Found in fields Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
Stem type:
Spore colour:
Cap type:
Fungus colour:
Normal size:
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Flesh:
Class:
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Total mushrooms fount: 143

Poisonous/Suspect
Cystolepiota sistrata (Fr.) Bon & Bellu syn. Lepiota sistrata (Fr.) Qu?l. syn. L. seminuda (Lasch) Kummer syn. Cystoderma seminudum (Lasch) Sing. Weisser Schirmpilz, Feh?r lisztes-?zl?bgomba, Lepiote demi-nue, Bearded Dapperling Cap 0.5?1.5cm across, conico-convex with a distinct umbo, white with a flesh-colour tinge, mealy due to the surface being composed of thin-walled sphaerocysts. Stem 15?25 x 1?2mm, white tinged pinkish towards the base, finely mealy. Flesh thin, white in cap, pinkish in lower stem. Gills white. Spore print white. Spores ellipsoid, 3?4 x 2?2.5um. Habitat on pathsides or wood-edges. Season autumn. Common. Edibility unknown -avoid. Found In Europe.
Inedible
Cuphophyllus russocoriaceus Syn. Hygrocybe russocoriacea Berk. & Miller syn. Camarophyllus russo-coriaceus (Berk. & Miller) Lange Bleicher Saftling Cedarwood Waxcap. Cap 0.8-2cm across, white to yellow-ivory, convex, faintly striate. Stem 20-35 x 2-3mm, whitish, slightly wavy and tapering towards the base. Flesh thick at centre of cap, whitish or tinged ivory-yellow. Smell strongly of pencil sharpenings or sandalwood. Gills decurrent, widely spaced, white. Spore print white. Spores ellipsoid, 7.5-9 x 4-5um. Habitat in short grass on lawns or heaths. Season autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Edible
Cuphophyllus pratensis (Pers:Fr) Bon. syn Hygrocybe pratensis (Pers. ex Fr.) Fr. syn. Hygrophorus pratensis Fr., Camarophyllus pratensis (Pers. ex Fr.) Kummer. Wiesen Saftling ?l?nksz?n? nyirokgomba Hygrophore des pr?s Meadow Waxcap. Cap 3?8cm across, convex then flattened with broad umbo, becoming distorted and often cracking with age, ochraceous or tawny-buff. Stem 20?50 x 10?15mm, paler than cap, tapering towards the base. Flesh thick at centre of cap, pale buff. Taste pleasant, smell mushroomy. Gills deeply decurrent, widely spaced, pale buff. Spore print white. Spores broadly ovoid to subglobose, 5?7 x 4.5?5m. Habitat in pastureland. Season autumn. Frequent. Edible ? good. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe. Note Bon has now placed this fungus in Cuphophyllus.
Poisonous/Suspect
Conocybe subovalis (Kuhn.) Kuhn. & Romagn. syn. Galera tenera (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Quel. s. Lange syn. G. tenera var. subovalis Kuhn. Braunstieliges Samthaubchen. Cap 1.5?3.5cm across, convex to bell-shaped, dull ochre, flushed with cinnamon, drying pale ochraceous cream, smooth. Stem 60?100 x 1?2mm, ochraceous cinnamon, minutely powdered whitish towards the base which ends in a small, distinct, more or less marginate bulb. Flesh very thin ochraceous cream in cap, cinnamon in stem. Gills free, rather crowded, ochraceous buff becoming more cinnamon. Spore print pale rust brown. Spores oval, 11?14 x 6?8um. Cheilocystidia skittle-shaped, head usually 5?6.5um in diameter. Habitat in pastures. Season autumn. Rare. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Conocybe plumbeitincta (Atk.) Sing. syn. Galera siliginea (Fr. ex Fr.) Quel. s. Rea, Kuhn. Bleigraues Samthaubchen. Cap 1-2cm across, bell-shaped, pale grey-brown, smooth. Stem 40-60 x 2-3mm, pallid becoming darker towards the base, no ring. Flesh concolorous, thin. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills adnate, pale ochraceous-buff. Spore print ochraceous-brown. Spores broadly ellipsoid, 9-16 x 5-9.5?. Cheilocystidia skittle-shaped, head 3.2-5? in diameter. Habitat in earth at roadsides, in gardens or fields. Season autumn. Rare. Not edible. Found In Europe and America.
