Europe Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
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Total mushrooms fount: 1140

Armillaria caligata (Viv.) Gilbert syn. Tricholoma caligatum (Viv.) Ricken Krokodil pereszke. Cap 5-12cm across, broadly convex with margin sometimes uplifted in age and hung with veil remnants; creamish flesh showing beneath cinnamon-brown patches or scales; dry. Gills adnate, close, narrow to moderately broad; white, staining brownish with age. Stem 50-100x20-30mm; white above the ring, below cinnamon-brown zones and patches of veil remnants. Veil partial veil leaving membranous ring on the upper stem and brownish patches below. Odor fragrant, pleasant or foul, disgusting (see Comment). Taste slight, mild, or bitter (see Comment). Spores broadly ellipsoid, smooth, nonamyloid, 6-7.5 x 4.5-5.5?. Deposit white. Habitat on the ground, sometimes in sandy soil, under hardwoods, particularly oak, in the East; under conifers in the West. Found in Europe and widely distributed in North America. Season July-November. Edible-excellent, much treasured in Japan. Comment Various forms of this mushroom exist. In Colorado and the West, found under spruce, it is usually fragrant and mild tasting; in the East, under hardwoods, I have found the foul, disgusting smelling variety with the bitter taste.
Inedible
Apiognomonia veneta The fungus that attacks London Plane trees with its Discula anamorph. In spring Planes get a severe leaf drop as the fungus develops, it occurs when the new leaves are approaching full size and seems to affect around 5% of leaves. It attacks the petioles and leaf stems infecting up into the leaf veins. The trees then carry on seeming to be able to survive and continue to build foliage throughout the season. The oriental plane is more resistant, the American plane less resistant to this disease, the London Plane being a hybrid seems to fall somewhere in the middle. Not Edible. USA and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Antrodia xantha (Fr. Fr.) Ryv. A crust found mainly on broad leaved branches or stumps but also on dead conifer wood. 1-5(10)mm thick forming patches on the dead wood, cream or whitish, or light yellow. Soft when fresh then brittle, bitter tasting. Pores small 4-6 per mm. Spores small, smooth 4-5x1-1.5um. Very similar in appearance to Antrodia serialis which has larger spores.
Inedible
Antrodia sinuosa (Fr.) Karst. A creamy coloured rusipinate crust with rudimentary caps with exposed tubes, the leathery growth can be quite extensive, it can quite easily be detached from the substrate. Spores are smooth 6.5-9x3-4um. Found on dead spruce wood and occasionally on other conifers. It can be found at any time of year.
Inedible
Antrodia serialis (FR.) Donk Szalagtapl? (tapl?). A rusupinate which forms patches on spruce wood that can be at least 20 cm. Across, tending to form mini tough leathery brackets. Where it turns up to make the little brackets it shows ochre-brown colours, the pore /under surface is white, pores 2-4 per mm. Found on dead conifer wood (mostly on spruce (Picea), at any time of the year. Not common. Spores 6.5-9x3-4um.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita strobiliformis (Vitt.) Quel. Cafrangos gal?ca. Sometimes other authors use the name Amanita solitaria for this mushroom. Cap 15-25cm white, with large plate-like grey remnants of the volva. Stem large 15x5cm, white with a ring. Gills white. Flesh white. Spores 12x8??. Found on chalk or limestone beech woods. Said to be edible, but I advise against because of the possibility of confusion with poisonous white species. Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita regalis Fr. Barna gal?ca. Developing from a white volval sac. Cap up to 15cm or even larger, yellow-brown to greenish-brown, the flesh under the cap skin is yellowish; veil flakes white (whitish) the whole appearance like a brownish Amanita muscaria. Stem with prominent bulb and ring tending to be flaky. Gills white. Spores elliptical 9-12 x6-9??. Found, mainly in pine and spruce woods, more especially in northern Scandinavia. Poisonous found in Europe. Rare.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita porphyria (Alb. & Schw. ex Fr.) Secr. Grey Veiled Amanita, Amanite porphyre, Porphyrbrauner Wulstling, Agarico porporino, Porfieramaniet, B?bor gal?ca. Cap 5?9cm across, convex becoming flattened, pale greyish-brown with vinaceous flush, smooth. Stem 100?130 x 10?15mm, whitish, ring thin and fragile, basal bulb encased in a short volva. Flesh whitish becoming brown. Taste unpleasant, smell slight. Gills free to adnexed, white. Spore print white. Spores globose, amyloid, 7.5?9.5? diameter. Habitat in coniferous or mixed woods. Season late summer to autumn. Occasional. Not edible many amanitas contain poisonous toxins -avoid. Distribution, north America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita gemmata (Fr.) Gillet syn. A. junquillea Qu?l. syn. Amanitopsis adnata (W. G. Smith) Sacc. Jewelled Amanita, Amanite ? pierreries, Zitronengelber Knollenbl?tterpilz, Amanita giunchiglia, Narcisamaniet, S?rga gal?ca. Cap 5?7cm across, flattened convex, pale yellow with more ochre centre, covered in snow-white patches of veil remnants, margin striate. Stem 70?100 x 10?14mm, white with pale yellow flush, with a large basal bulb encased in a short thin volva. Flesh white, flushed pale yellow in the stem. Smell faint. Gills adnexed, white. Spore print white. Spores ovoid ? subglobose, nonamyloid, 8.5?9 x 7?7.5?. Habitat in coniferous woods. Season spring to autumn. Very rare. Deadly poisonous causing symptoms as in A. pantherina poisoning. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Amanita fulva (Schaeff.) Secr. syn. Amanitopsis vaginata var. fulva (Schaeff.) Fr. Tawny Grisette, Rotbrauner Scheidenstreifling, Falso farinaccio fulvo, Roodbruine slanke amaniet, R?t selyemgomba. Cap 4-9cm across, ovoid at first, expanding to almost flat with a low umbo and a distinctly grooved margin; orange-brown; slightly paler toward the margin; smooth, slightly sticky when moist then dry. Gills free, close, broad; white to creamy. Stem 70-150 x 5-12mm, slender, hollow, quite fragile, tapering toward the top; white tinged with orange-brown and very fine white hairs; no ring; no basal bulb, but base of stem encased in large baglike volva, white tinged with orange-brown. Flesh white. Odor not distinctive. Taste not distinctive. Spores globose, nonamyloid; 9.7-12.5 x 9.7-12.5?. Deposit white. Habitat singly or in small groups on the ground in deciduous and coniferous woods. Fairly common. Found widely distributed throughout North America. Season July-September (January-March in California). Edible but I advise avoiding it as I would all amanitas, because there are so many deadly poisonous species.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita crocea (Qu?l.) K?hn. & Romagn. syn. A. vaginata var. crocea Qu?l. syn. Amanitopsis crocea (Qu?l.) Gilbert Orange Grisette Orangebrauner Scheidenstreifling, Falso farinaccio giallo, Narancssz?n? selyemgomba. Cap 4?10cm across, convex becoming flattened or turning up at margin, with a broad umbo, pale yellow orange or apricot at centre, paler towards the lined margin. Stem 100?150 x 10?20mm, gradually attenuated towards the apex, covered in silky or cottony tufts of the cap colour throughout the length, the non-bulbous base encased in a thick, persistent volva which is white on the outside and flushed with the cap colour on the interior surface, no ring. Flesh thin, white often pale orange below the cap cuticle. Smell sweet, taste sweet and nutty. Gills adnexed or free, cream. Spore print white. Spores subglobose, nonamyloid, 11?12.5 x 9?10?. Habitat amongst broadleaved trees especially birch. Season late summer to autumn. Occasional. Not known to be edible -best avoided. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Found In Europe and north America from New York west to Colorado.
Poisonous/Suspect
Alboleptonia sericella (Fr.) Largent & Benedict syn. Entoloma sericellum var. sericellum (Fr.) Rummer Feh?rpityke d?ggomba. Cap 1-2.5cm across, convex becoming expanded, sometimes with a depressed disc, margin sometimes slightly lined in age; white becoming pinkish; dry, sometimes felty to scaly on the disc. Gills adnate often with a decurrent tooth, close to subdistant, broad to moderately broad; white then pale pinkish tawny. Stem 15-60 x 1-3mm, solid or becoming hollow; whitish becoming dingy or vinaceous in age; smooth, silky, with a bloom toward the top. Flesh thin, fragile; white. Odor mild. Taste mild. Spores nodulose, 8.5-11 x 6-7.5?. Deposit pinkish. Habitat growing on soil under conifers and hardwoods. Found in central and eastern -North America and in Washington. Season July-September. Not edible.
Edible
Sheep Polypore Albatrellus ovinus (Fr.) Murr. syn. Polyporus ovinus Fr. Schafporling Fak? zsemlegomba. Fruit body annual. Cap 5-15cm across, usually single but sometimes several fused together, circular to irregular when fused, convex then depressed, dish-shaped; white to pale buff, tan; dry, smooth, or a little scaly with age. Tubes 1-2mm deep, decurrent; white. Pores 2-4 per mm, angular; white to yellowish. Stem 20-75 x 10-30mm, slightly swollen, pointed at base, usually central; white bruising pinkish; smooth. Flesh 5-20mm thick, firm; white, dries yellowish. Odor pleasant, fungusy, aromatic. Taste mild, sometimes slightly bitter (see Comment). Spores subglobose-ellipsoid, 3-4.5 x 3-3.5?. Deposit white. Hyphal structure monomitic. Habitat on the ground by conifers, especially at high elevations. Found in Europe especially Finland (where it is considered a fine edible,)and throughout North America. Season August to winter. Edible. Comment Similar are Albatrellus confluens (Fr.) Kotlaba & Pouz., which is darker, orange-hued, with a bitter flavor, and Albatrellus subrubescens (Murr.) Pouz., which bruises orange.
