Europe Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
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Total mushrooms fount: 1140

Edible
Polyporus squamosus aka Cerioporus squamosus (yet to be confirmed new taxonomy) is a basidiomycete bracket fungus, with common names including dryad's saddle and pheasant's back mushroom.[2] It has a widespread distribution, being found in North America, Australia, Asia, and Europe, where it causes a white rot in the heartwood of living and dead hardwood trees. The name "dryad's saddle" refers to creatures in Greek mythology called dryads who could conceivably fit and ride on this mushroom, whereas the pheasant's back analogy derives from the pattern of colors on the bracket matching that of a pheasant's back. When planting season comes around and I cannot find morels, I am always pleased to find some dryad's saddle to collect. It's been much maligned as an edible of little value but I beg to fluctuate. It is everything regarding finding out how to pick and make it. Cover (pileus) 2-12 in wide-ranging round to kidney or supporter shaped, thick, overlapping on deceased solid wood often. Brown with scales that look much like feathers. Hence the titles pheasant backside and hawk's wing. The aroma is very distinctive smelling much like watermelon rind. Pleasant really! I've seen them referred to as "mealy" but that isn't how they remain here. Skin pores (hymenophore) Actually pipes that are small initially becoming quite large and angular jogging down the stem relatively. Whitish to yellowish tan. Stem (stipe) Very brief 3/4 2 in. mounted on the wood. Flesh White and non bruising. Spores White spore print out. That one makes one of the prettiest spore images of any mushroom I've printed. When and how to locate them (ecology) These increase on various very useless hardwoods (especially elm) largely in-may or June but once in a while later. A tree resting on the floor is your very best bet. Once in a while the may be on a full time income tree nevertheless they appear to favor very dead hardwood. Wet areas seem to be to create more. They are quite common and one of just a few reasonable edibles you will see at the moment of year. It really is nice to find when morel hunting is irritating. These will be within the same places each full season before solid wood is used. These have been called edible by some and poor by others just. They could be quite good though. My guidelines are that they have to be young, the pore level must be very skinny (1/16 in. or less may very well be good), & most importantly your blade needs to have the ability to go through it quickly. Long lasting blade reductions may very well be good easily. Sometimes just the outer edges are usable but nice tender ones are available. Preparation Once you've found sensitive specimens, they are really best prepared straightaway. Like a great many other wild mushrooms the aroma is ephemeral often disappearing within hours. Tempura frying will retain a few of this "watermelon" character. Saut?skillet or ing frying is an excellent way too. Slice them thin and cook them solid. Overcooking shall create toughness. I've tried drying them. They turn out as very white, crunchy potato chips that are pleasurable to eat dried. They maintained more of this unique smell than I expected. I've made a natural powder with them but have not attempted baking with it yet but it appears and smells good. The microwave produced something you will make shoes with. I've had very good luck with hard ones though. I cooked properly them and put them in the blender with poultry stock mixing until these were the consistency of the smoothie and then made mushroom soup. Really very good rather than like any other. Nothing else tastes or has the aroma of this mushroom. It is very good when prepared effectively really. I possibly could identify it by the smell with my eye shut down easily. Maybe it could taste "mealy" if it was stored in the refrigerator for two days. Actually, since differing people understand smell and flavour your experience could vary diversely. Comments Within the spring, that one is quite typical. Many you shall find are very leathery as well as your blade will won't trim it. Let it be just. Spring polypore (Polyporus arcularius) and Polyporus alveolaris look similar to it but are much smaller and incredibly tough.