Poisonous/Suspect
Conocybe ochracea (Kuhn.) Sing. syn. C. siliginea var. ochracea Kuhn.Ockerbraunes Samthaubchen. Cap 1?C2cm across, bell-shaped, ochre to tawny brown, drying paler, striate from margin to halfway to centre. Stem 30-60 x 2-3mm, pale at the apex, concolorous with cap below, towards the base covered in fine white fibres. Flesh pale ochraceous buff. Gills adnexed or free, clay-buff at first later ochraceous. Spore print ochraceous. Spores 8.5-11.5 x 5-7?. Cheilocystidia skittle-shaped, head 3-5? in diameter. Habitat in lawns. Season summer. Common. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Deadly
Conocybe filaris Fr. syn. Pholiotina filaris (Fr.) Singer Faden-Samthaubchen Fool's Conecap. Cap 0.5-2.5cm across, conical to convex- umbonate; yellow-brown; glabrous. Gills sinuate-adnate, crowded, broad; pallid to rust-brown. Stem10-40 x 1-1.5mm, equal; yellow to yellow-orange; a distinct, membranous ring on stem apex. Odor not distinctive. Taste not distinctive. Spores smooth, with germ pore at tip, 7.5-13 X 3.5-6.5?. Deposit cinnamon brown. Habitat in grass or on wood chips. Found throughout most of North America and Europe. Season July-October. Deadly poisonous. Comment This mushroom contains poisons similar to those of the Destroying Angel, Amanita virosa. Note it has been pointed out to me that the illustrations look very different. The more flat capped specimens were collected in America, but they fit well with the pictures in the Fungi of Switzerland volume 4. The other specimens were checked by Dr Derek Reid at Kew and they fit the description of 'Conecap' very much better. I think it all goes to show that the age of the specimens is very important as they can change quite radically.
Inedible
Conocybe aporus Kits van Wav. Syn., C. aporos, Pholiotina aporus (Kits van Wav.) Clemencon. Tavaszi t?kegomb?cska. Cap 1-4 cm hemispherical or bell-shaped, hazel brown to ochre. Stem 2-6cm long 2-4 mmwide, white with a distinct folded ring. Gills ochre brown. Spores rusty ochre, under 10 ? long. Habitat coniferous or deciduous woods, usually on chalky soil, often early in the year. Occasional. Not edible. Found in Europe, not recorded for USA.
Inedible
Clavulinopsis helvola Fr. syn. Clavaria helvola Fr. Orangegelbe Keule S?fr?ny sz?n? bunk?gomba, S?fr?ny gyep-korallgomba Clavaire jaun?tre Yellow Club. Fruit body 3?7cm high, 1.5?4mm wide, yellow to orange-yellow, solitary or in small groups, simple. Spores white or faintly yellow, subglobose to somewhat angular and bluntly enhinulate, 4?7?3.5?6?. Habitat terrestrial, in woods or in open situations amongst grass and moss. Season late summer to late autumn. Very common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Chlorophyllum molybdites (Mayer ex Fr.) Mass. Lepiota morganii (Pk.) Sacc. Green-gilled Lepiota. Cap 5-30cm across, hemispherical to broadly convex becoming flatter; whitish underneath, covered with thin layers of pale pinkish-buff volval tissue which breaks up into many small scales and patches as the cap expands; dry, smooth or minutely hairy below, with scales curling upward in age. Gills free, close, broad; whitish slowly becoming dirty gray-green or darker. Stem 50-250 x 8-25mm, sometimes enlarging toward the base; whitish, slowly becoming dingy gray; smooth. Veil membranous, large, white, leaving double edged, persistent pendant ring on the upper stalk. Flesh thick; white, discoloring dingy red when bruised. Odor faint and pungent or none. Taste mild or none. Spores ovoid or ellipsoid, smooth, thick-walled with small germ pore at tip, 8-13 x 6.5-8?. Deposit green. No pleurocystidia. Habitat often forming fairy rings on grassy places such as lawns, meadows, and wasteland. Found widely distributed in North America but very common in the Gulf Coast area and Colorado. Season July-September. Poisonous. Comment Many people have reported this mushroom as edible, but it definitely contains toxins. These may be reduced by boiling, which may account for some people's eating it without symptoms of vomiting, cramps, and diarrhea.
