Over 15cm Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
Stem type:
Spore colour:
Cap type:
Fungus colour:
Normal size:
Location:
Flesh:
Class:
Order:
Family:
Text:

Total mushrooms fount: 94

Choice
Langermannia gigantea (Batsch ex Pers.) Rostk. syn. Lycoperdon giganteum Batsch ex Pers. syn. Calvatia gigantea (Batsch ex Pers.) Lloyd syn. Lasiosphaera gigantea (Batsch ex Pers.) Giant Puffball, Smarda Riesenbovist Vesse-de-loup g?ante, ?ri?sp?feteg (p?feteg). Fruit body 7?80cm across, subglobose, whitish and leathery, the outer wall breaking away to expose the spore mass, attached to the substrate by a root-like mycelial cord which breaks leaving the fruit body free to roll around and so scatter the millions of spores. Gleba olivaceous-brown and powdery at maturity; sterile base absent or rudimentary. Spores tawny brown, globose, finely warted, 3.5?5.5m in diameter. Habitat in gardens, pasture and woods. Season summer to autumn. Uncommon but locally frequent. Edible when still white and firm ? good. Distribution, America and Europe.
Choice
Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull. ex Fr.) Murr. syn. Polyporus sulphureus Bull. ex Fr. Sulphur Shelf, Schwefelporling, S-rga g-vagomba (tapl-), Polypore soufr-, Chicken of the Woods. Bracket 10-40cm across, fan-shaped or irregularly semicircular, thick and fleshy, usually in large tiered groups; upper surface uneven, lumpy, and wrinkled, suede-like, lemon-yellow or yellow-orange drying pallid or straw-coloured; margin obtuse. Flesh at first succulent and exuding a yellowish juice when squeezed, but white and crumbly with age. Taste pleasant and slightly sourish, smell strong and fungusy. Tubes 1.5-3mm long, sulphur-yellow. Pores 1-3 per mm, circular or ovoid, sulphur-yellow. Spores white, ellipsoid to broadly ovate, 5-7 x 3.5-4.5um. Hyphal structure dimitic with generative and binding hyphae; generative hyphae without clamp-connections. Habitat deciduous trees, usually oak but common also on yew, cherry, sweet chestnut and willow. Season late spring to autumn, annual. Common. Edible when young and fresh, considered a delicacy in Germany and North America. Distribution, America and Europe. Comment there is a form of this fungus which has a white pore surface, and some authors recognize this as Laetiporus sulphureus var. semialbinus syn. Laetiporus cincinnatus.
Edible
Hericium coralloides (Fr.) S. F. Gray Petrezselyemgomba. Fruit body a mass of tufted stems, each with many pendant spines. Whole fungus may be 15-30cm across and 20-40cm high; branches are white and stout and branch repeatedly from a central, basal point; tip of each branch has white spines 0.5-2cm long, in clusters like hands. Flesh firm; white. Odor pleasant. Taste pleasant. Spores ellipsoid, smooth or very finely roughened, 5-7 x 4,5-6?. Deposit white. Habitat on both fallen timber and living trees, especially beech and maple. Found in northeastern North America, south to North Carolina. Season August-October. Edible - good. Comment The true Hericium coralloides, according to some mycologists, is strictly European, and the correct name for this fungus may eventually be Hericium americanum.
Inedible
Ganoderma resinaceum Boud. ex Pat. syn. Fomes resinaceus (Boud.) Sacc. Lacquered Bracket, Harziger Lackporling, Harslakzwam. Bracket 10?45cm across and up to 10cm thick behind, semicircular, sessile, or on a thick rudimentary stem; upper surface concentrically grooved, strikingly glossy as if varnished, red-brown or maroon to almost black, margin obtuse and cream-coloured. Flesh soft, pale wood-coloured. Tubes 5?20mm long, rusty-brown. Pores 2?2.5 per mm, circular, pale greyish bruising brown. Spores brown, ellipsoid-ovate and truncate at one end, 9?11 x 5?7um. Hyphal structure trimitic; generative hyphae with clamp-connections. Habitat on stumps of oak. Season all year. Rare. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Ganoderma carnosum Pat. Syn. Ganoderma atkinsonii Jahn, Kotalba & Pouzar S-t-t lakkostapl- (tapl-). Very similar to Ganoderma lucidum which is found on hardwoods notably Oak. This species is found mainly on fir trees (Abies).Cap shiny and often zoned brown or yellowish, often with a distinct stem in similar colours. Spores 11-13.5x7.5-8.5um.
