North america Mushrooms identifications

Stem type:
Spore colour:
Cap type:
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Total mushrooms fount: 1241

Sphaerobolus stellatus Tode syn. S. carpobolus (L.) Schroet. syn. Carpobolus stellatus (Mich.) Desm. Kugelwerfer Shooting Star. Fruit body 1.5?2.5mm across, initially globose and whitish becoming more ochraceous and splitting above into 5?9 minute orange-coloured rays, exposing the peridiole as a brownish ball containing the spores. This is projected over a range of up to 5.5 metres (14 feet) to disperse the spores by the sudden reversal of the receptacle which then appears as a translucent white sphere sitting on the star-shaped outer wall. Spores oblong, 7.5?10 x 3.5?5um. Habitat on sticks, sawdust, dung and other organic debris. Season autumn. Occasional but possibly often overlooked. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Sparassis crispa Wulf. ex Fr. Cauliflower or Brain Fungus, Sparassis Cr?pu, Clavaire Cr?pue, Krause Glucke, Fodros k?posztagomba, Creste di gallo, Grote Sponszwam. Fruit body 20?50cm across, subglobose, cauliflower-like, comprising numerous flattened, crisped lobes on a short thick rooting stem, pale ochraceous to buff, darkening with age. Smell sweetish, pleasant. Spores whitish to pale yellow, pip-shaped, 5?7 x 4?5um. Habitat at the base of conifer trees or near by. Season autumn. Occasional. Edible and delicious when young and fresh; must be thoroughly cleaned. Distribution, America and Europe.
Serpula lacrymans (Fr.) Karst. syn. Merulius lacrymans Schum. Dry Rot Fungus, Hausschwamm, K?nnyez? h?zigomba, Huiszwam. Fruit body 5?50cm across, usually resupinate but occasionally forming brackets on vertical substrates, arising from whitish, pinkish, lilac or grey mycelium. Flesh 2?12mm thick, greyish-white, spongy-fleshy. Pores rusty-yellow becoming more yellowish towards the thick, white sterile margin. Spores rust-brown, elliptic, 8?10 x 5?6um. The fungus gives off a distinctive damp rotten smell. Habitat on worked wood in buildings although the fruit bodies of the fungus may also appear on non-organic substrates such as plaster or brickwork. Season all year. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe. Infection of wood occurs when it has become sodden for some long time following prolonged damp due to leaking roofs or pipes, either by spores or by vegetative mycelium spreading through brickwork. On germination of the spores the mycelia exhibit two distinct modes of growth. Firstly, numerous fine hyphae penetrate the wood, producing enzymes which break down the wood and enable the fungus to absorb nutrients; as the wood dries it cracks into cubical blocks and eventually disintegrates into brown powder. It is the second mode of growth which is most easily detected since it takes the form of thick mycelial cords and cottony sheets spreading over brickwork, metal, etc. enabling the fungus to travel over areas from which it cannot derive nutrients. The fruit bodies arise from these mycelial cords. Thios phoyograph was lent to me by Alan and Patie Outen.
Scutellinia scutellata (L. ex St. Amans) Lamb. Common Eyelash S?rt?s cs?szegomba. Cup 0.2?1cm across, shallowly disc-shaped, inner surface bright orange-red, outer pale brown covered in stiff dark brown or black hairs up to 1,000? long and 40? wide towards the forked, rooting bases, narrowing towards the pointed apices, septate; visible without a lens as distinct ?eyelashed? rimming the margin. Asci 300 x 25?. Spores elliptical and with a roughened exterior, containing several small oil droplets, 18?19 x 10?12?. Habitat on damp soil or rotten wood. Season late spring to late autumn. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Scleroderma citrinum Pers. syn. S. aurantium (Vaill.) Pers. syn. S. vulgare Horn. Common Earthball, cl-roderme vulgaire, Scl-roderme orang-, Kartoffelbovist, R-t (k-z-ns-ges) -ltrifla, Scleroderma commune, tartufo falso, Aardappelbovist. Fruit body 2-10cm across, subglobose, attached to the substrate by cord-like mycelial threads, wall dirty yellow to ochre-brown, thick and tough, coarsely scaly, breaking open irregularly to liberate the spores. Gleba purplish-black at first patterned by whitish veins, powdery when mature. Spores brown, globose, with a net-like ornamentation, 9-13m in diameter. Habitat on mossy or peaty ground on heaths or in rich woodland, especially on sandy soil. Season late summer to early winter. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe. This species is sometimes parasitized by Boletus parasiticus.
