Grows in woods Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
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Total mushrooms fount: 1134

Edible
Boletus aereus, described by some as the Queen Bolete but just lately given the normal name Bronze Bolete in Britain and Ireland, is a most sought-after edible mushroom. It is merely as good as its famous close relative, Boletus edulis (Cep or Cent Bun Bolete) but its flesh is quite firmer. In the pub marketplaces of France, for example, these excellent boletes can be purchased as well as Boletus edulis and Boletus reticulatus, and customers are evenly happy with whichever of the meaty mushroom varieties can be found. A exceptional find in Ireland and Britain, where it is restricted to southern parts mainly, Boletus aereus is a lot more prevalent in southern European countries. Commonly bought at the sides, beside strolls or in clearings in oak and beech woodlands, Boletus aereus will berry just a little than boletus edulis later, which looks later than the summertime Bolete relatively, Boletus reticulatus. Most boletes, and certainly every one of the common ones within Britain and Ireland, are ectomycorrhizal fungi. Which means that they form mutualistic romantic relationships with the main systems of trees and shrubs or shrubs. The fungi help the tree to obtain moisture and essential minerals from the soil, and in exchange the main system of the tree gives energy-rich nutrients, the merchandise of photosynthesis, to the fungal mycelium. Although most trees and shrubs may survive without their mycorrhizal companions, boletes (and a great many other varieties of forest-floor fungi) cannot endure without trees; subsequently these so-called 'obligately mycorrhizal' fungi do not happen in wide open grassland. The medical name Boletus aerus started in Jean Baptiste Francois Pierre Bulliard's 1789 descriotipon of the varieties. Synonyms of Boletus aereus includeBoletus mamorensis Redeuilh. The universal name Boletus comes from the Greek bolos, indicating lump of clay; the foundation of the precise epithet aereus is Latin and means copper or bronze (in shade) - hence the normal name Bronze Bolete. Some individuals make reference to it as the Dark colored Porcini or the Dark Cover Bolete. Boletus aereus, the dark cep or bronze bolete, is a highly prized and much sought-after edible mushroom in the family Boletaceae. Dark cigar brown, bay to dark sepia, often dark brick-coloured near the margin, minutely cracking making the surface roughly textured, slightly downy at first then smooth. Stem 60-80 x 11-12mm, robust, covered with network which is brown near apex, clay pink or buff around the middle and rusty below. Flesh white, unchanging or becoming dirty vinaceous when bruised. Taste pleasant, smell strong and earthy. Boletus aereus comes with an earthy smell and a pleasurable mild taste. Habitat with broad-leaved trees, especially beech and oak. To Oct in Britain and Ireland august, this bolete are available from Oct to Feb in a few elements of southern European countries. ( Season summer to autumn ) Rare. Edible. Distribution, America and Europe. Cap: First downy but becoming gentle with a finely damaged or granular surface soon, the dark-brown to dark sepia-brown hats of Boletus aereus range between 7 to 20cm size at maturity. The cover margin is a far more reddish brownish than the centre often. When cut, the cover flesh remains white or very gradually converts somewhat purplish usually. Spores: Spores olivaceous snuff-brown, subfusiform, 13,5 - 16 x 4 - 5 µm. Pores and tubes: Tubes white to cream, finally sulphur-yellow. Pores similarly coloured but bruising vinaceous on handling and often flushed rust with age. The pipes of Boletus aereus (seen when the cover is damaged or chopped up) are white or pale cream, becoming smart sulphur yellow at maturity; they terminate in really small creamy white skin pores that become rust-coloured (see remaining) with years. When bruised or cut, the skin pores and pipes of Boletus aereus swiftly do not change shade, but after the right time they create a vinaceous tinge. Stem: A fine brown online structure (reticulum) is obvious on the pale darkish track record of the stem surface, darkest on the apex with the bottom and usually relatively paler and pinker near to the inflamed centre of the stem. Sometimes clavate (club-shaped) but more regularly barrel-shaped, the stem of Boletus aereus is 5 to 12cm high or more to 8cm in size at its widest point. The stem flesh is white and incredibly organization. Habitat & Ecological role: Boletus aereus develops on garden soil beneath broadleaf trees and shrubs, beech and oaks notably. Similar species Boletus edulis has a pale stem with a white reticulum; its dark brown cover has a whitish marginal region. Tylopilus felleus has a darker stem reticulum and a pinkish tinge to its skin pores; it has an extremely bitter taste.
