Over 15cm Mushrooms identifications

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Total mushrooms fount: 94

Edible
Polyporus squamosus aka Cerioporus squamosus (yet to be confirmed new taxonomy) is a basidiomycete bracket fungus, with common names including dryad's saddle and pheasant's back mushroom.[2] It has a widespread distribution, being found in North America, Australia, Asia, and Europe, where it causes a white rot in the heartwood of living and dead hardwood trees. The name "dryad's saddle" refers to creatures in Greek mythology called dryads who could conceivably fit and ride on this mushroom, whereas the pheasant's back analogy derives from the pattern of colors on the bracket matching that of a pheasant's back. When planting season comes around and I cannot find morels, I am always pleased to find some dryad's saddle to collect. It's been much maligned as an edible of little value but I beg to fluctuate. It is everything regarding finding out how to pick and make it. Cover (pileus) 2-12 in wide-ranging round to kidney or supporter shaped, thick, overlapping on deceased solid wood often. Brown with scales that look much like feathers. Hence the titles pheasant backside and hawk's wing. The aroma is very distinctive smelling much like watermelon rind. Pleasant really! I've seen them referred to as "mealy" but that isn't how they remain here. Skin pores (hymenophore) Actually pipes that are small initially becoming quite large and angular jogging down the stem relatively. Whitish to yellowish tan. Stem (stipe) Very brief 3/4 2 in. mounted on the wood. Flesh White and non bruising. Spores White spore print out. That one makes one of the prettiest spore images of any mushroom I've printed. When and how to locate them (ecology) These increase on various very useless hardwoods (especially elm) largely in-may or June but once in a while later. A tree resting on the floor is your very best bet. Once in a while the may be on a full time income tree nevertheless they appear to favor very dead hardwood. Wet areas seem to be to create more. They are quite common and one of just a few reasonable edibles you will see at the moment of year. It really is nice to find when morel hunting is irritating. These will be within the same places each full season before solid wood is used. These have been called edible by some and poor by others just. They could be quite good though. My guidelines are that they have to be young, the pore level must be very skinny (1/16 in. or less may very well be good), & most importantly your blade needs to have the ability to go through it quickly. Long lasting blade reductions may very well be good easily. Sometimes just the outer edges are usable but nice tender ones are available. Preparation Once you've found sensitive specimens, they are really best prepared straightaway. Like a great many other wild mushrooms the aroma is ephemeral often disappearing within hours. Tempura frying will retain a few of this "watermelon" character. Saut?skillet or ing frying is an excellent way too. Slice them thin and cook them solid. Overcooking shall create toughness. I've tried drying them. They turn out as very white, crunchy potato chips that are pleasurable to eat dried. They maintained more of this unique smell than I expected. I've made a natural powder with them but have not attempted baking with it yet but it appears and smells good. The microwave produced something you will make shoes with. I've had very good luck with hard ones though. I cooked properly them and put them in the blender with poultry stock mixing until these were the consistency of the smoothie and then made mushroom soup. Really very good rather than like any other. Nothing else tastes or has the aroma of this mushroom. It is very good when prepared effectively really. I possibly could identify it by the smell with my eye shut down easily. Maybe it could taste "mealy" if it was stored in the refrigerator for two days. Actually, since differing people understand smell and flavour your experience could vary diversely. Comments Within the spring, that one is quite typical. Many you shall find are very leathery as well as your blade will won't trim it. Let it be just. Spring polypore (Polyporus arcularius) and Polyporus alveolaris look similar to it but are much smaller and incredibly tough.