Scleroderma cepa (Vaill.) Pers. Fruit body 1.5-9cm across, subglobose, flattened, or lobed; no stem or almost none, attached by a thick mass of tough, hairy mycelium. Peridium (outer skin) 1-3mm thick; when fresh, hard, quite tough; white in cross-section, becoming reddish or pinkish brown when cut. Surface whitish when young, becoming straw-colored to yellowish brown or leather brown, turning deep pinky-brown if rubbed; smooth becoming very finely cracked and scaly, especially on the top where exposed to light. Spore mass white and firm when young, soon becoming black or purple-black, then paler or browner and powdery. Odor none. Spores globose, spiny but not reticulate, 7-10 x 7-10-. Habitat singly, scattered, or in groups under deciduous and coniferous trees in woods, in gardens, and along roadsides. Common. Found widely distributed in North America. Season July-October. Poisonous.
Scleroderma areolatum Ehr. syn. S. lycoperdoides Schwein. Netzbovist Pikkelyes (leop-rd) -ltrifla Leopard Earthball. Fruit body 1-3(4)cm across, subglobose, tapering into a thick rooting stalk which passes into a few strong mycelial strands, yellowish-brown covered in smooth very dark scales surrounded by a ring giving a dotted, reticulate pattern when the scales have been worn off, opening by an irregular slit or pore. Gleba deep purplish-brown. Spores dark brown, globose, 9-14m in diameter, covered in spines 1.5m long. Habitat damp places on bare ground or amongst sparse grass or moss. Season autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Schizophyllum commune Fr. Split-gill or Common Porecrust, Schizophylle commun, Gemeiner Spaltbl?ttling, Hasadtlemez? gomba, k?z?ns?ges hasadtlemez? gomba, Waaiertje. Cap 1?4cm across, fan-shaped, often lobed or fused with others, sessile or on a short stem-like base, densely covered in greyish-white down with a purplish tinge. Gills radiating from the point of attachment, splitting lengthwise and rolling back covering the space between the gills, and protecting the hymenium from desiccation. Spore print white. Spores cylindric, 6 x 3um. Habitat on dead wood of deciduous trees and also on cut timber. Season all year. Uncommon. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Sarcosphaera crassa (Santi ex Steudl) Pouz. Tulip?n cs?szegomba. Cup 3-15cm across, starts under the soil as smooth, hollow, and globelike, then splits open to become deeply cup-shaped with star-like rays; inner surface violet or grayish lilac, outer surface white to creamy and minutely felty; fleshy, thick-walled. No stem. Flesh brittle, fragile; white. Asci 300-360 X 12-13?, stained blue at tip by iodine. Spores ellipsoid, with blunt ends, smooth, containing 2 oil drops, 15-18 x 8-9?. Habitat singly or in clusters under coniferous or decidous trees. Sometimes common. Found widely distributed in northwestern North America and also reported in the Northeast, found in Hungary and other areas in Europe. Season June-August. Deadly poisonous. The last of the photographs was taken by Dr. Barth? Lor?nd in Hungary.
Sarcoscypha coccinea (Fr.) Lamb syn. Peziza coccinea Fr. Scharlachroter Kelchbecherling Piros cs?szegomba. Cup 1?5cm across, cup-shaped, the margin becoming tattered as it expands, attached to substrate by a short stalk, inner surface bright scarlet, outer whitish and covered in white matted tufted hairs. Asci 400 x 16?, not blued by iodine. Spores cylindric-ellipsoid containing several small oil droplets, 24?32 x 12?14?. Habitat gregarious, on dead wood. Season early winter to early spring. Frequent especially in the West. Edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Sarcodontia setosa (Pers.) Donk Fruit body 5-20cm across, forming crust-like spreading patches on the surface of logs; often stained with wine-red areas. Fertile surface bright yellow, formed of downward pointed teeth or spines 5-l0mm long. Odor strong, very sweet-fruity to unpleasant. Taste mild. Spores teardrop shape, smooth, 5-6 x 3.5-4?. Habitat on logs or standing wood of fruit trees, especially apples. Rather uncommon. Found widely distributed in North America. Season July-October. Not edible.
