Europe Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
Stem type:
Spore colour:
Cap type:
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Total mushrooms fount: 1140

Edible
Agaricus silvicola (Vitt.) Peck. Wood Mushroom, Agaric des bois, D?nnfleischiger Anisegerling, Agarico di boschi, Slanke anijchamignon, Karcs? csiperke. Cap: 5 - 10cm across, convex, cream, readily bruising ochraceous and becoming more yellow with age. Hymenium is free ( cap is convex or flat ). Stem: 50 - 80 x 10 - 15mm, concolorous with the cap, base usually bulbous. Stipe: has a ring. Ring: large and pendulous, upper surface white, lower drab. Flesh: thin, white. Taste: mushroomy, smell of aniseed. Gills: free, pale greyish-pink at first later chocolate brown. Smell: Aniseed. Cheilocystidia numerous, thin-walled, oval to subglobose, hyaline, 10 - 20 x 7 - 20. Spore print purple-brown. Spores ellipsoid 5-6 x 3-4-. Habitat in coniferous and deciduous woods. Season autumn. Occasional. ---- The cap is light cream, and bruises yellow ochre when damaged. It is much the same colour as the cap, and has a fragile drooping ring. The flesh is thin and white, and smells of aniseed. It looks fairly similar to a young death cap, it is believed by some mycologists. ---- Agaricus silvicola grows in both deciduous and coniferous woodland in Britain, Europe, and North America. Appearing in the autumn, it is rarely seen in huge numbers, usually just a few, or solitary ( Season: August to November ). Often found in loose groups. ---- It is suspected to have caused an allergic reaction in a few people in North America. ---- Agaricus xanthodermus, the yellow stainer looks very alike but bruises chrome yellow when handled or cut and smells of Indian ink or Agaricus pilatianus which stains yellow on cutting and smells of carbolic. Both do not smell edible. People can mistake some of the Amanitas for field mushrooms but on inspection they are quite different.
Inedible
Agaricus porphyrocephalus M-ller syn. Psalliota porphyrea M-ller Rotbrauner Egerling Cap 3-8cm across, hemispherical to flat, brown, with darker radiating fibrils. Stem 30-40 x 10-20mm, white, slightly tapering towards the base or sometimes slightly swollen and bulbous; ring thin and white. Flesh white to pale flesh-coloured. Taste and smell mushroomy. Gills pink at first, later chocolate brown. Cheilocystidia absent. Spore print brown. Spores 5-7-3-4.5m. Habitat lawns or pastures. Season autumn. Rare. Edibility suspect -avoid. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Agaricus porphyrizon (Cke.) Orton Lil?sv?r?s csiperke. Cap 4-10cm across, convex; whitish with purplish-lilac adpressed scales and fibrils, darker at center, bruising dull yellow; smooth. Gills free, crowded; white to pinkish then brown. Stem 50-100 x 12-20mm, clavate; white, staining yellow when touched; smooth; ring membranous, thin, simple. Flesh white staining yellowish in stem, especially at base. Odor pleasant, of almonds. Taste pleasant, of almonds. Spores ovoid, 4.5-5.6 x 3.2-3.8?. Deposit deep brown. Habitat in mixed woodlands, mostly conifers. Found in Colorado. Season September. Edible. Comment This species does not satisfactorily fit any current American taxa but does agree very well with the European name given here, particularly in the very narrow spores.
Poisonous/Suspect
Agaricus placomyces Peck syn. Psalliota meleagris Schaeff. Grossschuppiger Egerling Tintaszag? csiperke. Cap 5?9cm across, ovoid at first becoming expanded, densely covered with tiny grey-brown scales, especially towards the centre, on a whitish ground. Stem 60?90 x 10?12mm, bulbous, whitish, initially covered in conspicuous flakes below the large membranous ring. Flesh white, discolouring faintly yellowish and later pale brown. Cap, stem and flesh bruise yellow. Taste and smell strong and unpleasant. Gills remaining light pink for a long time, at length blackish-brown. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, hyaline, globose or pear-shaped. Spore print brown. Spores elliptic, 4?6 x 3?4?. Habitat woodland. Season summer. Uncommon. Poisonous. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Agaricus pilatianus Bohus syn. A. xanthodermus var. pilatianus Bohus Weissgrauer Karbolegerling Fenolszag? (kr?ms?rga) csiperke. Cap 6?12cm across, obtusely convex, white at first becoming smoky- or greyish-brown, bruising yellow when young. Stem 40?80 x 15?30mm, cylindrical, slightly clavate or tapering at the base, white becoming tinged ochraceous to brownish; ring white, double. Flesh white, staining yellow in the stem base. Taste strong and unpleasant, smell unpleasant, strongly of carbolic. Gills white at first then pink, finally chocolate brown. Cheilocystidia clavate to broadly clavate, 22?30 x 11?13.5?. Spore print brown. Spores broadly ovate, 5.5-6.5 x 4.3-5.3?. Habitat in short grass in gardens or on lawns. Season autumn. Rare. Poisonous. Found In Europe.