Inedible
Battarraea phalloides (Dicks.) Pers. Stielstaubpilz Homoki ?lsz?m?rcs?g Sandy Siltball Fruit body 10?25cm high, consisting of a spore-sac borne on a rigid ochre-brown stem covered in shaggy fibres which is seated in a loose whitish membranous cup. Initially the fruit body is contained within the volva buried in sandy soil, then as the stem elongates rapidly the spore sac is pushed through the soil surface where it splits all round exposing the powdery rusty brown spore mass. Spores brown, subglobose to ovate, 5.0?5.5(6.5)?. Habitat on sandy soil. Season summer. Very rare. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Alboleptonia sericella (Fr.) Largent & Benedict syn. Entoloma sericellum var. sericellum (Fr.) Rummer Feh?rpityke d?ggomba. Cap 1-2.5cm across, convex becoming expanded, sometimes with a depressed disc, margin sometimes slightly lined in age; white becoming pinkish; dry, sometimes felty to scaly on the disc. Gills adnate often with a decurrent tooth, close to subdistant, broad to moderately broad; white then pale pinkish tawny. Stem 15-60 x 1-3mm, solid or becoming hollow; whitish becoming dingy or vinaceous in age; smooth, silky, with a bloom toward the top. Flesh thin, fragile; white. Odor mild. Taste mild. Spores nodulose, 8.5-11 x 6-7.5?. Deposit pinkish. Habitat growing on soil under conifers and hardwoods. Found in central and eastern -North America and in Washington. Season July-September. Not edible.
Inedible
Agrocybe paludosa (Lange) K?hn. & Romagn. syn. Pholiota praecox var. paludosa LangeSumpf-Ackerling Pholiote des marais Cap 1.5?3cm across, convex then flattened with broad umbo, dirty cream to pale tan, especially at the centre. Stem 40?70 x 2?3mm, cream flushed with cap colour, ring near apex, rather broad and fragile. Flesh thin, whitish in cap, brownish in stem. Smell of meal. Gills adnate, pale at first then darker brown. Spore print light cigar-brown. Spores ovoid-ellipsoid, 9?10 x 5?5.5?. Cap cuticle cellular. Habitat in marshy meadows. Season late spring in summer. Rare. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Agrocybe dura (Bolt. ex Fr.) Sing. syn. Pholiota dura (Bolt. ex Fr.) Kummer, Rissiger Ackerling, Kerti r?tgomba, Pholiote dure, Bearded Fieldcap Cap 3?7cm across, convex expanding to almost flat, ivory white to yellowish cream. Stem 50?80 x 3?7mm, whitish with cottony ring near apex. Flesh thick, firm, whitish. Taste slightly bitter, smell mushroomy. Gills adnate, pale at first then darker clay. Spore print light cigar brown. Spores ovoid-ellipsoid, 12?13 x 6?7.5?. Cap cuticle cellular. Habitat singly in grass at roadsides or in meadows. Season spring to late summer. Occasional. Edible ? poor. Distribution, Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Agaricus porphyrocephalus M-ller syn. Psalliota porphyrea M-ller Rotbrauner Egerling Cap 3-8cm across, hemispherical to flat, brown, with darker radiating fibrils. Stem 30-40 x 10-20mm, white, slightly tapering towards the base or sometimes slightly swollen and bulbous; ring thin and white. Flesh white to pale flesh-coloured. Taste and smell mushroomy. Gills pink at first, later chocolate brown. Cheilocystidia absent. Spore print brown. Spores 5-7-3-4.5m. Habitat lawns or pastures. Season autumn. Rare. Edibility suspect -avoid. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Agaricus pilatianus Bohus syn. A. xanthodermus var. pilatianus Bohus Weissgrauer Karbolegerling Fenolszag? (kr?ms?rga) csiperke. Cap 6?12cm across, obtusely convex, white at first becoming smoky- or greyish-brown, bruising yellow when young. Stem 40?80 x 15?30mm, cylindrical, slightly clavate or tapering at the base, white becoming tinged ochraceous to brownish; ring white, double. Flesh white, staining yellow in the stem base. Taste strong and unpleasant, smell unpleasant, strongly of carbolic. Gills white at first then pink, finally chocolate brown. Cheilocystidia clavate to broadly clavate, 22?30 x 11?13.5?. Spore print brown. Spores broadly ovate, 5.5-6.5 x 4.3-5.3?. Habitat in short grass in gardens or on lawns. Season autumn. Rare. Poisonous. Found In Europe.