Russula xerampelina Gemeiner Heringst-ubling Barnul-h-s- galambgomba Russule feuille-morte Crab Brittlegill Russula xerampelina (Schaeff. ex Secr.) Fr. (R. faginea Romagn. in part) Cap 5-14 cm across, convex, later flattening and with a depression, colours very varied, often mixed, dull purples, reds, wine-coloured, cinnamon, straw, fawn, brick or dull brown, moderately firm, sometimes hard, soon dry and matt; margin eventually furrowed, one-quarter peeling at most. Stem 30-110-10-30mm, white or tinted rose, staining honey to brownish ochre especially on bruising, firm to hard, reacting dull green when rubbed with iron salts. Flesh white. Taste mild, smell crab-like especially with age. Gills adnexed, pale to medium ochre, fairly broad and thick, connected by veins at their bases. Spore print deep cream to pale ochre (E-F). Spores ovoid with warts up to 1.2m high, lines none or few, occasionally enclosing a mesh, 8-11-6.5-9m. Cap cystidia infrequent, mostly narrow, not reacting to SV. Cap hyphae with terminal cells sometimes club-shaped, and these and the supporting cells inflated. Habitat under broad-leaved trees, especially beech and oak. Season late summer to late autumn. Common. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe. Divided by some authorities into a number of different species and varieties.
Russula virescens (Schaeff. ex Zantedschi) Fr. Gefelderter Gr-nt-ubling, Varas z-ld galambgomba, varash-t- galambgomba, Russule verdoyante, Bise verte, Greencracked Brittlegill. Cap 5-12cm across, globose, later convex, finally flattening and often wavy and lobed, verdigris to dull green often ochre-buff to cream in places, half peeling; surface breaking up into small, flattened, angular, scurfy scales. Stem 40-90 x 20-40mm, whitish to pale cream, browning slightly, powdered above, firm. Flesh white. Odor pleasant. Taste mild, nutty. Gills almost free, cream, somewhat brittle, with veins connecting the bases. Spore print whitish to pale cream (A-B). Spores ellipsoid-ovoid to somewhat globose with warts 0.2-0.5- high, fine lines absent to fairly numerous and forming a fairly well-developed network, 7-9 x 6-7-. Cap cystidia none; gill cystidia few, not or hardly reacting with SV. Cap hyphae forming a loose, cellular layer of variously shaped or inflated cells, the terminal ones tapering. Habitat under broad-leaved trees, especially beech. Season summer to early autumn. Uncommon. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Russula vinosa Lindblad syn. Russula obscura Romell. Borv-r-s galambgomba. Cap 5-15cm across; pale to dark blood red or livid purple; peeling only at margin. Gills somewhat distant; pale buff. Stem 40-150 x 15-30mm; white, flushing grayish black when bruised or with age. Flesh white, blackening. Odor not distinctive. Taste mild. Spores ovoid, 8-10 x 6.5-9-; warts up to 0.5- high, no connectives. Deposit ochre (E-F). Habitat in conifer woods and boggy areas. Found in Europe and northeastern North America. Season July-August. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.)
