Grows in woods Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
Stem type:
Spore colour:
Cap type:
Fungus colour:
Normal size:
Location:
Flesh:
Class:
Order:
Family:
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Total mushrooms fount: 1134

Edible
Suillus flavidus (Fr.) Sing. syn. Boletus flavidus Fr. Moor-R-hrling L-pi feny-tin-ru (-tin-ru). Cap 2-6cm across, umbonate, straw-yellow to pale ochre, viscid. Stem 50-75x 5-8mm, straw-yellow above the gelatinous, tawny ring, dull yellow to buff below. Flesh pale yellow becoming vinaceous when cut. Taste and smell not distinctive. Tubes decurrent, deep yellow. Pores large, angular, concolorous with tubes. Spore print ochraceous snuff-brown. Spores subfusiform-elliptic, 8-10 x 3.5-4.5um. Habitat wet mossy areas, usually with Scots pine and often in sphagnum. Season late summer. Rare and more or less confined to the Scottish Highlands. Edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Stropharia squamosa (Fr.) Qu?l. Pikkelyes harmatgomba. Cap 3-5cm across, convex-campanulate; dull yellow-ochre to tawny, with paler, faint scales at margin; viscid. Gills adnate, crowded; pallid then purple-brown. Stem 60-120 x 3-l0mm, long, rigid; brownish; scaly below the small ring. Flesh thin; whitish. Odor not distinctive. Taste not distinctive. Spores ellipsoid, with pore at tip, 12-14 x 6-7.5?. Deposit purple-brown. Habitat on decayed wood chips in mixed woodlands. Found in Europe and throughout northern North America. Season August-October. Not edible.
Edible
Stropharia rugosoannulata Farlow ex Murr. King Stropharia, Wine Cup, -ri-s harmatgomba. Cap 5-20cm across, convex-flattened to umbonate; deep purplish red to dull brown or even grayish or white with age; smooth, not viscid. Gills adnate, crowded; pallid then gray and finally purple-brown. Stem 100-180x 10-25mm, equal to clavate; white; smooth; ring large, prominent, deeply wrinkled or segmented below, very thick, white. Flesh firm; white. Odor pleasant. Taste pleasant. Spores ellipsoid, with germ pore, 10-13 x 7.5-9-. Deposit purple-brown. Habitat on wood chips and bark mulch and around flower beds. Very common. Found Europe and widely distributed in northern North America. Season June-October. Edible-delicious. Comment An almost pure white form is not infrequent; also a closely related (probably undescribed) yellow species with viscid cap may be found at the same time.
Inedible
Stropharia aurantiaca (Cke.) Orton New syn. Leratiomyces ceres Orangeroter Tr?uschling T?glav?r?s harmatgomba, narancspiros harmatgomba Redlead Roundhead. Cap 1.5?5.5cm across, convex then expanded, orange-red with paler patches when dry, viscid when moist, margin often with whitish velar remnants. Stem 20?100 x 2?10mm, slightly thickened at base, whitish becoming streaked ochraceous or orange-red below. Flesh pale buff to concolorous. Gills whitish at first then olivaceous-clay. Pleurocystidia thin-walled, lanceolate with a sharp-pointed apex and yellowish contents. Cheilocystidia variable in shape, mostly thin-walled and lageniform often with flexuous necks, sometimes irregularly cylindric or clavate with a swollen or even capitate apex. Spore print dark purplish-brown. Spores elliptic, 11?13 x 6?7.5um. Habitat on rotting sawdust, usually in parks or gardens. Season autumn. Rare. Edibility unknown -avoid. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Stropharia aeruginosa (Curt. ex Fr.) Qu?l. Verdigris Agaric, Strophaire vert-de-gris, Vert-de-gris, Gr?nspantr?uschling, Z?ld harmatgomba, Strofaria grigio-verde, Kopergroenezwam. Cap 2?8cm across, convex to bell-shaped then flattened and slightly umbonate, blue to blue-green from the gluten and flecked with white scales, becoming pale yellowish as this is lost. Stem 40?100 x 4?12mm, whitish to blue, apex smooth, covered in small whitish scales below the spreading membranous ring. Flesh whitish-blue. Smell none. Gills white then clay brown, often with a white edge. Cheilocystidia obtuse, clavate-capitate or lageniform capitate; lanceolate chrysocystidia found on gill face and only rarely on gill-edge. Spore print brownish-purple. Spores elliptic, 7?10 x 5um. Habitat woods, heaths and pastures. Season late spring to late autumn. Common. Poisonous. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Scleroderma verrucosum (Bull.) Pers. Braunwarziger Kartoffelbovist, Nyeles ?ltrifla, Scl?roderme verruqueux, Scaly Earthball. Fruit body 2.5?5cm across, subglobose often flattened on top, tapering into a long, thick stem-like base which is usually prominently ribbed, yellowish to brown covered in small brownish scales, the thin leathery wall breaking open irregularly above when mature. Gleba olive-brown. Spores dark brown, globose covered in spines or warts, 10?14um in diameter. Habitat on sandy soil in woods or heaths. Season summer to late autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Inedible