Inedible
Inonotus hispidus (Bull. ex Fr.) Karst. Pelzporling, Almafa rozsd?stapl? (tapl?) Polypore h?ris?e, Shaggy Bracket. Habitat: Commonly between 10-20ft on the trunks of ash, but seen on walnut sometimes, london and apple plane. Strategy: Parasitic creating simultaneous white rot. Value: Brittle fracture at point of decay. The probability of standing timber being created is wonderful for biodiversity Annual bracket ranging from: 6 to 25 cm across 4 to 12 cm wide 2 to 10 cm thick Fan-shaped, usually single but occasionally fusing with others into overlapping groups, surface felty-hairy varying from ochraceous to tobacco-brown, finally blackish and bristly. Red to brown and like velvet on top and usually growing independently. The bracket will blacken with age and finally drop off within the year, remaining on the ground below the tree for a long time. Spores exuded from red to brown pores. Tubes 10-20(50)mm long. Pores 2 - 3 per mm, circular to angular, pale ochraceous at first, later brown and glancing in the light. Spores rust, subglobose, 9?12?4?10m. Habitat usually on ash but commonly on other trees such as elm, apple and walnut. Season summer but persisting on the tree in blackened state throughout the year, annual ( Seen in October ). Frequent. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Cortinarius (Telamonia) bulliardii (Fr.) Fr. Zinnoberroter Gürtelfuss Vöröslábú pókhálósgomba Cortinaire de Bulliard Hotfoot Webcap Cap 4–8cm across, convex then expanded, deep red-brown to chestnut drying ochre-buff. Stem 50–100 x 10–15mm, whitish near apex becoming rust towards the base and covered in reddish fibres. Flesh whitish, sometimes reddish at stem base. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills violaceous at first, soon rusty. Spore print rust. Spores elliptic, rough, 8–10 x 5–6µ. Habitat deciduous wood, especially beech. Season autumn. Rare. Edibility Suspect – avoid as many Cortinarius contain toxins. Found In Europe. edibility: Poisonous/Suspect fungus colour: Red or redish or pink normal size: 5-15cm cap type: Convex to shield shaped stem type: Bulbous base of stem spore colour: Rusty brown habitat: Grows in woods, Grows on the ground
Inedible
Ganoderma lucidum (Curt. ex Fr.) Karst. Gl-nzender Lackporling, Pecs-tviasz-tapl-, pecs-tviaszgomba, Ganoderme luisant, Ganoderme laque, Polypore lucide, Lacquered Bracket. Fruit body usually stalked. Bracket 10-25cm in diameter, 2-3cm thick, fan- or kidney-shaped, laterally attached, concentrically grooved and zoned ochraceous to orange brown, later purple-brown to blackish, and like the stem conspicuously glossy as if varnished. Stem up to 250 x 10-30mm, dark brown, glossy. Tubes 0.5-2cm long. Pores 4-5 per mm, circular, whitish then cream, finally tobacco brown, darkening on bruising when fresh. Spores rusty, ellipsoid-ovate with truncate end, 7-13 x 6-8um. Habitat on roots of deciduous trees. Season all year. Rare. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe. ---- Habitat • Near or at the base, at the soil line, or attached to roots of living trees • On stumps and bases of dead trees, and sometimes from buried wood residues where trees have been removed Fruiting Time of Year • Summer through fall, turning black and persisting through to the following year Fruiting (Hymenial) Surface • White with small pores, 4-5 per mm, changing to brown with age Type of Decay • White root and butt rot Mode of Action • A moderately fast progressing root and butt rot The fungus can also kill cambial tissues and cause root death Frequency • Very common Tree Health Symptoms • Thin crowns • Dead branches • Yellowing leaves • Overall poor vigor • Some trees show no apparent health impacts from infection Edibility/Medicinal • Medicinal; used as an anti-inflammatory treatment • Sold in teas and pills in most oriental stores • Documented health benefits in medical literature Identifying Features (see adjacent photos) • Single or clusters of round to half-moon shaped conks usually attached directly to wood but occasionally with a lateral or central stem • 10 cm (4 in) up to 35 cm (14 in) across and 2.5 cm (1 in) or more thick • Cap or the top of the conk “varnished” red to mahogany with or without a white margin • Reddish-brown zonate interior or context • White pore surface that edges brown when fresh
Inedible