Inedible
Ganoderma lucidum (Curt. ex Fr.) Karst. Gl-nzender Lackporling, Pecs-tviasz-tapl-, pecs-tviaszgomba, Ganoderme luisant, Ganoderme laque, Polypore lucide, Lacquered Bracket. Fruit body usually stalked. Bracket 10-25cm in diameter, 2-3cm thick, fan- or kidney-shaped, laterally attached, concentrically grooved and zoned ochraceous to orange brown, later purple-brown to blackish, and like the stem conspicuously glossy as if varnished. Stem up to 250 x 10-30mm, dark brown, glossy. Tubes 0.5-2cm long. Pores 4-5 per mm, circular, whitish then cream, finally tobacco brown, darkening on bruising when fresh. Spores rusty, ellipsoid-ovate with truncate end, 7-13 x 6-8um. Habitat on roots of deciduous trees. Season all year. Rare. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe. ---- Habitat • Near or at the base, at the soil line, or attached to roots of living trees • On stumps and bases of dead trees, and sometimes from buried wood residues where trees have been removed Fruiting Time of Year • Summer through fall, turning black and persisting through to the following year Fruiting (Hymenial) Surface • White with small pores, 4-5 per mm, changing to brown with age Type of Decay • White root and butt rot Mode of Action • A moderately fast progressing root and butt rot The fungus can also kill cambial tissues and cause root death Frequency • Very common Tree Health Symptoms • Thin crowns • Dead branches • Yellowing leaves • Overall poor vigor • Some trees show no apparent health impacts from infection Edibility/Medicinal • Medicinal; used as an anti-inflammatory treatment • Sold in teas and pills in most oriental stores • Documented health benefits in medical literature Identifying Features (see adjacent photos) • Single or clusters of round to half-moon shaped conks usually attached directly to wood but occasionally with a lateral or central stem • 10 cm (4 in) up to 35 cm (14 in) across and 2.5 cm (1 in) or more thick • Cap or the top of the conk “varnished” red to mahogany with or without a white margin • Reddish-brown zonate interior or context • White pore surface that edges brown when fresh
Inedible
Inonotus dryadeus, commonly known as oak bracket, warted oak polypore, weeping polypore or weeping conk, is an inedible species of fungus belonging to the genus Inonotus, which consists of bracket fungi with fibrous flesh. Most often found growing at the base of oak trees, it causes white rot and decay of the trunks. It secretes an amber liquid which weeps from tubes in its upper surface. Bracket 10x65cm across, 5x25cm wide, 2x12cm thick, or sometimes forming large, irregular cushions, corky; Upper surface uneven, white-grey becoming brownish, finally very dark, margin broadly rounded and paler, exuding drops of yellowish liquid. Flesh rusty brown, fibrous. Tubes 5x20mm long, rusty-brown. Pores 3x4 per mm, circular then angular, white-grey becoming rusty. Spores white to yellowish, subglobose, 7x9x6.5x7.5m. Hyphal structure monomitic; generative hyphae lacking clamp-connections. Setae in the tubes dark brown with swollen base and hooked pointed tips. Habitat parasitic on various species of oak, found at the base of trunks. Season all year. Uncommon. ---- Ecology: Parasitic on living oaks in eastern North America and, in the west, on true firs; causing a white butt rot and root rot; annual; growing alone, gregariously, or in shelving clusters; summer and fall (or over winter in warm climates); fairly widely distributed in North America but apparently absent in the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains. Cap: Up to 40 cm across; semicircular, kidney-shaped, cushion-shaped, or irregular; usually convex; finely velvety, becoming bald with age; often lumpy; buff to dull yellow, becoming brown with age; often exuding drops of amber liquid when fresh, especially along the margin; the margin thick. Pore Surface: Buff to yellowish when young, becoming brown; bruising slowly brown; exuding drops of amber liquid when fresh and young; with 4-6 circular to angular pores per mm; tubes to 2 cm deep. Stem: Absent. Flesh: Yellowish brown becoming reddish brown; soft, becoming leathery or corky; zoned. Chemical Reactions: Flesh black with KOH. Spore Print: Yellowish to brownish. Microscopic Features: Spores 6-8 x 5-7 µ; smooth; subglobose; hyaline in KOH; dextrinoid. Setae usually present but sometimes very rare; to about 40 x 15 µ; usually curved. Contextual hyphae thin- to thick-walled; simple-septate. ---- Habitat • At ground level attached to the base and larger roots of living trees • On stumps or dead trees Fruiting Time of Year • Summer through fall Fruiting (Hymenial) Surface • Small pores and gray-brown or darker Type of Decay • White root and butt rot with most of the decay concentrated in larger roots Mode of Action • Moderately slow progressing root rot eventually leading to root failure Frequency • Common Tree Health Symptoms • Often none other than the appearance of the fruiting bodies and extensively decayed root when a tree fails ---- Occurrence A basidiomycetes widespread and fairly common in Britain attacking various species of oak (Quercus), in my experience this year it has been seen on a regular basis. The fungus is sometimes also found on horse chestnut, sweet chestnut, beech, London plane, elm and more rarely on conifers. The fruiting body (Sporophore) is not very regular in its appearance, and quite often several years may elapse between the production of the fruiting body on an infected tree. The fruiting body is usually seen only on large, old living trees and occurs almost invariably near the butt. Fruiting Body It is a thick lumpy bracket, being sessile (without stalk) and can measure up to 300mm across and 80mm thick. Sometimes the fruiting bodies are imbricated (arranged so as to overlap) in groups. The upper surface colour is at first pale chamois yellow, later becoming brown. A constant and very characteristic feature of this fungus is the presence of drops of coloured liquid in little round depressions on the margin of the actively growing fruit-body. These depressions may persist after the drops have evaporated. The underside bears small whitish pores, and the flesh and tubes are rusty brown. The consistency of the flesh is soft at first, later becoming corky and then brittle with age. The fruiting bodies appear in the early Autumn and decompose during the winter turning black. Colonisation Strategy The attack is more or less confined to the heartwood and never spreads very far up the trunk, at most reaching 2 metres above soil level.