Russula vesca Fr. Bare-toothed Russula, Russule comestible, Fleischroter Speiset-ubling, R-ncos galambgomba, r-ncost-nk- galambgomba, Rossola edule, Smakelijke russula. Cap 5-10cm across, somewhat globose at first, later flattened convex, rather variable in colour, often with pastel tints, from dark or pale wine-coloured to buff, sometimes with olive or greenish tints, fleshy, firm, the skin half peeling, tending to retreat from the margin leaving the underlying flesh visible. Stem 30-100 x 15-25mm, white, rather hard, often with somewhat pointed base. Flesh white. Taste mild, nutty. Gills adnexed, whitish to very pale cream, rather closely spaced, narrow, forked, especially near stem. Gills and stem surface rapidly deep salmon when rubbed with an iron salt. Spore print whitish (A). Spores ovoid with small warts up to 0.5- high, very occasionally with short lines attached or joining pairs, 6-8 x 5-6-. Cap cystidia cylindrical or spindle-shaped, without septa, hardly reacting to SV. Cap hyphae with cylindrical or tapering terminal cells or sometimes a long, tapering, thick-walled hair; supporting cells rectangular. Habitat under broad-leaved trees. Season summer to autumn. Frequent. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Russula turci Bres. Jodoform-T-ubling, J-dszag- galambgomba. Cap 3-10cm across, convex, soon flattening and with a depression, mauve, dark or dull purple, wine coloured, bay or dark fawny, paling in places, fleshy, sticky or even glutinous when moist, drying matt and often powdered, one third peeling. Stem 30-70 x 10-25mm, white, rarely tinged rose, becoming dirty or brownish, cylindrical or narrow club-shaped. Flesh white. Taste mild, smell of iodoform at stem base. Gills adnexed, saffron, with connecting veins at their bases. Spore print pale ochre (G). Spores ovoid with warts up to 0.5- high, mostly joined by fine lines or ridges to form a well-developed network, 7-9 x 6-8-. Cap cystidia absent; hyphae with incrustations staining with fuchsin abundant. Habitat under conifers. Season early summer to autumn. Frequent in Scotland, rare in England. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Russula subfoetens Smith. Cap 5-10cm across, rounded then with a depressed center; dull honey yellow to brownish; margin coarsely tuberculate-striate, viscid when wet. Gills adnate, cream-yellow, often brown-spotted. Stem 50-100 x 10-25mm, narrowing near base, firm; pale honey yellow. Flesh pale straw, yellowing when cut, and turning bright golden in KOH. Odor slightly unpleasant, fetid. Taste hot in cap cuticle but mild in flesh. Spores oval-ellipsoid, 7-9 x 5-6-; warts 0.3-0.71- high, few connectives. Deposit cream (C-D). Habitat in mixed woods. Found in Europe and eastern North America, west to Michigan, south to North Carolina. Season July-September. Not edible.
Russula sororia (Fr.) Romell (R. amoenolens Romagn.) Scharfer Bratt?ubling, Barna galambgomba, Russule soeur, Sepia Brittlegill. Cap 3?6cm across, convex, later flattening and with a depression, sepia to greyish sepia, rarely white, thinnish-fleshed, slightly sticky when moist, half-peeling; margin furrowed, with small, low warts. Stem 30?60 x 10?20mm, whitish, fairly firm to soft and fragile. Flesh white. Taste unpleasant, oily, slowly very hot; smell rancid or suggesting Camembert cheese. Gills adnexed, creamy to dirty whitish, edge browning. Spore print pale cream (B?D). Spores broadly elliptic with warts up to 0.7? high, a few joined by fine lines, no network, 7?9 x 5?7?. Cap cystidia narrow, tapering, poorly reacting to SV. Habitat under oak. Season summer to autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Russula sardonia Fr. Zitronenbl?ttriger T?ubling, Citromlemez? galambgomba, Russule ?cre, Russule ? couleur de sardoine, Primrose Brittlegill. Cap 4?10cm across, convex, later flattening and with a depression, violet-, purplish- or brownish-red, greenish or ochre to yellowish, hard, shortly peeling only. Stem 30?80 x 10?15mm, sometimes white but usually entirely pale lilac to greyish rose, firm; surface as if powdered. Flesh white. Taste very hot, smell slightly fruity. Gills adnexed to slightly decurrent, at first primrose, later pale golden yellow, narrow. Gills and flesh reacting rose with ammonia (distinguishes this species). Spore print cream (C?F). Spores ovoid with warts up to 0.5? high, joined into ridges or by fine lines to form a rather poorly developed network, 7?9 x 6?8?. Cap cystidia spindle-shaped or cylindrical, without septa, strongly reacting to SV. Habitat under pine. Season summer to autumn. Frequent. Found In Europe and western north America. Edibility suspect-not advisable.