Scleroderma citrinum Pers. syn. S. aurantium (Vaill.) Pers. syn. S. vulgare Horn. Common Earthball, cl-roderme vulgaire, Scl-roderme orang-, Kartoffelbovist, R-t (k-z-ns-ges) -ltrifla, Scleroderma commune, tartufo falso, Aardappelbovist. Fruit body 2-10cm across, subglobose, attached to the substrate by cord-like mycelial threads, wall dirty yellow to ochre-brown, thick and tough, coarsely scaly, breaking open irregularly to liberate the spores. Gleba purplish-black at first patterned by whitish veins, powdery when mature. Spores brown, globose, with a net-like ornamentation, 9-13m in diameter. Habitat on mossy or peaty ground on heaths or in rich woodland, especially on sandy soil. Season late summer to early winter. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe. This species is sometimes parasitized by Boletus parasiticus.
Poisonous/Suspect
Scleroderma cepa (Vaill.) Pers. Fruit body 1.5-9cm across, subglobose, flattened, or lobed; no stem or almost none, attached by a thick mass of tough, hairy mycelium. Peridium (outer skin) 1-3mm thick; when fresh, hard, quite tough; white in cross-section, becoming reddish or pinkish brown when cut. Surface whitish when young, becoming straw-colored to yellowish brown or leather brown, turning deep pinky-brown if rubbed; smooth becoming very finely cracked and scaly, especially on the top where exposed to light. Spore mass white and firm when young, soon becoming black or purple-black, then paler or browner and powdery. Odor none. Spores globose, spiny but not reticulate, 7-10 x 7-10-. Habitat singly, scattered, or in groups under deciduous and coniferous trees in woods, in gardens, and along roadsides. Common. Found widely distributed in North America. Season July-October. Poisonous.
Inedible
Sarcosphaera crassa (Santi ex Steudl) Pouz. Tulip?n cs?szegomba. Cup 3-15cm across, starts under the soil as smooth, hollow, and globelike, then splits open to become deeply cup-shaped with star-like rays; inner surface violet or grayish lilac, outer surface white to creamy and minutely felty; fleshy, thick-walled. No stem. Flesh brittle, fragile; white. Asci 300-360 X 12-13?, stained blue at tip by iodine. Spores ellipsoid, with blunt ends, smooth, containing 2 oil drops, 15-18 x 8-9?. Habitat singly or in clusters under coniferous or decidous trees. Sometimes common. Found widely distributed in northwestern North America and also reported in the Northeast, found in Hungary and other areas in Europe. Season June-August. Deadly poisonous. The last of the photographs was taken by Dr. Barth? Lor?nd in Hungary.
Edible
Russula xerampelina Gemeiner Heringst-ubling Barnul-h-s- galambgomba Russule feuille-morte Crab Brittlegill Russula xerampelina (Schaeff. ex Secr.) Fr. (R. faginea Romagn. in part) Cap 5-14 cm across, convex, later flattening and with a depression, colours very varied, often mixed, dull purples, reds, wine-coloured, cinnamon, straw, fawn, brick or dull brown, moderately firm, sometimes hard, soon dry and matt; margin eventually furrowed, one-quarter peeling at most. Stem 30-110-10-30mm, white or tinted rose, staining honey to brownish ochre especially on bruising, firm to hard, reacting dull green when rubbed with iron salts. Flesh white. Taste mild, smell crab-like especially with age. Gills adnexed, pale to medium ochre, fairly broad and thick, connected by veins at their bases. Spore print deep cream to pale ochre (E-F). Spores ovoid with warts up to 1.2m high, lines none or few, occasionally enclosing a mesh, 8-11-6.5-9m. Cap cystidia infrequent, mostly narrow, not reacting to SV. Cap hyphae with terminal cells sometimes club-shaped, and these and the supporting cells inflated. Habitat under broad-leaved trees, especially beech and oak. Season late summer to late autumn. Common. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe. Divided by some authorities into a number of different species and varieties.
Edible
Russula virescens (Schaeff. ex Zantedschi) Fr. Gefelderter Gr-nt-ubling, Varas z-ld galambgomba, varash-t- galambgomba, Russule verdoyante, Bise verte, Greencracked Brittlegill. Cap 5-12cm across, globose, later convex, finally flattening and often wavy and lobed, verdigris to dull green often ochre-buff to cream in places, half peeling; surface breaking up into small, flattened, angular, scurfy scales. Stem 40-90 x 20-40mm, whitish to pale cream, browning slightly, powdered above, firm. Flesh white. Odor pleasant. Taste mild, nutty. Gills almost free, cream, somewhat brittle, with veins connecting the bases. Spore print whitish to pale cream (A-B). Spores ellipsoid-ovoid to somewhat globose with warts 0.2-0.5- high, fine lines absent to fairly numerous and forming a fairly well-developed network, 7-9 x 6-7-. Cap cystidia none; gill cystidia few, not or hardly reacting with SV. Cap hyphae forming a loose, cellular layer of variously shaped or inflated cells, the terminal ones tapering. Habitat under broad-leaved trees, especially beech. Season summer to early autumn. Uncommon. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Russula violeipes Qu?l. Lilastieliger T?ubling, Velvet Brittlegill. Cap 4?8cm across, somewhat globose at first, then flattening and finally with a depression, straw, greenish-yellow (forma citrina) or olive tints, often in part, sometimes entirely, livid red, livid purple, lilac or wine-coloured, thick-fleshed, hard, powdered, hardly peeling. Stem 40?70 x 10?30mm, white, often tinged yellow, violet, purple or wine-coloured, firm, often powdered especially above. Flesh white. Taste mild, smell slight, when fresh of shrimps. Gills slightly decurrent, pale buffy straw, greasy to the touch. Spore print cream (C?D). Spores ovoid with warts 0.7?1? high, joined by lines or ridges to form a fairly well-developed network, 6.5?9 x 6?8?. No cap cystidia and very few on the gills and not reacting to SV. Gill margin fringed with tapering cells. Terminal cells of cap hyphae mostly tapering, supporting cells mostly inflated, sometimes balloon-shaped. Habitat under broad-leaved trees. Season summer to early autumn. Uncommon. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Found In Europe.
Edible
Russula vinosa Lindblad syn. Russula obscura Romell. Borv-r-s galambgomba. Cap 5-15cm across; pale to dark blood red or livid purple; peeling only at margin. Gills somewhat distant; pale buff. Stem 40-150 x 15-30mm; white, flushing grayish black when bruised or with age. Flesh white, blackening. Odor not distinctive. Taste mild. Spores ovoid, 8-10 x 6.5-9-; warts up to 0.5- high, no connectives. Deposit ochre (E-F). Habitat in conifer woods and boggy areas. Found in Europe and northeastern North America. Season July-August. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.)
Edible
Russula vesca Fr. Bare-toothed Russula, Russule comestible, Fleischroter Speiset-ubling, R-ncos galambgomba, r-ncost-nk- galambgomba, Rossola edule, Smakelijke russula. Cap 5-10cm across, somewhat globose at first, later flattened convex, rather variable in colour, often with pastel tints, from dark or pale wine-coloured to buff, sometimes with olive or greenish tints, fleshy, firm, the skin half peeling, tending to retreat from the margin leaving the underlying flesh visible. Stem 30-100 x 15-25mm, white, rather hard, often with somewhat pointed base. Flesh white. Taste mild, nutty. Gills adnexed, whitish to very pale cream, rather closely spaced, narrow, forked, especially near stem. Gills and stem surface rapidly deep salmon when rubbed with an iron salt. Spore print whitish (A). Spores ovoid with small warts up to 0.5- high, very occasionally with short lines attached or joining pairs, 6-8 x 5-6-. Cap cystidia cylindrical or spindle-shaped, without septa, hardly reacting to SV. Cap hyphae with cylindrical or tapering terminal cells or sometimes a long, tapering, thick-walled hair; supporting cells rectangular. Habitat under broad-leaved trees. Season summer to autumn. Frequent. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Russula turci Bres. Jodoform-T-ubling, J-dszag- galambgomba. Cap 3-10cm across, convex, soon flattening and with a depression, mauve, dark or dull purple, wine coloured, bay or dark fawny, paling in places, fleshy, sticky or even glutinous when moist, drying matt and often powdered, one third peeling. Stem 30-70 x 10-25mm, white, rarely tinged rose, becoming dirty or brownish, cylindrical or narrow club-shaped. Flesh white. Taste mild, smell of iodoform at stem base. Gills adnexed, saffron, with connecting veins at their bases. Spore print pale ochre (G). Spores ovoid with warts up to 0.5- high, mostly joined by fine lines or ridges to form a well-developed network, 7-9 x 6-8-. Cap cystidia absent; hyphae with incrustations staining with fuchsin abundant. Habitat under conifers. Season early summer to autumn. Frequent in Scotland, rare in England. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Russula subfoetens Smith. Cap 5-10cm across, rounded then with a depressed center; dull honey yellow to brownish; margin coarsely tuberculate-striate, viscid when wet. Gills adnate, cream-yellow, often brown-spotted. Stem 50-100 x 10-25mm, narrowing near base, firm; pale honey yellow. Flesh pale straw, yellowing when cut, and turning bright golden in KOH. Odor slightly unpleasant, fetid. Taste hot in cap cuticle but mild in flesh. Spores oval-ellipsoid, 7-9 x 5-6-; warts 0.3-0.71- high, few connectives. Deposit cream (C-D). Habitat in mixed woods. Found in Europe and eastern North America, west to Michigan, south to North Carolina. Season July-September. Not edible.
Inedible
Russula sororia (Fr.) Romell (R. amoenolens Romagn.) Scharfer Bratt?ubling, Barna galambgomba, Russule soeur, Sepia Brittlegill. Cap 3?6cm across, convex, later flattening and with a depression, sepia to greyish sepia, rarely white, thinnish-fleshed, slightly sticky when moist, half-peeling; margin furrowed, with small, low warts. Stem 30?60 x 10?20mm, whitish, fairly firm to soft and fragile. Flesh white. Taste unpleasant, oily, slowly very hot; smell rancid or suggesting Camembert cheese. Gills adnexed, creamy to dirty whitish, edge browning. Spore print pale cream (B?D). Spores broadly elliptic with warts up to 0.7? high, a few joined by fine lines, no network, 7?9 x 5?7?. Cap cystidia narrow, tapering, poorly reacting to SV. Habitat under oak. Season summer to autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Russula sardonia Fr. Zitronenbl?ttriger T?ubling, Citromlemez? galambgomba, Russule ?cre, Russule ? couleur de sardoine, Primrose Brittlegill. Cap 4?10cm across, convex, later flattening and with a depression, violet-, purplish- or brownish-red, greenish or ochre to yellowish, hard, shortly peeling only. Stem 30?80 x 10?15mm, sometimes white but usually entirely pale lilac to greyish rose, firm; surface as if powdered. Flesh white. Taste very hot, smell slightly fruity. Gills adnexed to slightly decurrent, at first primrose, later pale golden yellow, narrow. Gills and flesh reacting rose with ammonia (distinguishes this species). Spore print cream (C?F). Spores ovoid with warts up to 0.5? high, joined into ridges or by fine lines to form a rather poorly developed network, 7?9 x 6?8?. Cap cystidia spindle-shaped or cylindrical, without septa, strongly reacting to SV. Habitat under pine. Season summer to autumn. Frequent. Found In Europe and western north America. Edibility suspect-not advisable.
Inedible
Russula sanguinea (Bull. ex St. Amans) Fr. Blut-T?ubling, V?rv?r?s galambgomba, Russule sanguine, Bloody Brittlegill. Cap 5?10cm across, convex, later flattening or saucer-shaped, blood to purplish-red or rose, often with whitish areas, fleshy, rigid or even hard, peeling at margin only; surface soon dry and matt, rough or veined. Stem 40?100 x 10?30mm, white, pink or red, firm. Flesh white. Taste slightly to moderately hot, also sometimes bitter. Gills adnate-decurrent, cream or pale ochre, narrow, forking or with cross-connections. Spore print pale to deep cream (C?F). Spores ovoid with warts up to 1? high, with very few connecting lines, 7?10 x 6?8?. Cap cystidia cylindrical to narrow club-shaped, often teat-ended, with 0?2 septa, somewhat poorly reacting to SV. Habitat under conifers. Season summer to autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
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