Inedible
Ganoderma tsugae Murr. Hemlock Varnish Shelf. Fruit body annual. Cap 5-25cm across, kidney- or fan-shaped; reddish to maroon or brownish, margin often white or yellow; surface smooth to wrinkled with a shiny, lacquered appearance. Tubes up to 1.5cm deep; pale purplish brown. Pores 5-6 per mm, circular to angular; surface cream-colored bruising yellowish or brownish. Stem up to 30-150 x 15-30mm, usually lateral; reddish brown to mahogany or almost black; surface has a highly varnished crust. Flesh up to 5cm thick, upper part soft and spongy, lower part corky when dried; creamy-colored to bud, with a darker layer next to tubes. Spores ellipsoid, blunt at one end, with thick double wall, 9-11 x 6-8-. Deposit rust-brown. Hyphal structure dimitic; clamps present. Habitat singly or in clusters on dead or dying coniferous wood, especially hemlock and spruce. Found in eastern North America, California, and Arizona. Season May-November. Comment The similar Ganoderma lucidum (Curt. ex Fr.) Karsten grows on deciduous trees. Ganoderma curtisii (Berk.) Murr., which occurs in the South, is probably not a distinct species but a form of Ganoderma lucidum (see our picture with the younger specimens). It has a distinct, usually central stem, and the cap is pallid or bright ochre rather than red-brown.
Inedible
Phallus duplicatus syn. Phallus duplicatus syn. Phallus indusiatus Vent. & Pers. syn. Dictyophora indusiata. Long-net tinkhorn, Crinoline Stinkhorn, Bridal Veil Fungus or Veiled Lady. Stem up to 30cm, with a very large distinctive white 'Veil' hanging often to the ground. The cap is covered in a brownish-green slime that contains the spores, which is scented like rotten meat to attract flies, the flies alight on the sticky mass and thus disperse the spores on their feet. In China it is cultivated and dried for sale as an aphrodisiac. Found in Mexico and further south and quite common in China, india and Malasia. The habitat is usually on wood chips or remains of wood in forests including bamboo. Possible typo: dictyophota ( Dictyophora indusiata )
Edible
Phallus indusiatus is a fungus in the family Phallaceae, or stinkhorns. It has a cosmopolitan distribution in tropical areas, and is found in southern Asia, Africa, the Americas, and Australia, where it grows in woodlands and gardens in rich soil and well-rotted woody material. The fruit body of the fungus is characterised by a conical to bell-shaped cap on a stalk and a delicate lacy "skirt", or indusium, that hangs from beneath the cap and reaches nearly to the ground.
Edible
Stropharia rugosoannulata Farlow ex Murr. King Stropharia, Wine Cup, -ri-s harmatgomba. Cap 5-20cm across, convex-flattened to umbonate; deep purplish red to dull brown or even grayish or white with age; smooth, not viscid. Gills adnate, crowded; pallid then gray and finally purple-brown. Stem 100-180x 10-25mm, equal to clavate; white; smooth; ring large, prominent, deeply wrinkled or segmented below, very thick, white. Flesh firm; white. Odor pleasant. Taste pleasant. Spores ellipsoid, with germ pore, 10-13 x 7.5-9-. Deposit purple-brown. Habitat on wood chips and bark mulch and around flower beds. Very common. Found Europe and widely distributed in northern North America. Season June-October. Edible-delicious. Comment An almost pure white form is not infrequent; also a closely related (probably undescribed) yellow species with viscid cap may be found at the same time.