Edible
In theory, this species of Hericium is easy to identify: it is the only species that forms a single clump of dangling spines, rather than hanging its spines from a branched structure. Additional identifying features include the fact that it typically appears on the wounds of living or very recently cut hardwoods, and the fact that its spines are mostly more than 1 cm in length. That's the theory. In practice positive identification is more difficult, since immature specimens of the branched species of Hericium often begin more or less as a single clump, and develop their branches with age. Further confusion stems from the fact that the long-spined species of Hericium, like Hericium erinaceus, may have short spines (1 cm in length or less) when they are young. In short, you must be sure that your specimen is mature (look for signs of brownish or yellowish discoloration) before betting the house on your identification of Hericium erinaceus. Description: Ecology: Saprobic and parasitic; usually growing alone or in pairs; fruiting from the wounds of living hardwoods (especially oaks); late summer and fall, or over winter and spring in warmer climates; widely distributed in North America. The illustrated and described collections are from Illinois. Fruiting Body: 8-16 cm across; consisting of one, unbranched clump of 1-5 cm long, soft spines hanging from a tough, hidden base that is attached to the tree; spines white, or in age discoloring brownish to yellowish. Odor and Taste: Odour not distinctive; when cooked the taste is reportedly delicious and, to some at least, rather like lobster cooked in butter. Habitat Saprobic, nearly always on beech and oak trees, stumps and fallen logs in Britain, but sometimes on other hardwoods. Bearded Tooth fungus is also reported to fruit occasionally on piles of sawdust. Microscopic Features: Spores 5-6 x 5.5-6 µ; globose to subglobose or subellipsoid; smooth or minutely roughened; hyaline and uniguttulate in KOH; amyloid. Gloeoplerous hyphae present, sometimes extending into hymenium to become cystidia (up to 50 x 6 µ, cylindric with knobbed apices, smooth, thin-walled).
Choice
The meadow mushroom, Agaricus campestris, is a beautiful white mushroom that is closely related to the cultivated "button mushrooms" (Agaricus bisporus) sold in North American grocery stores. In most areas it is a fall mushroom and, as its common and Latin names suggest, it comes up in meadows, fields, and grassy areas, after rains. It is recognized by its habitat, its pink gills (covered up by a thin white membrane when the mushroom is young) which become chocolate brown as the mushroom matures, its quickly collapsing white ring, and the fact that it does not discolor yellow when bruised. Description: Ecology: Saprobic; growing alone, gregariously, or sometimes in fairy rings, in meadows, fields, lawns, and grassy areas; late fall to early winter (occasionally in summer; sometimes year-long in California); widely distributed and common in North America. Cap: 3-11 cm; convex to broadly convex, occasionally nearly flat; whitish; smooth and glossy to fibrous to nearly wooly or scaly. Gills: Free from the stem; deep pink becoming brown and then dark chocolate brown in maturity; crowded; covered with a thin white partial veil when in the button stage. Stem: 2-6 cm long; 1-2.5 cm thick; more or less equal; sometimes tapering slightly to base; with a quickly collapsing white ring; not bruising yellow. Flesh: Thick and white throughout; not bruising yellow anywhere, even in the base of the stem; very rarely discoloring a pinkish wine color in wet weather. Odor and Taste: Pleasant. Chemical Reactions: Cap surface not yellowing with KOH. Spore Print: Dark chocolate brown. Microscopic Features: Spores: 5.5-10 x 4-7 µ; elliptical. Cheilocystidia to 10 µ wide. Universal veil hyphae (on cap surface and stem base) without inflated elements. The North American forms of this mushroom are apparently numerous--and several closely related (identical?) species have been described, including Agaricus andrewii (cheilocystidia 11-18.5 µ wide; universal veil hyphae with inflated elements) and Agaricus solidipes (spores up to 12 µ long; cheilocystidia absent). See also Agaricus porphyrocephalus.
Inedible
The top surface of the cap shows typical concentric zones of different colours. The flesh is 1–3 mm thick and has leathery texture. Older specimens, such as the one pictured, can have zones with green algae growing on them, thus appearing green. It commonly grows in tiled layers. The cap is rust-brown or darker brown, sometimes with blackish zones. The cap is flat, up to 8 x 5 x 0.5–1 cm in area. It is often triangular or round, with zones of fine hairs. The pore surface is whitish to light brown, pores round and with age twisted and labyrinthine. 2-5 pores per millimeter.