Edible
Agaricus littoralis (Wak. & Pears.) Pilat. syn. A. spissicaulis. Strandegerling, Szeksz?rdi csiperke, nyomott-t?nk? csiperke. Cap 5-13cm across, convex at first but soon flattened and later with a central depression. Margin of cap often incurved and overhanging gills. White or greyish-white to pale brown, smooth or with faint, flattened, darker scales at centre, with small fragments of veil hanging at margin. Stem 25-70 x 12-20mm, whitish to pale buff, stout, swollen and slightly bulbous at base, slightly browning on handling, with a narrow, pendent white ring about half way up. Base of stem usually has distinct white ?roots? or rhizomorphs. Flesh white with a brownish tint, thick in cap, faintly discolouring to pale orange-buff to pale reddish-brown when cut, smelling slightly of anise or almonds when fresh, later rather sour. Taste is pleasant and nutty. Gills free from stem, rather crowded and at first pale pinkish-brown then soon greyish-brown then dark brown. Spore print dark, chocolate brown. Spores ellipsoid, 6.5-8.5x5-6.5?, smooth. Gill edge appearing sterile but with sparse, swollen cystidia. Habitat solitary or in small groups in dry sandy pastures, coastal dunes, or even along roadsides. Season summer to late autumn. Uncommon to rare. Edible but poor. Distribution, North America, Europe and North Africa. The first picture was taken by Geoffrey Kibby.
Choice
Agaricus langei (M?ller) M?ller syn. Psalliota langei M?ller Grosser Waldegerling Hegyi csiperke Scaly Wood Mushroom Cap 4?12cm across, convex, densely covered in fine rust brown fibrous scales. Stem 30?120 x 15?30mm, whitish with pink tinge and slightly mealy beneath the white pendulous ring. Flesh white gradually becoming bright red on cutting. Taste and smell pleasant and mushroomy. Gills pale fawny-pink at first becoming darker with age. Cheilocysitidia numerous, thin-walled, tufted, ovate to broadly-clavate, hyaline or brownish, 20?50 x 10?30?. Spore print purple-brown. Spores elliptic, 7?9 x 3.5?5?. Habitat in coniferous or mixed woods. Season late summer to autumn. Occasional. Edible ? good. Found In Europe.
Edible
Agaricus excellens (M?ller) M?ller syn. Psalliota excellens M?ller Seidenweisser Egerling Cap 10?15cm across, convex, white and silky, yellowing slightly at the centre especially with age, densely covered in minute fibrous scales of the same colour. Stem 100?140 x 20?35mm, white; ring thick and white, the underside scaly. Flesh thick, white, becoming more or less pink on cutting. Taste sweet and mushroomy, smell slightly of aniseed. Gills pale grey-pink. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, globose or ovate to broadly clavate, hyaline, 10?38 x 5?16?. Spore print brown. Spores elliptic, 9?12 x 5?7?. Habitat amongst grass in open woodland, especially spruce. Season autumn. Rare. Edible. Found In Europe.
Edible
Agaricus devoniensis Orton syn. Psalliota arenicola Wakef. & Pearson, Sandegerling Cap 3?12cm across, convex to flattened-convex, whitish and silky tinted pinkish or violaceous. Stem 30?40 x 10?15mm, white covered in scaly remnants of the veil, bruising reddish; ring sheathing, white and short-lived. Flesh white, tinted pink above the gills and in the lower stem. Taste and smell mushroomy but not distinctive. Gills free, greyish pink darkening with age. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, tufted, clavate, hyaline or brownish, 36?50 x 10?13?. Spore print dark brown. Spores subglobose, 6.5?7 x 5?5.5?. Habitat on sand dunes, only noticeable after the expanded cap has pushed up through the sand. Season late summer to autumn. Rare. Edible. Found In Europe.
Edible
Agaricus comtulus Fr. syn. Psalliota comtula (Fr.) Qu?l. Dickstieliger Zwergegerling, Kis csiperke. Cap 2?4cm across, convex expanding flat, white to ochraceous-cream. Stem 30?50 x 4?6mm, white or creamy, not bruising yellow; ring white and membranous. Flesh white but yellowing slightly in the stem base. Taste almondy, smell faintly of almonds or aniseed. Gills flesh-pink at first, darkening with age. Spore print brown. Spores ovate, 4.5?5.5?3?3.5m. Habitat in pastureland. Season late summer to autumn. Occasional. Edible. Found In Europe.