Choice
Sparassis crispa Wulf. ex Fr. Cauliflower or Brain Fungus, Sparassis Cr?pu, Clavaire Cr?pue, Krause Glucke, Fodros k?posztagomba, Creste di gallo, Grote Sponszwam. Fruit body 20?50cm across, subglobose, cauliflower-like, comprising numerous flattened, crisped lobes on a short thick rooting stem, pale ochraceous to buff, darkening with age. Smell sweetish, pleasant. Spores whitish to pale yellow, pip-shaped, 5?7 x 4?5um. Habitat at the base of conifer trees or near by. Season autumn. Occasional. Edible and delicious when young and fresh; must be thoroughly cleaned. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Serpula lacrymans (Fr.) Karst. syn. Merulius lacrymans Schum. Dry Rot Fungus, Hausschwamm, K?nnyez? h?zigomba, Huiszwam. Fruit body 5?50cm across, usually resupinate but occasionally forming brackets on vertical substrates, arising from whitish, pinkish, lilac or grey mycelium. Flesh 2?12mm thick, greyish-white, spongy-fleshy. Pores rusty-yellow becoming more yellowish towards the thick, white sterile margin. Spores rust-brown, elliptic, 8?10 x 5?6um. The fungus gives off a distinctive damp rotten smell. Habitat on worked wood in buildings although the fruit bodies of the fungus may also appear on non-organic substrates such as plaster or brickwork. Season all year. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe. Infection of wood occurs when it has become sodden for some long time following prolonged damp due to leaking roofs or pipes, either by spores or by vegetative mycelium spreading through brickwork. On germination of the spores the mycelia exhibit two distinct modes of growth. Firstly, numerous fine hyphae penetrate the wood, producing enzymes which break down the wood and enable the fungus to absorb nutrients; as the wood dries it cracks into cubical blocks and eventually disintegrates into brown powder. It is the second mode of growth which is most easily detected since it takes the form of thick mycelial cords and cottony sheets spreading over brickwork, metal, etc. enabling the fungus to travel over areas from which it cannot derive nutrients. The fruit bodies arise from these mycelial cords. Thios phoyograph was lent to me by Alan and Patie Outen.
Inedible
Sarcodontia setosa (Pers.) Donk Fruit body 5-20cm across, forming crust-like spreading patches on the surface of logs; often stained with wine-red areas. Fertile surface bright yellow, formed of downward pointed teeth or spines 5-l0mm long. Odor strong, very sweet-fruity to unpleasant. Taste mild. Spores teardrop shape, smooth, 5-6 x 3.5-4?. Habitat on logs or standing wood of fruit trees, especially apples. Rather uncommon. Found widely distributed in North America. Season July-October. Not edible.