Edible
Boletus aereus, described by some as the Queen Bolete but just lately given the normal name Bronze Bolete in Britain and Ireland, is a most sought-after edible mushroom. It is merely as good as its famous close relative, Boletus edulis (Cep or Cent Bun Bolete) but its flesh is quite firmer. In the pub marketplaces of France, for example, these excellent boletes can be purchased as well as Boletus edulis and Boletus reticulatus, and customers are evenly happy with whichever of the meaty mushroom varieties can be found. A exceptional find in Ireland and Britain, where it is restricted to southern parts mainly, Boletus aereus is a lot more prevalent in southern European countries. Commonly bought at the sides, beside strolls or in clearings in oak and beech woodlands, Boletus aereus will berry just a little than boletus edulis later, which looks later than the summertime Bolete relatively, Boletus reticulatus. Most boletes, and certainly every one of the common ones within Britain and Ireland, are ectomycorrhizal fungi. Which means that they form mutualistic romantic relationships with the main systems of trees and shrubs or shrubs. The fungi help the tree to obtain moisture and essential minerals from the soil, and in exchange the main system of the tree gives energy-rich nutrients, the merchandise of photosynthesis, to the fungal mycelium. Although most trees and shrubs may survive without their mycorrhizal companions, boletes (and a great many other varieties of forest-floor fungi) cannot endure without trees; subsequently these so-called 'obligately mycorrhizal' fungi do not happen in wide open grassland. The medical name Boletus aerus started in Jean Baptiste Francois Pierre Bulliard's 1789 descriotipon of the varieties. Synonyms of Boletus aereus includeBoletus mamorensis Redeuilh. The universal name Boletus comes from the Greek bolos, indicating lump of clay; the foundation of the precise epithet aereus is Latin and means copper or bronze (in shade) - hence the normal name Bronze Bolete. Some individuals make reference to it as the Dark colored Porcini or the Dark Cover Bolete. Boletus aereus, the dark cep or bronze bolete, is a highly prized and much sought-after edible mushroom in the family Boletaceae. Dark cigar brown, bay to dark sepia, often dark brick-coloured near the margin, minutely cracking making the surface roughly textured, slightly downy at first then smooth. Stem 60-80 x 11-12mm, robust, covered with network which is brown near apex, clay pink or buff around the middle and rusty below. Flesh white, unchanging or becoming dirty vinaceous when bruised. Taste pleasant, smell strong and earthy. Boletus aereus comes with an earthy smell and a pleasurable mild taste. Habitat with broad-leaved trees, especially beech and oak. To Oct in Britain and Ireland august, this bolete are available from Oct to Feb in a few elements of southern European countries. ( Season summer to autumn ) Rare. Edible. Distribution, America and Europe. Cap: First downy but becoming gentle with a finely damaged or granular surface soon, the dark-brown to dark sepia-brown hats of Boletus aereus range between 7 to 20cm size at maturity. The cover margin is a far more reddish brownish than the centre often. When cut, the cover flesh remains white or very gradually converts somewhat purplish usually. Spores: Spores olivaceous snuff-brown, subfusiform, 13,5 - 16 x 4 - 5 µm. Pores and tubes: Tubes white to cream, finally sulphur-yellow. Pores similarly coloured but bruising vinaceous on handling and often flushed rust with age. The pipes of Boletus aereus (seen when the cover is damaged or chopped up) are white or pale cream, becoming smart sulphur yellow at maturity; they terminate in really small creamy white skin pores that become rust-coloured (see remaining) with years. When bruised or cut, the skin pores and pipes of Boletus aereus swiftly do not change shade, but after the right time they create a vinaceous tinge. Stem: A fine brown online structure (reticulum) is obvious on the pale darkish track record of the stem surface, darkest on the apex with the bottom and usually relatively paler and pinker near to the inflamed centre of the stem. Sometimes clavate (club-shaped) but more regularly barrel-shaped, the stem of Boletus aereus is 5 to 12cm high or more to 8cm in size at its widest point. The stem flesh is white and incredibly organization. Habitat & Ecological role: Boletus aereus develops on garden soil beneath broadleaf trees and shrubs, beech and oaks notably. Similar species Boletus edulis has a pale stem with a white reticulum; its dark brown cover has a whitish marginal region. Tylopilus felleus has a darker stem reticulum and a pinkish tinge to its skin pores; it has an extremely bitter taste.