Inonotus dryadeus, commonly known as oak bracket, warted oak polypore, weeping polypore or weeping conk, is an inedible species of fungus belonging to the genus Inonotus, which consists of bracket fungi with fibrous flesh. Most often found growing at the base of oak trees, it causes white rot and decay of the trunks. It secretes an amber liquid which weeps from tubes in its upper surface. Bracket 10x65cm across, 5x25cm wide, 2x12cm thick, or sometimes forming large, irregular cushions, corky; Upper surface uneven, white-grey becoming brownish, finally very dark, margin broadly rounded and paler, exuding drops of yellowish liquid. Flesh rusty brown, fibrous. Tubes 5x20mm long, rusty-brown. Pores 3x4 per mm, circular then angular, white-grey becoming rusty. Spores white to yellowish, subglobose, 7x9x6.5x7.5m. Hyphal structure monomitic; generative hyphae lacking clamp-connections. Setae in the tubes dark brown with swollen base and hooked pointed tips. Habitat parasitic on various species of oak, found at the base of trunks. Season all year. Uncommon. ---- Ecology: Parasitic on living oaks in eastern North America and, in the west, on true firs; causing a white butt rot and root rot; annual; growing alone, gregariously, or in shelving clusters; summer and fall (or over winter in warm climates); fairly widely distributed in North America but apparently absent in the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains. Cap: Up to 40 cm across; semicircular, kidney-shaped, cushion-shaped, or irregular; usually convex; finely velvety, becoming bald with age; often lumpy; buff to dull yellow, becoming brown with age; often exuding drops of amber liquid when fresh, especially along the margin; the margin thick. Pore Surface: Buff to yellowish when young, becoming brown; bruising slowly brown; exuding drops of amber liquid when fresh and young; with 4-6 circular to angular pores per mm; tubes to 2 cm deep. Stem: Absent. Flesh: Yellowish brown becoming reddish brown; soft, becoming leathery or corky; zoned. Chemical Reactions: Flesh black with KOH. Spore Print: Yellowish to brownish. Microscopic Features: Spores 6-8 x 5-7 µ; smooth; subglobose; hyaline in KOH; dextrinoid. Setae usually present but sometimes very rare; to about 40 x 15 µ; usually curved. Contextual hyphae thin- to thick-walled; simple-septate. ---- Habitat • At ground level attached to the base and larger roots of living trees • On stumps or dead trees Fruiting Time of Year • Summer through fall Fruiting (Hymenial) Surface • Small pores and gray-brown or darker Type of Decay • White root and butt rot with most of the decay concentrated in larger roots Mode of Action • Moderately slow progressing root rot eventually leading to root failure Frequency • Common Tree Health Symptoms • Often none other than the appearance of the fruiting bodies and extensively decayed root when a tree fails ---- Occurrence A basidiomycetes widespread and fairly common in Britain attacking various species of oak (Quercus), in my experience this year it has been seen on a regular basis. The fungus is sometimes also found on horse chestnut, sweet chestnut, beech, London plane, elm and more rarely on conifers. The fruiting body (Sporophore) is not very regular in its appearance, and quite often several years may elapse between the production of the fruiting body on an infected tree. The fruiting body is usually seen only on large, old living trees and occurs almost invariably near the butt. Fruiting Body It is a thick lumpy bracket, being sessile (without stalk) and can measure up to 300mm across and 80mm thick. Sometimes the fruiting bodies are imbricated (arranged so as to overlap) in groups. The upper surface colour is at first pale chamois yellow, later becoming brown. A constant and very characteristic feature of this fungus is the presence of drops of coloured liquid in little round depressions on the margin of the actively growing fruit-body. These depressions may persist after the drops have evaporated. The underside bears small whitish pores, and the flesh and tubes are rusty brown. The consistency of the flesh is soft at first, later becoming corky and then brittle with age. The fruiting bodies appear in the early Autumn and decompose during the winter turning black. Colonisation Strategy The attack is more or less confined to the heartwood and never spreads very far up the trunk, at most reaching 2 metres above soil level.
Inedible
Verpa bohemica (Krombh.) Schroer. B-hmische Verpel, Cseh kucsmagomba, Rapunzelverpel. Cap 1-2.5cm high, thimble- to bell-shaped; dull yellow-brown to sepia; surface deeply wrinkled and convoluted; margin completely free from the stem, cap attached only at top. Stem 50-100 x 10-25mm, slightly clavate; white; smooth to scurfy-granular, often ridged. Flesh white. Odor pleasant. Taste pleasant. Asci each ascus holds only 2 spores. Spores huge, ellipsoid, smooth, 60-80 x 15-18-. Deposit yellow. Habitat in damp woods along stream banks, pathsides. Found in Europe and throughout most of North America although rare in the East. Season March-early May. Edible with caution. Although widely eaten, it has caused adverse symptoms in some people.