Poisonous/Suspect
Ramaria formosa (Fr.) Qu?l. syn. Clavaria formosa Fr. Sch?ne Koralle Cifra korallgomba Clavaire ?l?gante. Fruit body 7?30cm high, 6?15cm wide, pinkish-ochraceous to orange-pink, lemon-yellow at tips of the numerous branches. Stem 30?60 x 25?60mm, whitish orange, itself much-branched. Flesh white or tinged orange-yellow, often bruising vinaceous to blackish. Taste bitter. Spores ochraceous, oblong, elliptic, roughened, 8?15 x 4?6?. Habitat in humus in woods, usually deciduous. Season autumn. Rare. Poisonous ? causes diarrhoea. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Ramaria botrytis (Fr.) Ricken. Hahnenkamm R?zs?s (r?zs?s?g?) korallgomba, Clavaire chou-fleur, Rosso Coral. Fruit body 7?15cm high, 6?20cm wide, white at first becoming tan or ochraceous with pink, red or purplish tips, numerous thick, much-branched, crowded branches arising from stout stem (3?4 x 1.5?6cm). Taste and smell pleasant, fruity. Spores ochraceous, oblong-elliptic, longitudinally striate, 14?16(20) x 4.5?5.5?. Habitat terrestrial, in broad-leaved woods. Season late summer to late autumn. Rare. Edible with caution. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Polyporus badius (Pers. ex S. F. Gray) Schur. syn. P. picipes Fr. Schwarzfussporling Barna likacsosgomba Polypore - pied couleur de poix. Cap 5-20cm across, infundibuliform, often lopsided and lobed, viscid when fresh drying smooth and shiny, pallid grey-brown at first then chestnut, darker at the centre, very thin. Stem 20-35 x 5-15mm, usually eccentric, black at least at the base. Taste bitter. Tubes 0.5-2.5mm long, white later cream, decurrent down the stem. Pores 4-7 per mm, circular, white to cream. Spores white, elongate-ellipsoid, 5-9 x 3-4um. Hyphal structure dimitic with generative and binding hyphae; generative hyphae lacking clamps. Habitat on dead or living deciduous trees. Season spring to autumn, annual. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Piptoporus betulinus (Bull. ex Fr.) Karst. syn. Polyporus betulinus Bull. ex Fr. Birch Polypore or Razorstrop Fungus, Polypore du bouleau, Birkenporling, Ny?rfa-tapl?, ny?rtapl?, Berkezwam. Bracket 10?20cm across, 2?6cm thick, subglobose at first, expanding to hoof-shaped often with a rudimentary stem, margin thick and rounded; upper surface with a thin separable skin, smooth, whitish when young darkening to fleshy grey-brown with age. Flesh white, rubbery. Taste slightly bitter, smell strong and pleasant. Tubes 1.5?5mm long, white. Pores 3?4 per mm, circular, white at first, later pale grey-brown. Spores cylindric to bean-shaped, 4.5?6 x 1.3?1.5um. Habitat on birch. Season all year, annual, although fruit bodies remain intact from one year into the next. Very common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Phellinus pini (Fr.) Ames. Feny-tapl- Pine Conk. Bracket 2-20cm across, 1-15cm thick; hoof-shaped, fan-shaped, or shelf-like; tawny to dark reddish brown or brownish black in age, with the margin often brighter; hard, crusty, rough or cracked, minutely hairy, generally curved. Tubes up to 6mm deep. Pores circular to angular; dingy yellow-tawny. Stem minute or none. Flesh tough; tawny to tan or ochre. Spores globose or subglobose, smooth, 4-6 x 3.5-5-. Deposit brown. Habitat singly or in rows on living or recently dead coniferous trunks. Common. Widely distributed in North America. Season perennial. Not edible. Comment A very destructive fungus that attacks the heartwood of living trees, resulting in "conk rot" causing more timber loss than any other fungus.
Inedible
Phaeolus schweinitzii (Fr.) Pat. syn. Polyporus schweinitzii Fr. Feny- likacsosgomba (tapl-). Fruit body sometimes forming amorphous cushions, more often subcircular, 10-30cm across with a short thick stalk, soft and spongy when fresh drying fragile and light; upper surface concave, rough, hairy, concentrically grooved at first, dark sulphur-yellow becoming rusty or dark brown and finally blackish with age. Stem brown, very short and thick, merging into the cap and covered in tubes. Flesh rusty brown, fibrous. Tubes 3-6mm long, decurrent, concolorous with the upper surface. Pores 0.3-2.5mm across, circular, angular or irregular, yellow, olivaceous or tinged rust, finally maroon brown, often glistening in the light. Spores whitish tinged yellowish, ovate to elliptic, 5.5-7.5 x 3.5-4um. Hyphal structure monomitic; generative hyphae lacking clamps. Habitat parasitic on conifers, usually arising from the roots. Season autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Paxillus atrotomentosus (Fr.) Fr. Syn Tapinella atromentosus Sutara Samtfusskrempling B?rsonyost?nk? c?l?pgomba Paxille ? pied noir. Cap 12?28cm across, snuff-brown or sepia with sienna patches, depressed in the centre, margin inrolled, slightly downy. Stem 30?90 x 20?50mm, sometimes lateral, rooting, covered in a fine olivaceous buff down which becomes more coarse, velvety and dark brown with age. Flesh cream, ochre or buff in stem. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills crowded, joining to give a vein-like network near the stem. Spore print sienna. Spores ellipsoid, 5?6.5 x 3?4.5um. Habitat tufted on stumps of conifers, were it causes brown rot. Season late summer to autumn. Occasional. Not edible, Suspect -avoid. Distribution, America and Europe. A new genus has been proposed for this fungus (Tapinella), and it will probably become the preferred name.