Inedible
Inonotus hispidus (Bull. ex Fr.) Karst. Pelzporling, Almafa rozsd?stapl? (tapl?) Polypore h?ris?e, Shaggy Bracket. Habitat: Commonly between 10-20ft on the trunks of ash, but seen on walnut sometimes, london and apple plane. Strategy: Parasitic creating simultaneous white rot. Value: Brittle fracture at point of decay. The probability of standing timber being created is wonderful for biodiversity Annual bracket ranging from: 6 to 25 cm across 4 to 12 cm wide 2 to 10 cm thick Fan-shaped, usually single but occasionally fusing with others into overlapping groups, surface felty-hairy varying from ochraceous to tobacco-brown, finally blackish and bristly. Red to brown and like velvet on top and usually growing independently. The bracket will blacken with age and finally drop off within the year, remaining on the ground below the tree for a long time. Spores exuded from red to brown pores. Tubes 10-20(50)mm long. Pores 2 - 3 per mm, circular to angular, pale ochraceous at first, later brown and glancing in the light. Spores rust, subglobose, 9?12?4?10m. Habitat usually on ash but commonly on other trees such as elm, apple and walnut. Season summer but persisting on the tree in blackened state throughout the year, annual ( Seen in October ). Frequent. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Clathrus archeri (Berk,) Dring Syn Anthurus archeri (Berk.) E. Fisher. Tintahalgomba, Tintenfischpilz, Octopus Stinkhorn. Fruit body growing from an egg shaped whitish volva 5 x 4cm, breaking into 4-8 starfish-like arms up to 10cm long, red to pink with the olivaceous-black spore bearing material on the inner side, odour strong and fetid with a hint of radish. Spores olive-brown average 5 x 2um. Habitat gardens and leaf litter. A native Australian fungus that is now found in both north America and Europe in warmer areas. Thanks to Geoffrey Kibby for the first photograph and to Mark Hampton for the second and Robert Corbyn for the third.
Edible
Hypsi means "high" or "on high" and zygus means a "yoke" Hypsizygus, then, referring to position of this mushroom often high in the tree. Ulm- refers to "elm" indicating one of the common substrates for this fungus. There are commercially grown forms of this mushroom grown and sold in supermarkets and specialist shops, usually referred to as Buna-shimeji syn Hon-shimeji, the Brown Beech Mushrooms, there is a white form called Bunapi-shimeji. Hypsizygus tessulatus (Bull. ex Fr.) Singer New syn. Hypsizygus marmoreus Laskapereszke. Cap 5-15cm across, convex becoming flatter and rather sunken; white to buff yellow, creamy tan or crust brown in the center; moist, smooth, minutely hairy, becoming cracked with scaly patches. Gills adnexed to sinuate, close to subdistant, broad; whitish becoming cream. Stem 40-110 x 10-30mm solid, off-center, enlarged toward the base; white; dry, smooth, sometimes hairy. Flesh thick, firm; white. Odor mushroomy. Taste mild. Spores globose, smooth, 5-7 x 5-7µ. Deposit white to buff. Season September-December . Habitat singly or scattered on old hardwood trees, especially elm, often quite high up. Frequent. In nature, shimeji are gilled mushrooms that grow on wood. Most often the mushroom is found on beech trees, hence the common name, Beech Mushroom. They are often small and thin in appearance and popular in many nations across the world. ---- Growing Hypsizygus tessulatus The groups of mushrooms are harvested before the caps open. The beige caps are a little coarse and are often harvested when they have a diameter of ca. 2 cm, while the fully grown mushrooms can reach a diameter of 7 to 9 cm. Recommended substrate: 80% hardwood, mixed fine + coarse; 10% cereals; 10% bran. humidity: 62 % ---- A delicious species, H. tessulatus falls under the umbrella concept of the Japanese "Shimeji" mushrooms. Firm textured, this mushroom is considered one of the most "gourmet" of the Oyster-like mushrooms. Recently, this mushroom has been attributed to having anti-cancer properties. I ncreasingly better know, this obscure mushroom compares favorably to P. ostreatus and P.pulmonarius in North American, European and Japanese markets. Mycelial Characteristics: Mycelium white, cottony, resembling P. ostreatus mycelium but not as aerial. Also, the mycelium of H. tessulatus does not exude the yellowish-orange metabolite nor does it form the classically thick, peelable mycelium, two features that are characteristic of Pleurotus species. Mircroscopic Features: This mushroom produces white spores. Suggested Agar Culture Media: Malt Yeast Peptone Agar (MYPA), Potato Dextrose Yeast Agar (PDYA), Dog Food Agar (DFA), or Oatmeal Yeast Agar (OMYA) Spawn Media: The first two generations of spawn can be grain. The third generation can be sawdust or grain. Substrates for Fruiting: Supplemented sawdust. Good wood types are cottonwood, willow, oak, alder, beech, or elm. The effectiveness of other woods has not yet been established. It seems that straw does not provide commercially viable crops unless inoculated up to 25% of its weight with sawdust spawn. Yield Potentials: 1/2 lb. of fresh mushrooms per 5 lb. block (wet weight) of supplemented hardwood sawdust/chips. Comments: A quality mushroom, Buna shimeji is popular in Japan and is being intensively cultivated in the Nagano Prefecture. The only two mushrooms which come close to this species in over-all quality are H. ulmarius or Pleurotus eryngii. In the same environment ideal for Shiitake (i.e. normal light, CO2 less than 1000 ppm), strains of H. tessulatus produce a stem less than 2 inches tall and a cap many times broader than the stem is long. When the light is reduced and the carbon dioxide levels are elevated, the mushrooms metamorphosize into the form preferred by the Japanese. Here again, the Japanese have set the standard for quality. In the growing room, abbreviated caps and stem elongation is encouraged so that forking bouquets emerge from narrow mouthed bottles. Modest light levels are maintained (400 lux) with a higher than normal carbon dioxide levels (>2000 ppm) to promote this form of product. From a cultivator's point of view, this cultivation strategy is well merited, although the mushrooms look quite different from those found in nature. This cultivation strategy is probably the primary reason for the confused identifications. When visiting Japan, American mycologists viewed these abnormal forms of H. tessulatus, a mushroom they had previously seen only in the wild, and suspected they belonged to Lyophyllum. Many of the strains of H. marmoreus cultivated in Japan produce dark gray brown primordia with speckled caps. These mushrooms lighten in color as the mushrooms mature, becoming tawny or pale woody brown at maturity. Most strains obtained from cloning wild specimens of H tessulatus from the Pacific Northwest of North America are creamy brown when young, fading to a light tan at maturity, and have distinct water-markings on the caps. The differences seen may only be regional in nature. This mushroom does not exude a yellowish metabolite from the mycelium typical of Pleurotus species. However, it has been found that H. tessulatus produces a mycelium-bound toxin to nematodes, similar to that present in the droplets of P. ostreatus mycelium. This discovery may explain why it is not likely to see a nematode infestation in the course of growing Hypsizygus tessulatus. Given the number of potentially valuable by-products from cultivating this mushroom, entrepreneurs might want to extract the water soluble anti-cancer compounds and/or menatacides before discarding the waste substrate.
Poisonous/Suspect
Cortinarius (Telamonia) bulliardii (Fr.) Fr. Zinnoberroter Gürtelfuss Vöröslábú pókhálósgomba Cortinaire de Bulliard Hotfoot Webcap Cap 4–8cm across, convex then expanded, deep red-brown to chestnut drying ochre-buff. Stem 50–100 x 10–15mm, whitish near apex becoming rust towards the base and covered in reddish fibres. Flesh whitish, sometimes reddish at stem base. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills violaceous at first, soon rusty. Spore print rust. Spores elliptic, rough, 8–10 x 5–6µ. Habitat deciduous wood, especially beech. Season autumn. Rare. Edibility Suspect – avoid as many Cortinarius contain toxins. Found In Europe. edibility: Poisonous/Suspect fungus colour: Red or redish or pink normal size: 5-15cm cap type: Convex to shield shaped stem type: Bulbous base of stem spore colour: Rusty brown habitat: Grows in woods, Grows on the ground
Poisonous/Suspect
Mushroom is sticky with brownish cap and grills are brown too. Stalk more like yellowish to brown. Cap Size is from 1 to 3 cm ( 0.39 to 1.18 inches ). Cap type is Convex or broadly convex which transforms to flat. It has whitish patches on cap. Cap is smooth, dark reddish-brown color which fades to grayish-brown. Grills Coprophila has attached grill. Nearly distant; Broad; Color of grill is whitish to brown or purplish-brown. Stalk Height is 2 to 4 cm ( 0.78 to 1.57 inches ) Thick is 1.5 to 5 mm Color: whitish, darkening to brown ( NOT bruising blue ). Veil Some times it present. Partial veil evanescent. Spores: 11-14 X 7-8.5 m; elliptical, smooth, with pore at tip. Spore print