Inedible
Ganoderma applanatum (Pers. ex Wallr.) Pat. Artist-s Fungus, Ganoderme aplani, Flacher Lackporling, Deres tapl-, Platte tonderzwam. Bracket 10-90cm across, 5-60cm wide, 2-10cm thick, more or less flat, semicircular, hard, corky and glabrous, margin acute; upper surface knobbly and concentrically grooved, covered with a hard wrinkled crust, often pallid, grey-brown, umber or cocoa-coloured. Flesh cinnamon brown, thinner than the tube layer. Taste bitter, smell mushroomy. Tubes 7-25mm long in each annual layer, brown. Pores 4-5 per mm, circular, white, bruising brown. Spores brown ornamented, ovoid-ellipsoid, truncate at one end, 6.5-8.5 x 4.5-6um, mostly 8 x 5.5um. Hyphal structure trimitic; generative hyphae with clamp-connections but these may be very difficult to demonstrate. Habitat on the trunks of deciduous trees, especially beech, where it causes an intensive white rot. Season all year, perennial. Uncommon but until recently much confused with G. adspersum. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Fomitopsis pinicola (Swartz ex Fr.) Karsten. Fichtenporling Szegett tapl? Unguline marginee. Fruit body perennial; no stem. Up to 38cm across, 20cm wide, 15cm thick, convex to hoof-shaped, with a thickened, rounded margin; upper surface with a sticky reddish-brown resinous crust, then grayish to brown or black; hard, woody, smooth or glossy-looking. Tubes up to 6mm deep per season; cream to buff. Pores 5-6 per mm, circular; surface cream-colored. Flesh up to 12cm thick, corky, hard, woody; cream to buff, sometimes zoned. Spores cylindrical ellipsoid, smooth, 6-9 x 3.5-4.5?. Deposit whitish. Hyphal structure trimitic; clamps present. Habitat on dead conifer stumps and logs and occasionally on living trees. Found throughout Europe and most of North America except the South from Texas eastward. Season all year. Not edible. Comment The most commonly collected polypore in North America. The cap colors are rather variable.
Inedible
Fomes fomentarius (L. ex Fr.) Kickx. Hoof Fungus or Tinder Fungus, Amadouvier, Echter Zunderschwamm, B?kkfa-tapl?, b?kktapl?, Tonderzwam. Bracket 5?45cm across, 3?25cm wide, 2?25cm thick, hoof-shaped, hard and woody, usually discrete but several fruit bodies may occur on the same trunk; upper surface with a hard horny crust, concentrically grooved and zoned grey. Flesh hard, fibrous, cinnamon-brown. Taste acrid, smell slightly fruity. Tubes 2?7mm long in each layer, rusty-brown. Pores 2?3 per mm, circular, light grey-brown darkening when handled. Spores brownish, lemon-yellow, oblong-ellipsoid, 15?20 x 5?7um. Hyphal structure trimitic; generative hyphae with clamp-connections. Habitat usually on birch in Scotland and Northern England, but also on beech. The few record from Southern England are mostly on beech and sycamore. Season sporulating in spring to early summer, perennial. Uncommon. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Exidia saccharina (Alb. & Schw.)ex Fr. S?rg?s mirigygomba. Fungus a gelatinous, elastic wrinkled blobs on wood , brown, to orange-brown, when old it forms a brownish crust, it can be over 20cm across. Spores cylindrical 9-15x3.5-5 ?. Found on conifer twigs. Found in Europe and America. