Europe Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
Stem type:
Spore colour:
Cap type:
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Total mushrooms fount: 1140

Inedible
Verpa bohemica (Krombh.) Schroer. B-hmische Verpel, Cseh kucsmagomba, Rapunzelverpel. Cap 1-2.5cm high, thimble- to bell-shaped; dull yellow-brown to sepia; surface deeply wrinkled and convoluted; margin completely free from the stem, cap attached only at top. Stem 50-100 x 10-25mm, slightly clavate; white; smooth to scurfy-granular, often ridged. Flesh white. Odor pleasant. Taste pleasant. Asci each ascus holds only 2 spores. Spores huge, ellipsoid, smooth, 60-80 x 15-18-. Deposit yellow. Habitat in damp woods along stream banks, pathsides. Found in Europe and throughout most of North America although rare in the East. Season March-early May. Edible with caution. Although widely eaten, it has caused adverse symptoms in some people.
Edible
Vascellum pratense (Pers.) Kreisel syn. V. depressum (Bon.) Smarda syn. Lycoperdon depressum Bon. syn. Lycoperdon hiemale Vitt. M?nzenst?ubling, Sz?lessz?j? laposp?feteg (p?feteg), Lycoperdon des pr?s, Meadow Puffball. Fruit body 2?4cm across, subglobose narrowed into a short squat stem, white at first then yellowish flesh-coloured, finally light brown, outer layer scurfy and with some small white spines, inner wall smooth and shining opening by a small pore but eventually the upper part breaking away totally leaving the fruit body bowl-shaped. Gleba olive-brown; sterile base well-developed, separated from the spore mass by a distinct membrane. Spores olive-brown, globose, finely warted, 3?5.5m in diameter. Habitat on lawns, golf-courses or pasture. Season summer to late autumn. Common. Edible when young. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Ustulina deusta (Fr.) Petrak syn. Kretzschmaria deusta (Hoffm.:Fr.) P. Martin. Korsthoutskoolzwam Szenes ripacsosgomba. Fruit body forming irregular wavy cushions or encrusting the substrate, greyish white in the early stages soon becoming brittle enough to crush between the fingers, finally black and very brittle resembling charred wood. Asci 300 x 15m. Spores black, fusiform, 28?34 x 7?10um. Habitat on old dead stumps or roots of deciduous trees especially beech. Season late spring to summer, although the blackened state may be seen all year round. Common. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Choice
Ustilago maydis (DC) Corda syn. Ustilago zeae Ung. Corn Smut, Kukorica?sz?g, Cuitlacoche, Huitlacoche. This smut fungus attacks maize or corn causing a bulbous greyish-white fungal growth with a black interior to form on the corn ears, and sometimes a series of grey-black patches on leaves or stems. For farmers all over the world it has been considered a pest, but in Mexico the sweet corn infected with the fungus is a culinary delicacy known as Cuitlacoche or Huitlacoche (the name taken from the ancient Nauhatl). Pseudohyphae and short hyphae with clamp connections are sometimes present. The blastoconidia are irregular, spindle shaped. The teliospores are generated in the corn cob and on maturity are dispersed by wind, they then can overwinter in the soil and infect the next year's growth. For best eating, cuitlacoche should be harvested 16-18 days after infection, once the teliospores are mature. Edible and choice when maturing on corn cobs. Found all over the world, but most easily found in Mexico and some parts of the USA where deliberate infection takes place in order to produce a crop for sale. The images of Cuitlacoche in the edible stage has been lent to me by Jane Levi and Alex Veness.
Inedible
Tyromyces caesius (Schrad. ex. Fr.) Murr. syn. Polyporus caesius Schrad. ex Fr. New syn. Postia caesia Blauender Saftporling Elk?k?l? likacsosgomba (tapl?). Bracket 1?6cm across, 1?4cm wide, 0.3?1cm thick, single or in overlapping groups, semicircular; upper surface covered in fine long hairs, whitish, grey-blue with age or where handled. Tubes 0.5?4.5mm long, white later grey-blue. Pores 3?4 per mm, circular, white at first more grey or grey-blue with age. Spores white with grey-blue tint, sausage-shaped, amyloid, 4?5 x 0.7?1.0um. Hyphal structure monomitic; generative hyphae appearing glassy in KOH, and with clamp-connections. Habitat on dead conifers, especially spruce. Season all year, annual. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Tylopilus felleus (Fr.) Karst. syn Boletus felleus Fr. Bitter Boletus, Bolet de fiel, Bolet amer, Bolet chicotin, Gallenr?hrling, Epe?z? tin?ru, Boleto felleo, porcino di fiele, Bittere boleet. Cap 6?12cm, fulvous to snuff-brown, slightly downy at first, smooth with age. Stem 70?100 x 20?30 (60 at base) creamy ochre, lighter at apex, covered in a coarse snuff-brown network. Flesh soft, white to cream, clay-pink beneath cap cuticle. Taste very bitter, like bile, smell slightly unpleasant. Tubes slightly salmon or coral. Pores similarly coloured, bruising brownish. Spore print clay-pink to vinaceous. Spores subfusoid, 11?15?4?5m. Habitat coniferous and deciduous woodland. Season late summer to autumn. Occasional. Not edible due to very bitter taste. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tulostoma brumale Pers. ex Pers. Zitzenbovist, ?ves nyelesp?feteg, nyeles p?feteg, Tulostome mamelonn?, Winter Stalkball. Fruit body consisting of a globose head 1?2cm across attached to a slender fibrous stem 20?50 x 3?4mm. Head opening by a circular pore surmounting a pale ochre to whitish cylindrical mouth. Spores globose and finely warted, 3.5?5m in diameter. Habitat in sandy calcareous soil or dunes usually amongst moss, formerly found on old stone walls where mortar was used instead of cement. Season autumn. Rare. Not edible. Found In Europe and possibly in north America.