Inedible
Agrocybe paludosa (Lange) K?hn. & Romagn. syn. Pholiota praecox var. paludosa LangeSumpf-Ackerling Pholiote des marais Cap 1.5?3cm across, convex then flattened with broad umbo, dirty cream to pale tan, especially at the centre. Stem 40?70 x 2?3mm, cream flushed with cap colour, ring near apex, rather broad and fragile. Flesh thin, whitish in cap, brownish in stem. Smell of meal. Gills adnate, pale at first then darker brown. Spore print light cigar-brown. Spores ovoid-ellipsoid, 9?10 x 5?5.5?. Cap cuticle cellular. Habitat in marshy meadows. Season late spring in summer. Rare. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Agrocybe erebia (Fr.) K?hn. syn. Pholiota erebia (Fr.) Gillet Lederbrauner Erdsch?ppling S?t?t r?tgomba Dark Fieldcap. Cap 3?6cm across, convex becoming flattened with a broad umbo, the margin wavy in older specimens, dull clay-brown when dry, darker and slightly viscid when moist. Stem 60?80 x 8?12mm, whitish at first gradually darkening brown from base upwards, with whitish grooved ring. Flesh pale brownish. Gills pale at first then dark umber brown. Spore print very dark brown. Spores ellipsoid, 10?13 x 5?6?. Cap cuticle cellular. Habitat on bare soil or in leaf litter in deciduous woods. Season autumn. Frequent. Not edible ? easily confused with poisonous species. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Agrocybe dura (Bolt. ex Fr.) Sing. syn. Pholiota dura (Bolt. ex Fr.) Kummer, Rissiger Ackerling, Kerti r?tgomba, Pholiote dure, Bearded Fieldcap Cap 3?7cm across, convex expanding to almost flat, ivory white to yellowish cream. Stem 50?80 x 3?7mm, whitish with cottony ring near apex. Flesh thick, firm, whitish. Taste slightly bitter, smell mushroomy. Gills adnate, pale at first then darker clay. Spore print light cigar brown. Spores ovoid-ellipsoid, 12?13 x 6?7.5?. Cap cuticle cellular. Habitat singly in grass at roadsides or in meadows. Season spring to late summer. Occasional. Edible ? poor. Distribution, Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Agrocybe cylindracea (DC. ex Fr.) Maire syn. Pholiota aegerita (Brig.) Qu?l. Pappel-Sch?ppling, D?li t?kegomba, d?li r?tgomba, Albarelle, Pholiote du peuplier Poplar Fieldcap Cap 4?10cm across, hemispherical convex becoming flattened and sometimes cracked at centre and often wavy near the margin, pale buff to almost white with rust flush at centre when young becoming darker brown with age. Stem 50?100 x 10?15mm, cream at first, darker brown with age, with persistent ring which soon becomes dusted brown by the spores. Flesh white in the cap and stem, brown in the stem base. Taste nutty, smell of old wine casks. Gills adnate or slightly decurrent, cream at first then tobacco brown due to the spores. Spore print tobacco brown. Spores ovoid-ellipsoid, 8.5?10.5 x 5?6?. Cap cuticle cellular. Habitat in tufts wood especially willows and poplars. Season all year round. Rare. Edible. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Agaricus xanthodermus Genevier syn. Psalliota xanthoderma (Genevier) Richon & Roze. Yellow Stainer, Agaric jaunissant, Giftchampignon, Agarico giallescente, Karbolchampignon, S?rgul? csiperke, karbolszag? csiperke. Cap 5?15cm across, subspherical with the top flattened later expanded convex, white at first later often with tiny indistinct greyish-brown scales and bruising bright chrome-yellow, especially towards the margin. Stem 50?150 x 10?20mm, white, bulbous at the base; ring white with a thickened edge which can cause it to appear double. Flesh white, staining chrome-yellow in the stem base. Taste slightly unpleasant, smell slightly of ink. Gills white at first then pale pink, finally grey-brown. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, sub-globose or ovate, hyaline, 10?20 x 8?14?. Spore print purple-brown. Spores ellipsoid, 5?6.5 x 3?4?. Habitat in woods, meadows and gardens. Season summer to autumn. Occasional. Poisonous. The symptoms are sweating, flushing and severe stomach cramps, but only some people are affected. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Agaricus vaporarius (Vitt.) Mos. syn. Psalliota vaporaria (Vitt.) M?ller & Schaeff. Garten-Egerling Agaric de Bernard, Psalliote de Bernard, Komposztcsiperke, ?ves csiperke, Clustered Mushroom. Cap 10?15cm across, subglobose at first expanding to flattened convex, dirty brown soon breaking up into large scales. Stem 60?120 x 25?50mm, tapering at the base which is deeply buried in the soil, white and smooth although initially with brown fibrous scales; ring thick and white, pendulous. Flesh white, reddening only slightly on cutting. Taste nutty, smell mushroomy. Gills pale pink at first later chocolate brown. Cheilocystidia numerous, thin-walled, clavate, hyaline, 18?28 x 4?10?. Spore print brown. Spores subglobose, 6?7?4.5?6m. Habitat gardens and deciduous woods often developing below ground and pushing up through the soil as it expands. Season autumn. Rare. Edibility suspect -avoid. Found In Europe.
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