stem; deep pink becoming brown and then dark chocolate brown in maturity; crowded; covered with a thin white partial veil when in the button stage. Stem: 2-6 cm long; 1-2.5 cm thick; more or less equal; sometimes tapering slightly to base; with a quickly collapsing white ring; not bruising yellow. Flesh: Thick and white throughout; not bruising yellow anywhere, even in the base of the stem; very rarely discoloring a pinkish wine color in wet weather. Odor and Taste: Pleasant. Chemical Reactions: Cap surface not yellowing with KOH. Spore Print: Dark chocolate brown. Microscopic Features: Spores: 5.5-10 x 4-7 µ; elliptical. Cheilocystidia to 10 µ wide. Universal veil hyphae (on cap surface and stem base) without inflated elements. The North American forms of this mushroom are apparently numerous--and several closely related (identical?) species have been described, including Agaricus andrewii (cheilocystidia 11-18.5 µ wide; universal veil hyphae with inflated elements) and Agaricus solidipes (spores up to 12 µ long; cheilocystidia absent). See also Agaricus porphyrocephalus.
Inedible
Clathrus archeri (Berk,) Dring Syn Anthurus archeri (Berk.) E. Fisher. Tintahalgomba, Tintenfischpilz, Octopus Stinkhorn. Fruit body growing from an egg shaped whitish volva 5 x 4cm, breaking into 4-8 starfish-like arms up to 10cm long, red to pink with the olivaceous-black spore bearing material on the inner side, odour strong and fetid with a hint of radish. Spores olive-brown average 5 x 2um. Habitat gardens and leaf litter. A native Australian fungus that is now found in both north America and Europe in warmer areas. Thanks to Geoffrey Kibby for the first photograph and to Mark Hampton for the second and Robert Corbyn for the third.
Edible
Coprinus Coprinus comatus (Fr.) S. F. Gray. Shaggy Mane, Shaggy Inkcap, Lawyer's Wig, Coprin chevelu, Schopftintling, Agarico chiomato, Geschubde inktzwam, Gyapjas tintagomba. Cap 3-7cm across when expanded, more or less a tall ovoid when young, becoming more cylindrical as it expands; white and very shaggy-scaly, often with a pale brownish "skullcap" at apex; margin of the cap dissolves away and progresses steadily upward until the entire cap has liquified away, including the gills. Gills free, crowded, very narrow; white becoming black and inky from the margin upward. Stem 60-120 x 10-20mm, very tall, straight, with a slightly bulbous base, hollow in center; white; smooth, with a ring of veil tissue left lower down on the stem. Flesh soft, fibrous; white. Odor (when young) pleasant. Taste similar. Spores ellipsoid, smooth, with germ pore at apex, (12)13-17(18) x 7-9?. Deposit black. Habitat often in large numbers on roadsides, lawns, and other urban sites, especially where the soil has been disturbed. Found throughout North America and Europe. Season sometimes in the spring but usually July-November. Edible and delicious when young.
Choice
Agaricus andrewii Freeman False Meadow Mushroom Cap 2-6cm across, convex then flattened, but with inrolled margin until fully mature; pure white, to cream when old; smooth, silky-fibrillose, margin of cap with floccose remnants of white veil. Gills free, crowded, broad; bright pink when young, then soon chocolate brown, and finally black. Stem 25-50 x 10-15mm, equal to tapered at the base; white; fibrillose to woolly below the faint evanescent ring zone. Flesh firm; white. Odor very pleasant. Taste very pleasant. Spores broadly ellipsoid, 7-8 x 4-5µ. Deposit purplish brown. Marginal cystidia sparse, prominent and turnip-shaped to club-shaped. Habitat As yet the exact distribution of this species is uncertain because of confusion with Agaricus campestris. However, it would appear to be widespread at least in eastern north America as far south as North Carolina. Season late September-November. Edible and choice, it has doubtless been mistakenly collected many times as Agaricus campestris. Comment The more familiar Agaricus campestris lacks any marginal cystidia and may not be as common in America as is usually supposed. Apart from the microscopic differences, Agaricus andrewii would appear to differ hardly at all macroscopically, except that it seems to have a more consistently smooth and purer white cap than Agaricus campestris. ---- Ecology: Saprobic; growing alone, gregariously, or sometimes in fairy rings, in meadows, fields, lawns, and grassy areas; late fall to early winter (occasionally in summer; sometimes year-long in California); widely distributed and common in North America. Cap: 3-11 cm; convex to broadly convex, occasionally nearly flat; whitish; smooth and glossy to fibrous to nearly wooly or scaly. Gills: Free from the stem; deep pink becoming brown and then dark chocolate brown in maturity; crowded; covered with a thin white partial veil when in the button stage. Stem: 2-6 cm long; 1-2.5 cm thick; more or less equal; sometimes tapering slightly to base; with a quickly collapsing white ring; not bruising yellow. Flesh: Thick and white throughout; not bruising yellow anywhere, even in the base of the stem; very rarely discoloring a pinkish wine color in wet weather. Odor and Taste: Pleasant. Chemical Reactions: Cap surface not yellowing with KOH. Spore Print: Dark chocolate brown. Microscopic Features: Spores: 5.5-10 x 4-7 µ; elliptical. Cheilocystidia to 10 µ wide. Universal veil hyphae (on cap surface and stem base) without inflated elements. The North American forms of this mushroom are apparently numerous--and several closely related (identical?) species have been described, including Agaricus andrewii (cheilocystidia 11-18.5 µ wide; universal veil hyphae with inflated elements) and Agaricus solidipes (spores up to 12 µ long; cheilocystidia absent). See also Agaricus porphyrocephalus.