purplish-brown. Season June - October. Habitat Single to numerous, on horse or cow dung. Look-alikes: P. merdaria has central ring zone on stalk. Stropharia semiglobata is ringed yellowish. Panaeolus species have blackspores. Coprinus species liquefy. Comments: This weak hallucinogen is the most widespread psilocybe in North America. According to Stamets and other sources. P. coprophila is not hallucinogenic. Source: http://books.google.ca/books?id=BQvjx9M-DTgC&pg=PA25&lpg=PA25&dq=Stamets+psilocybe+coprophila+not+hallucinogenic&source=bl&ots=6_0sersnDS&sig=qDR0hlnnlGhLJS79eONHFlEfpv0&hl=en&sa=X&ei=BoOsT6obqpGIAo2wsOsG&ved=0CGIQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=Stamets%20psilocybe%20coprophila%20not%20hallucinogenic&f=false
Inedible
Ganoderma lucidum (Curt. ex Fr.) Karst. Gl-nzender Lackporling, Pecs-tviasz-tapl-, pecs-tviaszgomba, Ganoderme luisant, Ganoderme laque, Polypore lucide, Lacquered Bracket. Fruit body usually stalked. Bracket 10-25cm in diameter, 2-3cm thick, fan- or kidney-shaped, laterally attached, concentrically grooved and zoned ochraceous to orange brown, later purple-brown to blackish, and like the stem conspicuously glossy as if varnished. Stem up to 250 x 10-30mm, dark brown, glossy. Tubes 0.5-2cm long. Pores 4-5 per mm, circular, whitish then cream, finally tobacco brown, darkening on bruising when fresh. Spores rusty, ellipsoid-ovate with truncate end, 7-13 x 6-8um. Habitat on roots of deciduous trees. Season all year. Rare. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe. ---- Habitat • Near or at the base, at the soil line, or attached to roots of living trees • On stumps and bases of dead trees, and sometimes from buried wood residues where trees have been removed Fruiting Time of Year • Summer through fall, turning black and persisting through to the following year Fruiting (Hymenial) Surface • White with small pores, 4-5 per mm, changing to brown with age Type of Decay • White root and butt rot Mode of Action • A moderately fast progressing root and butt rot The fungus can also kill cambial tissues and cause root death Frequency • Very common Tree Health Symptoms • Thin crowns • Dead branches • Yellowing leaves • Overall poor vigor • Some trees show no apparent health impacts from infection Edibility/Medicinal • Medicinal; used as an anti-inflammatory treatment • Sold in teas and pills in most oriental stores • Documented health benefits in medical literature Identifying Features (see adjacent photos) • Single or clusters of round to half-moon shaped conks usually attached directly to wood but occasionally with a lateral or central stem • 10 cm (4 in) up to 35 cm (14 in) across and 2.5 cm (1 in) or more thick • Cap or the top of the conk “varnished” red to mahogany with or without a white margin • Reddish-brown zonate interior or context • White pore surface that edges brown when fresh
Inedible
Inonotus dryadeus, commonly known as oak bracket, warted oak polypore, weeping polypore or weeping conk, is an inedible species of fungus belonging to the genus Inonotus, which consists of bracket fungi with fibrous flesh. Most often found growing at the base of oak trees, it causes white rot and decay of the trunks. It secretes an amber liquid which weeps from tubes in its upper surface. Bracket 10x65cm across, 5x25cm wide, 2x12cm thick, or sometimes forming large, irregular cushions, corky; Upper surface uneven, white-grey becoming brownish, finally very dark, margin broadly rounded and paler, exuding drops of yellowish liquid. Flesh rusty brown, fibrous. Tubes 5x20mm long, rusty-brown. Pores 3x4 per mm, circular then angular, white-grey becoming rusty. Spores white to yellowish, subglobose, 7x9x6.5x7.5m. Hyphal structure monomitic; generative hyphae lacking clamp-connections. Setae in the tubes dark brown with swollen base and hooked pointed tips. Habitat parasitic on various species of oak, found at the base of trunks. Season all year. Uncommon. ---- Ecology: Parasitic on living oaks in eastern North America and, in the west, on true firs; causing a white butt rot and root rot; annual; growing alone, gregariously, or in shelving clusters; summer and fall (or over winter in warm climates); fairly widely distributed in North America but apparently absent in the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains. Cap: Up to 40 cm across; semicircular, kidney-shaped, cushion-shaped, or irregular; usually convex; finely velvety, becoming bald with age; often lumpy; buff to dull yellow, becoming brown with age; often exuding drops of amber liquid when fresh, especially along the margin; the margin