Choice
Tuber melanosporum Vitt., Perigord Truffle, Truffe du P?rigord, Die Perigord-Tr?ffel, Francia szarvasgomba, Tartufo nero di Norcia, tartufo di P?rigord, Perigordtruffel. Spherical or lumpy, 2-10cm across with a covering of polygonal warts, and the cut flesh turning violaceous-black with white river like lines throughout, wonderfully scented. Asci with up to 6 spoes 90-100 x 80-120um Spores elliptic, completely covered in spines 2-4um long, 29?55 x 22?35um. A specialty of the Perigore region of France, but also known from other countries around the Mediterranean, north Africa and Asia. Edible ? excellent considered the best truffle. Found In Europe, under trees especially cork oak.
Choice
Tuber aestivum Vitt. Summer Truffle, Truffe de ?t?, Truffe de la Saint-Jean, Sommertr?ffel, Ny?ri szarvasgomba, Tartufo d'estate, tartufo nero d'estate, tartufo nero nostrale, Zommertruffel. Fruit body 3?14cm across, globose, covered in pyramidal warts, blackish brown. Flesh whitish becoming marbled grey-brown. Taste nutty, smell sweet. Spores ovoid, reticulate, 20?40 x 15?30um. Habitat buried usually near beech on calcareous soil. Season late summer to autumn. Rare. Edible ? good. Found In Europe.
Inedible
Tubaria furfuracea (Pers. ex Fr.) Gillet. Sch?ppchen-Trompetenschnitzling Gyakori szem?tgomba, t?li szem?tgomba Scurfy Twiglet. Cap 1?4cm across, convex then flattened or centrally depressed, cinnamon to tan and striate from margin inwards when moist drying pale buff and slightly scurfy. Stem 20?50 x 2?4mm, more or less concolorous with the cap, base covered in white down. Flesh concolorous. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills broad, distant, adnate to slightly decurrent, cinnamon. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, hyaline, cylindric to clavate. Spore print pale ochre. Spores elliptic with rounded apex, 7?9?4.5?5m. Habitat on twigs and woody debris. Season all year, usually autumn to early winter. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tricholomopsis rutilans (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Sing. syn. Tricholoma rutilans (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Kummer. Plums and Custard, Tricolome rutilant, Pleurote rutilant, R?tlicher Holzritterling, B?rsonyos pereszke (fapereszke), Agarico rutilante, Koningsmantel. Cap 4?12cm across, convex to bell-shaped when expanded often with a low broad umbo, yellow densely covered in reddish-purple downy tufts or scales, more densely covered at the centre. Stem 35?55 x 10?15mm, yellow covered in fine downy purplish scales like the cap but to a much lesser extent; no mycelial strands. Flesh pale yellow or cream. Taste watery, smell like rotten wood. Gills rich egg-yellow. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, voluminous, 20?30um wide. Spore print white. Spores ellipsoid, 6?8.5 x 4?5um. Habitat on and around conifer stumps. Season late summer to late autumn. Very common. Considered edible by some but not recommended. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma virgatum (Fr. ex Fr.) Kummer. Tricolome verget?, Brennender Erdritterling, Cs?p?s pereszke, Tricoloma vergato, Scherpe ridderzwam, Ashen Knight. Cap 3?7cm across, convex with a low broad umbo, brownish-black or greyish initially with violaceous tints, streaked with very fine black fibrils. Stem 50?90 x 10?18mm, white and smooth, often flushed grey. Flesh white to greyish. Taste bitter and peppery, smell musty. Gills greyish tinged flesh-colour, often browning at the edges. Spore print white. Spores 6.5?8 x 5?6um. Habitat deciduous and coniferous woods. Season autumn. Uncommon. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma vaccinum (Pers. ex Fr.) Kummer. Tricolome ?cailleux, Tricolome de vache, Zottiger Ritterling, Szak?llas pereszke, Agarico vaccino, Ruige ridderzwam, Scaly Knight. Cap 4?7cm across, slightly umbonate, flesh-brown, darker towards the centre, disrupting into woolly scales. Stem 30?45 x 8?12mm, fibrous, paler than cap. Flesh pallid to rosy, often hollow in stem. Taste bitter, smell mealy. Gills white at first, later pallid flesh-colour. Spore print white. Spores ovate, 5?7 x 4?5um. Habitat conifer woods. Season late summer to late autumn. Uncommon. Inedible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma ustaloides Romagn. Kastanienbrauner Ritterling, Gesztenyebarna pereszke. Cap 4?9cm across, hemispherical to convex, chestnut brown, paler towards the inrolled margin, viscid. Stem 60?100 x 8?15mm, white at the apex, rusty-brown and speckled towards the base; a fragile and very short-lived cortina is sometimes present near the top of the stem in young specimens. Flesh white. Taste and smell strongly of meal. Gills whitish becoming spotted with rust. Spore print white. Spores 6?7 x 4?5um. Habitat deciduous woods. Season autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Tricholoma ustale (Fr. ex Fr.) Kummer. Tricolome br?l?, Brandiger Ritterling, Szenesed? (feketed?) pereszke, Beukridderzwam, Burnt Knight. Cap 4?8cm across, convex then expanded, viscid in wet weather, chestnut brown, paler at margin, blackening with age. Stem 30?60 x 10?15mm, fibrous, reddish-brown, apex paler. Flesh whitish, sometimes reddening slightly. Taste slightly bitter, smell not distinctive. Gills white, becoming rust-spotted, edges blackening with age. Spore print white. Spores elliptic-ovate, 5.5?7 x 4?5um. Habitat deciduous woods, especially beech. Season late summer to late autumn. Rare. Poisonous. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Tricholoma terreum (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Kummer. Tricolome couleur de terre, Petit-gris, Saint-Martin, Graubl?ttriger Erdritterling, Feny?pereszke, Agarico color di terra, cavarese, Donkergrijze ridderzwam, Grey Knight. Cap 4?7cm across, convex with a low broad umbo, light to dark grey, downy to felty. Stem 30?80 x 10?15mm, white and silky smooth. Flesh whitish grey. Taste pleasant, not mealy, smell not distinctive. Gills emarginate, distant, whitish to grey. Spore print white. Spores 6?7 x 3.5?4.5um Habitat in woods, especially with conifers. Season late summer to late autumn. Uncommon. Edible with caution. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma sulphureum (Bull. ex Fr.) Kummer syn. T. bufonium (Pers. ex Fr.) Gillet. Tricolome soufr?, Schwefelritterling, B?d?s pereszke, Agarico zolfino, Narcisridderzwam, Sulphur Knight Gas Agaric. Cap 3?8cm across, convex with an indistinct umbo, sulphur-yellow often tinged reddish-brown or olivaceous. Stem 25?40 x 6?10mm, sulphur-yellow covered in reddish-brown fibres. Flesh bright sulphur-yellow. Taste mealy, smell strongly of gas-tar. Gills bright sulphur-yellow. Spore print white. Spores 9?12 x 5?6um. Habitat in deciduous woods, less frequently with conifers. Season autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Tricholoma squarrulosum Bres. syn. T. atrosquamosum var. squarrulosum (Bres.) Pearson & Dennis. Schuppenritterling, Pikkelyest?nk? pereszke, Spikkelsteelridder. Cap 4?5cm across, flattened convex, grey-brown, darker towards the centre, covered in blackish-brown scales. Stem 40?50 x 5?8mm, greyish covered in fine blackish-brown scales. Flesh whitish to grey. Smell mealy. Gills whitish grey often slightly flesh-coloured. Spore print white. Spores pip-shaped, 7?8 x 4?5um. Habitat conifer woods. Season autumn. Rare. Edible with caution. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma sejunctum (Sow. ex Fr.) Qu?l. Jaunet, Braungelber Ritterling, Z?ldess?rga pereszke, Streephoedridderzwam, Deceiving Knight. Cap 4?10cm across, conico-convex then expanded, yellowish-green more brown or greyish-brown towards the centre, radially streaky, moist. Stem 50?80 x 10?30mm, white flushed yellowish. Flesh white, yellowing below the cap cuticle in older specimens. Taste mealy. Gills whitish. Spore print white. Spores 5?7 x 4?5um. Habitat deciduous woods. Season autumn. Uncommon. Non edible ? nauseating. Distribution, America and Europe.
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