Inedible
Agaricus bresadolianus Bohus syn. A. campestris var. radicatus Vitt. Wurzelstieliger Egerling Ak?ccsiperke (-csiperke). Cap 5?10cm across, convex becoming expanded and slightly depressed at the centre, margin finally wavy, whitish to buff covered in buff to grey-brown fibrils, more densely so towards the centre. Stem 30?70 x 8?16mm, slightly swollen towards the rooting base; white flushed yellowish-buff especially at the base; ring white and narrow, short-lived, leaving an indistinct ring zone in older specimens. Flesh whitish, bruising faintly brown beneath the cap cuticle. Taste and smell slight and pleasant. Gills crowded, pale pink, finally blackish-brown. Cheilocystidia absent. Spore print dark brown. Spores elliptical to ovate, 6?7 x 4?4.5?. Habitat amongst grass in open deciduous woodland or gardens. Season summer. Very rare. Edibility unknown. Found In Europe.
Choice
Agaricus bohusii Bon illustrated by Cooke as Agaricus elvensis 539 (522) Csoportos csiperke Serbian name: BUSENASTI ?AMPINJON Fruiting body: cap up to 20(30)cm, half-rounded and then flattened, covered with brown cuticula which is breaking up into triangular scales except in the middle, margin somewhat appendiculate. Gills close, at first salmon later dark brown coloured, sterile edge pale. Stem: up to 25x3cm, spindle-shaped, swollen in the middle, at first whitish then becoming brown with age, staining reddish brown and then dark brown on handling. Ring double, white, with lower layer peronate, becoming brown and torn. Microscopy: spores egg-shaped, 6-7x4,5-6μm, brown colour en masse. Cheilocystidia numerous, club shaped. Flesh: whitish, slightly brownish in stem, when cut flashing red then brownish or immediately brownish Habitat: caespitose under broadleaved trees, especially under Ash (Fraxinus), rarely under Cedar (Cedrus) and then usually single; after showers in summer and early autumn. Edibility: edible and prized. Rare in Britain but common in Serbia and southern Europe.
Edible
Agaricus bitorquis (Qu?l.) Sacc. syn. A. edulis (Witt.) M?ller & Schaeff. syn. A. campestris subsp. bitorquis(Qu?l.) Konrad & Maubl. syn. Psalliota rodmanii (Peck) Kauffm. Scheidenegerling ?zletes (bocskoros) csiperke Champignon de trottoirs Cap 4?10cm across, convex soon flattened, white with faintly ochraceous flakes. Stem 30?60 x 15?20mm, white with two separate sheathing rings, the lower thinner and resembling a volva. Flesh white, tinged faintly pink on cutting. Taste mushroomy, smell pleasant. Gills dirty pink at first, soon clay, finally dark chocolate brown. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, clavate. Spore print brown. Spores subglobose, 4?6.5 x 4?5?. Habitat in gardens and at roadsides, sometimes found growing through asphalt. Season late spring to autumn. Occasional. Edible ? good. Found In Europe and north America.
Choice
Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Pil?t Zuchtchampignon Agaric cultiv?, Pratelle, Champignon de Paris, K?tsp?r?s csiperke, termesztett csiperke, Cultivated Mushroom. Cap 5?12cm across, hemispherical expanding convex, greyish-brown to umber covered in brown radiating fibres and often slightly scaly with age. Stem 35?55 x 8?14mm, white, often flaky below the membranous sheathing ring. Flesh white bruising faintly red. Taste and smell mushroomy. Gills dirty pinkish darkening with age. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, elongate-clavate, 17?44 x 7?14?. Spore print brown. Spores ovate to subglobose, 4?7.5 x 4?5.5?. Basidia two-spored, separating this species from the rest of this genus which all have four-spored basidia. Habitat on manure heaps, garden waste and roadsides, not in grass. Season late spring to autumn. Occasional. Edible. Distribution, America and Europe. This species is believed to be the wild ?parent? of many of the cultivated crop varieties, all of which have two-spored basidia.
Edible
Agaricus bernardii (Qu?l.) Sacc. syn. A. campestris subsp. bernardii (Qu?l.) Konrad & Maubl. D?nen-Egerling, Sziki csiperke. Cap 1?15cm across, hemispherical then flattened convex and often depressed, whitish to light brown, bruising reddish on handling, surface soon disrupting into coarse brownish scales. Stem 50?70 x 20?40mm, whitish, narrowing slightly at the greyish-brown base; ring sheathing, whitish and narrow. Flesh white becoming reddish orange on cutting. Taste slightly unpleasant, smell fishy. Gills pale grey then flesh-coloured becoming dark brown. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, elongate, cylindric, clavate or fusiform. Spore print dark brown. Spores broadly ovoid, 5.5?7 x 5?5.5?. Habitat on sand dunes and meadows near the sea or sodic lakes, also on roadsides inland, possibly due to the practice of salting the roads in icy weather. Season autumn. Uncommon. Edible. Found In Europe.