thick. Pore Surface: Buff to yellowish when young, becoming brown; bruising slowly brown; exuding drops of amber liquid when fresh and young; with 4-6 circular to angular pores per mm; tubes to 2 cm deep. Stem: Absent. Flesh: Yellowish brown becoming reddish brown; soft, becoming leathery or corky; zoned. Chemical Reactions: Flesh black with KOH. Spore Print: Yellowish to brownish. Microscopic Features: Spores 6-8 x 5-7 µ; smooth; subglobose; hyaline in KOH; dextrinoid. Setae usually present but sometimes very rare; to about 40 x 15 µ; usually curved. Contextual hyphae thin- to thick-walled; simple-septate. ---- Habitat • At ground level attached to the base and larger roots of living trees • On stumps or dead trees Fruiting Time of Year • Summer through fall Fruiting (Hymenial) Surface • Small pores and gray-brown or darker Type of Decay • White root and butt rot with most of the decay concentrated in larger roots Mode of Action • Moderately slow progressing root rot eventually leading to root failure Frequency • Common Tree Health Symptoms • Often none other than the appearance of the fruiting bodies and extensively decayed root when a tree fails ---- Occurrence A basidiomycetes widespread and fairly common in Britain attacking various species of oak (Quercus), in my experience this year it has been seen on a regular basis. The fungus is sometimes also found on horse chestnut, sweet chestnut, beech, London plane, elm and more rarely on conifers. The fruiting body (Sporophore) is not very regular in its appearance, and quite often several years may elapse between the production of the fruiting body on an infected tree. The fruiting body is usually seen only on large, old living trees and occurs almost invariably near the butt. Fruiting Body It is a thick lumpy bracket, being sessile (without stalk) and can measure up to 300mm across and 80mm thick. Sometimes the fruiting bodies are imbricated (arranged so as to overlap) in groups. The upper surface colour is at first pale chamois yellow, later becoming brown. A constant and very characteristic feature of this fungus is the presence of drops of coloured liquid in little round depressions on the margin of the actively growing fruit-body. These depressions may persist after the drops have evaporated. The underside bears small whitish pores, and the flesh and tubes are rusty brown. The consistency of the flesh is soft at first, later becoming corky and then brittle with age. The fruiting bodies appear in the early Autumn and decompose during the winter turning black. Colonisation Strategy The attack is more or less confined to the heartwood and never spreads very far up the trunk, at most reaching 2 metres above soil level.
Edible
The term "salmonicolor" comes from the Latin and means with the colour of raw salmon flesh. This species, like all the Lactarius with red milk, in some zones is quite sought after for culinary purposes and this has created several local or dialectal names. ----- Cap : 4 - 12 cm, initially convex, then flat and finally depressed, almost funnel-shaped in the ripe fungus, much fleshy, of irregular shape, at times lobate, gibbous; margin inrolled in the young fungus for long time, then extended, flexuous, regular or just wavy, not striated. The surface is smooth, glabrous, greasy when the weather is humid, otherwise bright, at times there are evident signs of zones; of salmon, orange-reddish, colour, with concentric humid spots. Hymenium: thick gills, adnate-decurrent, often forked when close to the stipe; intercalated with several lamellules; of pale orange or orange only colour, they stain at times of violet on the lesions, rarely greenish by the end. Stipe: 2-8 × 1-3 cm. Flesh: thick, firm, whitish, cream-pale orange without hues of green, turning after about one hour brown-reddish, it may be also immutable. Pleasant smell, mild flavour. Latex: rather scarce, orange-reddish, immutable even is isolated, sourish taste. Habitat: it grows in summer and in autumn, mainly under fir, also mixed to beech or spruce. Microscopy: spores clearly ellipsoidal, warty, with some isolated warts, others forming crests, isolated or forming an incomplete reticulation, 7-9 × 6-7,5 µm. Cylindraceous basidia, sub-clavate, tetrasporic, 53-61 × 10-12 µm. Fusiform cistydia, thinned at the top, acuminate, 52-70 × 6-7 µm. Remarks : it’s an easy to recognize species due to the habitat, it grows mainly under Abies alba, due to the yellow-orange latex, the salmon coloured cap, the slimy cuticle with humid weather, the zonation at the margin almost absent and the fact of not turning green.