Inedible
Ustulina deusta (Fr.) Petrak syn. Kretzschmaria deusta (Hoffm.:Fr.) P. Martin. Korsthoutskoolzwam Szenes ripacsosgomba. Fruit body forming irregular wavy cushions or encrusting the substrate, greyish white in the early stages soon becoming brittle enough to crush between the fingers, finally black and very brittle resembling charred wood. Asci 300 x 15m. Spores black, fusiform, 28?34 x 7?10um. Habitat on old dead stumps or roots of deciduous trees especially beech. Season late spring to summer, although the blackened state may be seen all year round. Common. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Inedible
Tyromyces caesius (Schrad. ex. Fr.) Murr. syn. Polyporus caesius Schrad. ex Fr. New syn. Postia caesia Blauender Saftporling Elk?k?l? likacsosgomba (tapl?). Bracket 1?6cm across, 1?4cm wide, 0.3?1cm thick, single or in overlapping groups, semicircular; upper surface covered in fine long hairs, whitish, grey-blue with age or where handled. Tubes 0.5?4.5mm long, white later grey-blue. Pores 3?4 per mm, circular, white at first more grey or grey-blue with age. Spores white with grey-blue tint, sausage-shaped, amyloid, 4?5 x 0.7?1.0um. Hyphal structure monomitic; generative hyphae appearing glassy in KOH, and with clamp-connections. Habitat on dead conifers, especially spruce. Season all year, annual. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Tylopilus felleus (Fr.) Karst. syn Boletus felleus Fr. Bitter Boletus, Bolet de fiel, Bolet amer, Bolet chicotin, Gallenr?hrling, Epe?z? tin?ru, Boleto felleo, porcino di fiele, Bittere boleet. Cap 6?12cm, fulvous to snuff-brown, slightly downy at first, smooth with age. Stem 70?100 x 20?30 (60 at base) creamy ochre, lighter at apex, covered in a coarse snuff-brown network. Flesh soft, white to cream, clay-pink beneath cap cuticle. Taste very bitter, like bile, smell slightly unpleasant. Tubes slightly salmon or coral. Pores similarly coloured, bruising brownish. Spore print clay-pink to vinaceous. Spores subfusoid, 11?15?4?5m. Habitat coniferous and deciduous woodland. Season late summer to autumn. Occasional. Not edible due to very bitter taste. Distribution, America and Europe.
Choice
Tuber melanosporum Vitt., Perigord Truffle, Truffe du P?rigord, Die Perigord-Tr?ffel, Francia szarvasgomba, Tartufo nero di Norcia, tartufo di P?rigord, Perigordtruffel. Spherical or lumpy, 2-10cm across with a covering of polygonal warts, and the cut flesh turning violaceous-black with white river like lines throughout, wonderfully scented. Asci with up to 6 spoes 90-100 x 80-120um Spores elliptic, completely covered in spines 2-4um long, 29?55 x 22?35um. A specialty of the Perigore region of France, but also known from other countries around the Mediterranean, north Africa and Asia. Edible ? excellent considered the best truffle. Found In Europe, under trees especially cork oak.
Inedible
Tubaria furfuracea (Pers. ex Fr.) Gillet. Sch?ppchen-Trompetenschnitzling Gyakori szem?tgomba, t?li szem?tgomba Scurfy Twiglet. Cap 1?4cm across, convex then flattened or centrally depressed, cinnamon to tan and striate from margin inwards when moist drying pale buff and slightly scurfy. Stem 20?50 x 2?4mm, more or less concolorous with the cap, base covered in white down. Flesh concolorous. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills broad, distant, adnate to slightly decurrent, cinnamon. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, hyaline, cylindric to clavate. Spore print pale ochre. Spores elliptic with rounded apex, 7?9?4.5?5m. Habitat on twigs and woody debris. Season all year, usually autumn to early winter. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tricholomopsis rutilans (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Sing. syn. Tricholoma rutilans (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Kummer. Plums and Custard, Tricolome rutilant, Pleurote rutilant, R?tlicher Holzritterling, B?rsonyos pereszke (fapereszke), Agarico rutilante, Koningsmantel. Cap 4?12cm across, convex to bell-shaped when expanded often with a low broad umbo, yellow densely covered in reddish-purple downy tufts or scales, more densely covered at the centre. Stem 35?55 x 10?15mm, yellow covered in fine downy purplish scales like the cap but to a much lesser extent; no mycelial strands. Flesh pale yellow or cream. Taste watery, smell like rotten wood. Gills rich egg-yellow. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, voluminous, 20?30um wide. Spore print white. Spores ellipsoid, 6?8.5 x 4?5um. Habitat on and around conifer stumps. Season late summer to late autumn. Very common. Considered edible by some but not recommended. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma virgatum (Fr. ex Fr.) Kummer. Tricolome verget?, Brennender Erdritterling, Cs?p?s pereszke, Tricoloma vergato, Scherpe ridderzwam, Ashen Knight. Cap 3?7cm across, convex with a low broad umbo, brownish-black or greyish initially with violaceous tints, streaked with very fine black fibrils. Stem 50?90 x 10?18mm, white and smooth, often flushed grey. Flesh white to greyish. Taste bitter and peppery, smell musty. Gills greyish tinged flesh-colour, often browning at the edges. Spore print white. Spores 6.5?8 x 5?6um. Habitat deciduous and coniferous woods. Season autumn. Uncommon. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma vaccinum (Pers. ex Fr.) Kummer. Tricolome ?cailleux, Tricolome de vache, Zottiger Ritterling, Szak?llas pereszke, Agarico vaccino, Ruige ridderzwam, Scaly Knight. Cap 4?7cm across, slightly umbonate, flesh-brown, darker towards the centre, disrupting into woolly scales. Stem 30?45 x 8?12mm, fibrous, paler than cap. Flesh pallid to rosy, often hollow in stem. Taste bitter, smell mealy. Gills white at first, later pallid flesh-colour. Spore print white. Spores ovate, 5?7 x 4?5um. Habitat conifer woods. Season late summer to late autumn. Uncommon. Inedible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma ustaloides Romagn. Kastanienbrauner Ritterling, Gesztenyebarna pereszke. Cap 4?9cm across, hemispherical to convex, chestnut brown, paler towards the inrolled margin, viscid. Stem 60?100 x 8?15mm, white at the apex, rusty-brown and speckled towards the base; a fragile and very short-lived cortina is sometimes present near the top of the stem in young specimens. Flesh white. Taste and smell strongly of meal. Gills whitish becoming spotted with rust. Spore print white. Spores 6?7 x 4?5um. Habitat deciduous woods. Season autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Tricholoma ustale (Fr. ex Fr.) Kummer. Tricolome br?l?, Brandiger Ritterling, Szenesed? (feketed?) pereszke, Beukridderzwam, Burnt Knight. Cap 4?8cm across, convex then expanded, viscid in wet weather, chestnut brown, paler at margin, blackening with age. Stem 30?60 x 10?15mm, fibrous, reddish-brown, apex paler. Flesh whitish, sometimes reddening slightly. Taste slightly bitter, smell not distinctive. Gills white, becoming rust-spotted, edges blackening with age. Spore print white. Spores elliptic-ovate, 5.5?7 x 4?5um. Habitat deciduous woods, especially beech. Season late summer to late autumn. Rare. Poisonous. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Tricholoma terreum (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Kummer. Tricolome couleur de terre, Petit-gris, Saint-Martin, Graubl?ttriger Erdritterling, Feny?pereszke, Agarico color di terra, cavarese, Donkergrijze ridderzwam, Grey Knight. Cap 4?7cm across, convex with a low broad umbo, light to dark grey, downy to felty. Stem 30?80 x 10?15mm, white and silky smooth. Flesh whitish grey. Taste pleasant, not mealy, smell not distinctive. Gills emarginate, distant, whitish to grey. Spore print white. Spores 6?7 x 3.5?4.5um Habitat in woods, especially with conifers. Season late summer to late autumn. Uncommon. Edible with caution. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma sulphureum (Bull. ex Fr.) Kummer syn. T. bufonium (Pers. ex Fr.) Gillet. Tricolome soufr?, Schwefelritterling, B?d?s pereszke, Agarico zolfino, Narcisridderzwam, Sulphur Knight Gas Agaric. Cap 3?8cm across, convex with an indistinct umbo, sulphur-yellow often tinged reddish-brown or olivaceous. Stem 25?40 x 6?10mm, sulphur-yellow covered in reddish-brown fibres. Flesh bright sulphur-yellow. Taste mealy, smell strongly of gas-tar. Gills bright sulphur-yellow. Spore print white. Spores 9?12 x 5?6um. Habitat in deciduous woods, less frequently with conifers. Season autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Tricholoma squarrulosum Bres. syn. T. atrosquamosum var. squarrulosum (Bres.) Pearson & Dennis. Schuppenritterling, Pikkelyest?nk? pereszke, Spikkelsteelridder. Cap 4?5cm across, flattened convex, grey-brown, darker towards the centre, covered in blackish-brown scales. Stem 40?50 x 5?8mm, greyish covered in fine blackish-brown scales. Flesh whitish to grey. Smell mealy. Gills whitish grey often slightly flesh-coloured. Spore print white. Spores pip-shaped, 7?8 x 4?5um. Habitat conifer woods. Season autumn. Rare. Edible with caution. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
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