Edible
Vascellum pratense (Pers.) Kreisel syn. V. depressum (Bon.) Smarda syn. Lycoperdon depressum Bon. syn. Lycoperdon hiemale Vitt. M?nzenst?ubling, Sz?lessz?j? laposp?feteg (p?feteg), Lycoperdon des pr?s, Meadow Puffball. Fruit body 2?4cm across, subglobose narrowed into a short squat stem, white at first then yellowish flesh-coloured, finally light brown, outer layer scurfy and with some small white spines, inner wall smooth and shining opening by a small pore but eventually the upper part breaking away totally leaving the fruit body bowl-shaped. Gleba olive-brown; sterile base well-developed, separated from the spore mass by a distinct membrane. Spores olive-brown, globose, finely warted, 3?5.5m in diameter. Habitat on lawns, golf-courses or pasture. Season summer to late autumn. Common. Edible when young. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tulostoma brumale Pers. ex Pers. Zitzenbovist, ?ves nyelesp?feteg, nyeles p?feteg, Tulostome mamelonn?, Winter Stalkball. Fruit body consisting of a globose head 1?2cm across attached to a slender fibrous stem 20?50 x 3?4mm. Head opening by a circular pore surmounting a pale ochre to whitish cylindrical mouth. Spores globose and finely warted, 3.5?5m in diameter. Habitat in sandy calcareous soil or dunes usually amongst moss, formerly found on old stone walls where mortar was used instead of cement. Season autumn. Rare. Not edible. Found In Europe and possibly in north America.
Inedible
Trichoglossum hirsutum (Pers. ex Fr.) Boud. Hairy Earthtongue. Fruit body 2?8cm high, 0.3?0.8cm wide, black, fertile head varying from flattened-cylindric to more club-shaped tapering into the slender compressed, velvety stalk. Asci 220 x 20?. Setae projecting between the asci numerous, thick-walled, black, stiff and pointed. Spores brown, subcylindric, 100?150 x 6?7?, fifteen-septate at maturity. Habitat in grassland or amongst sphagnum on acid solid. Season late summer to autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe. Trichoglossum hirsutum var. capitatum Trichoglossum hirsutum var. capitatum (Pers. ex Fr.) Boud. Differing from T. hirsutum only in the distinctly spade-shaped fertile head, identical in all other respects. Found In Europe.