Edible
Coprinus Coprinus comatus (Fr.) S. F. Gray. Shaggy Mane, Shaggy Inkcap, Lawyer's Wig, Coprin chevelu, Schopftintling, Agarico chiomato, Geschubde inktzwam, Gyapjas tintagomba. Cap 3-7cm across when expanded, more or less a tall ovoid when young, becoming more cylindrical as it expands; white and very shaggy-scaly, often with a pale brownish "skullcap" at apex; margin of the cap dissolves away and progresses steadily upward until the entire cap has liquified away, including the gills. Gills free, crowded, very narrow; white becoming black and inky from the margin upward. Stem 60-120 x 10-20mm, very tall, straight, with a slightly bulbous base, hollow in center; white; smooth, with a ring of veil tissue left lower down on the stem. Flesh soft, fibrous; white. Odor (when young) pleasant. Taste similar. Spores ellipsoid, smooth, with germ pore at apex, (12)13-17(18) x 7-9?. Deposit black. Habitat often in large numbers on roadsides, lawns, and other urban sites, especially where the soil has been disturbed. Found throughout North America and Europe. Season sometimes in the spring but usually July-November. Edible and delicious when young.
Inedible
Polyporus lepideus is a fungus which was described by Fr. 1818. Polyporus lepideus included in the genus Polyporus and family Polyporaceae. Cap up to 15 cm. Circular, or funneled. Scaly, dry cuticle brown variable. Tubes decurrent, whitish. Large, circular pores creamy white. Short step, up to 4 cm - yellowish or reddish brown. Tough, leathery, whitish flesh. Has large, Visible pores. Grows in winter. Normal seasoning Spring
Inedible
Xylaria polymorpha (Pers. ex M-rat) Greville. Dead Man-s Fingers, Xilaire polymorphe, Vielgestaltige Holzkeule, Bunk-s agancsgomba, Houtknotszwam. Fruit body 3-8cm high, 1-3cm wide, irregularly club-shaped passing into a short cylindrical stalk below, black with a finely wrinkled or roughened surface. Flesh tough, white; the section shows the distinctive pattern of the spore-producing cavities, the perithecia, just below the surface crust. Asci 200 x 10um. Spores blackish, fusiform, 20-32 x 5-9um. Habitat in groups on stumps, usually beech. Season all year. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe. The two super latest shots were sent to me by David Tuckett. Thanks David.
Inedible
Xylaria longipes Nitschke. Langstielige Holzkeule, Nyeles agancsgomba, Dead Moll's Fingers. Similar to X. polymorpha but altogether more slender. Spores smaller, 12?16 x 5?7um. Habitat on stumps and fallen branches usually of sycamore. Season all year. Occasional. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Inedible
Xylaria hypoxylon (L. ex Hook.) Greville. Stag?s Horn or Candlesnuff Fungus, Xilaire du bois, Geweihf?rmige Holzkeule, Geweizwam, Szarvasagancsgomba. Fruit body 1?7cm high, subcylindric at first becoming flattened and branched into an antler-like shape, the upper branches powdered white, finally tipped black when mature, stalk black and hairy. Asci 100 x 8um. Spores black, bean-shaped, 11?14 x 5?6um. Habitat on dead wood. Season all year. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Xylaria carpophila (Pers.) Fr. Kleine Holzkeule. Similar to X. hypoxylon but generally much more slender. Habitat on old, rotting beech masts. Season all year. Occasional. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Edible
Volvariella bombycina (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Sing. syn. Volvaria bombycina (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Kummer. Wolliger Scheidling ?ri?s bocskorosgomba Volvaire soyeuse Silky Rosegill. Cap 5?20cm across, ovate then bell-shaped, whitish covered in long fine yellowish silky, almost hair-like fibres. Stem 70?150 x 10?20mm, often curved, tapering upwards from the bulbous base; volva membranous, large and persistant, somewhat viscid, white at first discolouring dingy brown. Flesh white becoming faintly yellowish. Taste slight, smell pleasant, like that of bean sprouts. Gills crowded, white at first then flesh-pink. Spore print pink. Spores elliptic, 8.5?10 x 5?6um. Habitat dead frondose trees, Maple, elm, and others, often in knot-holes or hollow trunks. Season early summer to autumn. Rare. Edible (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
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