Poisonous/Suspect
Omphalotus illudens (Schw.) Bigelow Jack O'Lantern Vil-g-t- t-lcs-rgomba. Cap 5-20cm across, convex then soon flattened and then funnel-shaped with incurved margin; a brilliant and intense yellow-orange in color; smooth. Gills decurrent, crowded; bright yellow-orange. Stem 50-200 x 10-20mm, tapered at base, solid; colored as cap but darkening at base; smooth. Flesh firm; pale orange. Odor not distinctive. Taste not distinctive. Spores globose, 3.5-5 x 3.5-5-. Deposit pale cream. Habitat often in enormous clusters at base of stumps or on buried roots (the latter is very common in gardens and lawns) of oaks and some other deciduous trees. Common. Found throughout much of North America, particularly the eastern United States. Season July-September but sometimes to November. Poisonous but usually not fatal, typically causing gastric upset for some hours or even days. Comment When fresh the gills of this species glow a bright greenish yellow in the dark. Based upon cultural evidence, this may be the same as Omphalotus olearius (DC ex Fr.) Singer of southern Europe, which name would then take precedence. On the West Coast the species Omphalotus olivascens Bigelow, Miller & Thiers is found, which differs in its duller brownish-orange to olivaceous cap and larger spores. It is also poisonous.
Edible
Meripilus giganteus (Pers. ex Fr.) Karst. syn. Polyporus giganteus Pers. ex Fr. syn. Grifola gigantea (Pers. ex Fr.) Pil-t Riesen-Porling, -ri-s bokrosgomba, -ri-s likacsosgomba, -ri-s tapl-, Polypore g-ant, Giant Polypore. Fruit body 50-80cm across, rosette-like, consisting of numerous flattened fan-shaped caps around a common base. Each cap 10-30cm across, 1-2cm thick, covered in very fine brown scales on the upper surface which is radially grooved and concentrically zoned light and darker brown; attached to the common base by a short stem. Flesh white, soft and fibrous. Taste slightly sour, smell pleasant. Tubes 4-6mm long, whitish. Pores 3-4 per mm, subcircular, whitish, often late in forming, bruising blackish. Spores hyaline, broadly ovate to subglobose, 5.5-6.5 x 4.5-5um. Hyphal structure monomitic; generative hyphae lacking clamps. Habitat at the base of deciduous trees or stumps or some distance from them arising from the roots usually on beech but sometimes also on oak. Season autumn, annual. Frequent. Edible, it may have a slight sour taste and fibrous texture, but is good when young. Distribution, America and Europe.
Choice
Macrolepiota procera (Scop. ex Fr.) Sing. syn. Lepiota procera (Scop. ex Fr.) S.F. Gray syn. Leucocoprinus procerus (Scop. ex Fr.) Pat. Parasol Mushroom, L?piote ?lev?e, Coulemelle, Nagy ?zl?bgomba, Parasol, Riesenschirmpilz, Parasol, Bubbola maggiore, Fungo parasole, Mazza da tamburo, Grote parasolzwam. Cap 10?25cm across, button spherical or egg-shaped expanding flattened with a prominent umbo, pale buff or grey-brown covered in darker shaggy scales. Stem 150?300 x 8?15mm, 40mm at the bulb, white, with a grey-brown felty covering which becomes split into snake-like markings as the stem expands; ring large, double, white on upper surface, brown below, movable on the stem. Flesh thin, soft, white. Taste sweet, smell slight, indistinctive. Gills free, white. Spore print white. Spores ovate with a germ-pore, dextrinoid, 15?20 x 10?13um. Habitat in open woods and pastures. Season summer and autumn. Uncommon. Edible ? excellent. Distribution, America and Europe. Note the American form of this fungus is rather more delicate in form than the more robust European variety. The third photograph was taken by Geoffrey Kibby.
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