Edible
Agaricus micromegethus Pk. Cap 2.5-6cm across, convex with flattened disc; cream with darker innate fibrils, fibers dull yellowish brown to brown, staining stronger yellow when bruised. Gills free; white to grayish then dark brown. Stem 25-50 x 6-l0mm, equal; white staining yellowish; smooth above the ring, slightly fibrillose below; ring thin, single, often vanishing, white. Flesh white, discoloring yellowish. Odor pleasant. Taste pleasant. Spores ovoid to ellipsoid, 4.5-5.5 x 3.5-4?. Deposit dark brown. Habitat in open pastures and meadows. Frequent. Found east of the Great Plains. Season July-September. Edible. Comment The collection illustrated was found in mixed woodlands in Oregon.
Edible
Agaricus littoralis (Wak. & Pears.) Pilat. syn. A. spissicaulis. Strandegerling, Szeksz?rdi csiperke, nyomott-t?nk? csiperke. Cap 5-13cm across, convex at first but soon flattened and later with a central depression. Margin of cap often incurved and overhanging gills. White or greyish-white to pale brown, smooth or with faint, flattened, darker scales at centre, with small fragments of veil hanging at margin. Stem 25-70 x 12-20mm, whitish to pale buff, stout, swollen and slightly bulbous at base, slightly browning on handling, with a narrow, pendent white ring about half way up. Base of stem usually has distinct white ?roots? or rhizomorphs. Flesh white with a brownish tint, thick in cap, faintly discolouring to pale orange-buff to pale reddish-brown when cut, smelling slightly of anise or almonds when fresh, later rather sour. Taste is pleasant and nutty. Gills free from stem, rather crowded and at first pale pinkish-brown then soon greyish-brown then dark brown. Spore print dark, chocolate brown. Spores ellipsoid, 6.5-8.5x5-6.5?, smooth. Gill edge appearing sterile but with sparse, swollen cystidia. Habitat solitary or in small groups in dry sandy pastures, coastal dunes, or even along roadsides. Season summer to late autumn. Uncommon to rare. Edible but poor. Distribution, North America, Europe and North Africa. The first picture was taken by Geoffrey Kibby.
Edible
Agaricus comtulus Fr. syn. Psalliota comtula (Fr.) Qu?l. Dickstieliger Zwergegerling, Kis csiperke. Cap 2?4cm across, convex expanding flat, white to ochraceous-cream. Stem 30?50 x 4?6mm, white or creamy, not bruising yellow; ring white and membranous. Flesh white but yellowing slightly in the stem base. Taste almondy, smell faintly of almonds or aniseed. Gills flesh-pink at first, darkening with age. Spore print brown. Spores ovate, 4.5?5.5?3?3.5m. Habitat in pastureland. Season late summer to autumn. Occasional. Edible. Found In Europe.
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