Inedible
Stropharia coronilla (Bull. ex Fr.) Qu?l. syn. S. obturata (Fr.) Qu?l. Stropharia coronilla Kr?nchen-Tr?uschling S?rga harmatgomba Strophaire coronille Garland Roundhead. Cap 2?4cm across, convex then flattened, light yellow, slightly viscid or greasy. Stem 25?40 x 6?8mm, white tapering towards base; ring white, but often accentuated by trapped deposit of dark spores. Flesh thick, white. Gills white then clay-brown. Pleurocystidia broadly lanceolate with acutely pointed apex, staining deeply in aniline blue in lactic acid. Spore print purple-brown. Spores elliptic with indistinct pore, 7?9 x 4?6um. Habitat lawns and pasture. Season autumn. Common. Edible ? not worthwhile. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Stropharia aurantiaca (Cke.) Orton New syn. Leratiomyces ceres Orangeroter Tr?uschling T?glav?r?s harmatgomba, narancspiros harmatgomba Redlead Roundhead. Cap 1.5?5.5cm across, convex then expanded, orange-red with paler patches when dry, viscid when moist, margin often with whitish velar remnants. Stem 20?100 x 2?10mm, slightly thickened at base, whitish becoming streaked ochraceous or orange-red below. Flesh pale buff to concolorous. Gills whitish at first then olivaceous-clay. Pleurocystidia thin-walled, lanceolate with a sharp-pointed apex and yellowish contents. Cheilocystidia variable in shape, mostly thin-walled and lageniform often with flexuous necks, sometimes irregularly cylindric or clavate with a swollen or even capitate apex. Spore print dark purplish-brown. Spores elliptic, 11?13 x 6?7.5um. Habitat on rotting sawdust, usually in parks or gardens. Season autumn. Rare. Edibility unknown -avoid. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Stropharia aeruginosa (Curt. ex Fr.) Qu?l. Verdigris Agaric, Strophaire vert-de-gris, Vert-de-gris, Gr?nspantr?uschling, Z?ld harmatgomba, Strofaria grigio-verde, Kopergroenezwam. Cap 2?8cm across, convex to bell-shaped then flattened and slightly umbonate, blue to blue-green from the gluten and flecked with white scales, becoming pale yellowish as this is lost. Stem 40?100 x 4?12mm, whitish to blue, apex smooth, covered in small whitish scales below the spreading membranous ring. Flesh whitish-blue. Smell none. Gills white then clay brown, often with a white edge. Cheilocystidia obtuse, clavate-capitate or lageniform capitate; lanceolate chrysocystidia found on gill face and only rarely on gill-edge. Spore print brownish-purple. Spores elliptic, 7?10 x 5um. Habitat woods, heaths and pastures. Season late spring to late autumn. Common. Poisonous. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Scleroderma cepa (Vaill.) Pers. Fruit body 1.5-9cm across, subglobose, flattened, or lobed; no stem or almost none, attached by a thick mass of tough, hairy mycelium. Peridium (outer skin) 1-3mm thick; when fresh, hard, quite tough; white in cross-section, becoming reddish or pinkish brown when cut. Surface whitish when young, becoming straw-colored to yellowish brown or leather brown, turning deep pinky-brown if rubbed; smooth becoming very finely cracked and scaly, especially on the top where exposed to light. Spore mass white and firm when young, soon becoming black or purple-black, then paler or browner and powdery. Odor none. Spores globose, spiny but not reticulate, 7-10 x 7-10-. Habitat singly, scattered, or in groups under deciduous and coniferous trees in woods, in gardens, and along roadsides. Common. Found widely distributed in North America. Season July-October. Poisonous.
Hallucinogenic
Psilocybe semilanceata (Fr. ex Secr.) Kummer. Liberty Cap or Magic Mushroom, Spitzkegeliger Kahlkopf, Hegyescs?cs? badargomba, Puntig kaalkopje. Cap 0.5?1.5cm across, elongate conical with a distinct sharply pointed umbo, puckered at margin, hygrophanous, yellowish-brown with olivaceous tinge drying ochre-buff, covered with a viscid pellicle. Stem 25?75 x 1?2mm, white to cream, sometimes with a bluish tinge at the stem base. Flesh cream to pallid. Gills pale clay at first, finally dark purple-brown. Spore print dark purplish-brown. Spores elliptic, 11.5?14.5 x 7?9um. Habitat lawns, pasture and roadsides. Season late summer to late autumn. Frequent. Hallucinogenic. Edible but not recommended. Hallucinogenic and widely collected for this purpose, but should be regarded as mildly poisonous; also, there is the possibility of misidentification. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Psathyrella multipedata (Peck) Smith B?scheliger Faserling Clustered Brittlestem Csoportos porhany?sgomba. Fruit bodies growing in very dense tufts of up to seventy individuals arising from a common base. Cap 1?3cm across, conical-convex, dingy clay-brown drying or ageing cream, striate. Stem 70?120 x 2?4mm, whitish. Flesh thin, whitish. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills dark purplish-brown. Cystidia thin-walled, narrowly fusoid with somewhat swollen base. Spore print dark brown. Spores elliptic, 6.5?10 x 3.5?4.5um. Habitat amongst grass in open deciduous woodland and roadsides. Season summer. Rare. Edibility unknown -avoid. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Panaeolus sphinctrinus (Fr.) Qu-l. syn. Paneolus campanulatus var. sphinctrinus (Fr.) Qu-l. New syn. Panaeolus papilionaceus Gez-huter D-ngerling Csipk-s (halv-ny) tr-gyagomba. Cap 2-4cm across, broadly conical to bell-shaped sometimes with a slight umbo, dark grey to almost black when moist drying out pale grey with dark ochre centre, margin overhanging gills forming pale delicate teeth. Stem 60-120 x 2-3mm, grey, paler at apex. Flesh thin, pale grey. Gills adnate, grey soon becoming black, edge white. Spore print black. Spores lemon-shaped, 14-18 x 10-12um. Habitat in pastureland, on or near dung. Season late spring to autumn. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Panaeolus rickenii Hora Wiesend-ngerling V-r-sbarna tr-gyagomba. Cap 1-2cm across, convex to conical with prominent umbo, dark brown and striate at margin when moist drying pale buff or tan, flushed tan towards centre. Stem 50-100 x 2-3m, pinkish brown or tan with paler apex. Flesh thin, tan. Taste not distinctive, smell mushroomy. Gills adnate, grey soon becoming black. Spore print black. Spores lemon-shaped, 13-16 x 9.5-11um. Habitat in damp pastureland. Season summer to autumn. Frequent. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Inedible
Panaeolina foenisecii (Pers. ex Fr.) Maire syn. Psilocybe foenisecii (Pers. ex Fr.) Qu?l. syn Panaeolus foenisecii (Pers. ex Fr.) Schroeter Heud?ngerling R?ti tr?gyagomba Brown Mottlegill. Cap 1?2cm across, bell-shaped to convex, dark dull-brown drying out pale clay brown from the rust-coloured centre outwards to the margin which often remains darker. Stem 40?70 x 2?3mm, paler than cap. Flesh buff to pale brown. Smell not distinctive. Gills adnate, pale brown when young soon becoming mottled darker. Spore print brownish black. Spores lemon-shaped, rough, with germ-pore, 12?15 x 7?8.5um. Habitat in grassland and on lawns and roadsides. Season summer to autumn. Common. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Inedible
Omphalina pyxidata (Bull. ex Fr.) Qu--l. Selymes b-kagomba. Cap 0.5-2cm across, convex, deeply umbilicate; reddish brown, pinkish brown to yellowish; smooth and deeply radially fluted. Gills decurrent, widely spaced; brownish. Stem 10-30 x 1-2mm, paler than cap; smooth. Spores almond-shaped, 7-10 x 4.5-6--. Deposit white. Habitat in grass in sandy soils, subalpine to alpine. Found in Europe and western North America. Season July-September. Edibility not known -avoid.
Inedible
Mycena leptocephala (Pers. ex Fr.) Gillet syn. M. ammoniaca ([Fr.] Secr.) Qu-l. s. Pearson syn. M. alcalina var. chlorinella Lange Rauchiger Helmling Szalmi-kos k-gy-gomba, sal-tromos k-gy-gomba. Cap 1-1.5cm across, bell-shaped, smoky grey, striate when moist, opaque and grooved when dry. Stem 30-55 x 1-2mm, greyish with paler apex, base woolly white and slightly rooting. Flesh thin, whitish darkening towards the stem base. Taste mild, smelling strongly of ammonia or ozone. Gills pale grey with whitish edge. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, cylindric, fusoid often forked at apex. Spore print whitish. Spores ellipsoid to subcylindric, amyloid, 5-10 x 4-7um. Habitat in short grass. Season autumn. Frequent. Not edible. Distribution, Found In Europe.
Inedible
Mycena galopus (Pers. ex Fr.) Kummer Weissmilchender Helmling Feh-rtej- k-gy-gomba Myc-ne - pied laiteux Milking Bonnet. Cap 1-2cm across, conical or bell-shaped, grey-brown with umber centre, distinctly lined. Stem 50-100 x 2-3mm, grey, exuding white latex when broken, base covered in white cottony fibres. Flesh very thin, white. Taste mild, smell not distinctive. Gills adnate, white to grey. Cheilo- and pleurocystidia conspicuous, fusoid, thin-walled. Spores ellipsoid, amyloid, 11-13 x 5-6um. Habitat amongst leaf litter in woods, hedgerows and on path sides. Season summer to autumn. Very common. Edible but not worthwhile -avoid. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Mycena epipterygia (Scop. ex Fr.) S.F. Gray, Dehnbarer Helmling Enyves k?gy?gomba Myc?ne des foug?res Yellowleg Bonnet. Cap 1?2cm across, convex expanding to bell-shaped, fawn, especially at centre, with yellowish tinge, having a lined appearance when moist, margin often delicately toothed, covered with a viscid, easily removed skin. Stem 40?70 x 1?2mm, pale yellow and viscid. Flesh very thin. Taste mild, smell slight, not distinctive. Gills subdecurrent, pale pink, edge glutinous, can be removed by a needle when fresh. Cheilocystidia clavate covered with irregular knobbly sometimes branched processes. Spore print white to pale buff. Spores ellipsoid, amyloid, 8?10 x 4.5?5um. Habitat amongst grass or moss in woods or heaths. Season autumn. Common. Edible but not worthwhile -avoid. Found In Europe.
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