Choice
Cap 10-20cm across, obtusely ovoid at first expanding convex, yellowish-brown covered in chestnut-brown fibrous scales. Stem 100-200 x 20-40mm, whitish with small scales below the ring which discolour brownish with age, bruising yellowish; ring white, large and pendulous. Flesh thick and white, becoming tinged reddish with age. Taste mushroomy, smell strongly of bitter almonds. Gills free, white at first then brown. Cheilocystidia formed of chains of bladder-shaped elements. Spore print purple brown. Habitat in coniferous and deciduous woods. Season late summer to autumn. Uncommon. Distribution, America and Europe. ---- The beautiful Agaricus augustus is considered by many to be the most delicious of the edible Agaricus species. It is a happy find for any mushroom hunter, although it is reported to be difficult to find them before the worms do! Like other Agaricus species, the Prince grows on rich organic substrate, often as a litter decomposer in nature. It is probably a secondary decomposer, which means that bacteria and other fungi have to break down raw materials before Agaricus can grow. On a commercial scale this is the process known as composting. The Prince can have caps about one foot (30 cm) in diameter, although many mycophagists prefer to eat them when unexpanded because of their better texture and odor. The gills turn chocolaty brown when the spores are mature. However, even somewhat expanded caps can show gills that are still white. The beautiful veil and scruffy to shaggy stem (at least when young) are also hallmarks of this species.
Edible
Agaricus arvensis Schaeff. ex Secr. s. Lange non Cooke syn. Psalliota arvensis (Schaeff. ex Secr.) Kummer. Horse Mushroom, Agaric des jach?res, Boule de neige, Anischampignon, Erd?sz?li csiperke, Prataiolo, maggiore, Anijschampignon, Akkerchampignon. Cap 8?20cm across, ovate at first expanding convex, creamy white yellowing slightly with age or on bruising. Stem 80?100 x 20?30mm, often slightly clavate at the base, concolorous with the cap, the ring is formed of a double membrane, the lower splitting into a star-shape around the stem. Flesh white, thick and firm in the cap, pithy in the stem which tends to become hollow. Taste mushroomy, smell of aniseed. Gills free, white at first then flesh-pink, finally chocolate brown with age. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, ovate balloon-shaped 11?26 x 9?18(21)?. Spore print dark purple-brown. Spores ellipsoid, 7?8 x 4.5?5?. Habitat amongst grass in pasture or thickets often in rings. Season autumn. Frequent. Edible ? excellent. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Agaricus altipes M?ller Cap 4-7cm across, convex to broadly flattened; white to slightly buff on disc; smooth to slightly tomentose-floccose. Gills free, crowded; bright rosy pink when young, brown when old. Stem 80-100 x 12-20mm equal to slightly clavate; white, bruising slightly pinkish-buff color; fibrillose below; ring high on stem, white, thin, fragile, simple. Flesh firm; white bruising flesh-color. Odor mild. Taste mild. Spores ovate, 6.5-7.5 x 4.5-5.5?. Deposit deep chocolate brown. Habitat in grass in mixed woods, mostly conifers. Found in the Pacific Northwest. Season September. Edible. Comment This collection agreed very well with the European Agaricus altipes, differing only in the disagreeable odor of the original description; the odor may have been missed if the flesh was not bruised, or perhaps the specimens were too young.
Inedible
Mycoacia uda (Fr.) Donk. syn. Acia uda (Fr.) Bourd. & Galz. Fruit body resupinate, very thin, bright lemon-yellow becoming more ochraceous with age, covered in crowded slender spines which become purple when treated with a drop of KOH. Cystidioles thin-walled, fusoid. Spores narrowly ellipsoid, 4?6.5 x 2?3.5um. Habitat on fallen branches of deciduous trees. Season all year. Common. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Inedible
Abortiporus biennis (Bull. ex Fr.) Sing. syn Heteroporus biennis (Bull. ex Fr.) Laz. syn. Daedalea biennis Bull. ex Fr., Blushing Rosette, Rõt likacsosgomba. Fruit body variable, irregularly top-shaped, or rosette-like, or fused together into amorphous masses, 3-9cm across, 0.5-1.5cm thick, flattened to concave, surface downy to felty, whitish soon becoming pinkish. Tubes 2-6mm long, decurrent. Pores 1-2 per mm, angular and irregular, becoming maze-like, whitish bruising reddish. Spores elliptic-ovate to subglobose, 4-7 x 3.5-4.5µ. Long undulating worm-like refractive gloeocystidia present in the hymenium. In addition to the normal basidiospores the fungus also produces similarly shaped chlamydospores in the flesh and hymenium. Habitat on the ground from roots or wood chips of deciduous trees. Season autumn, annual. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
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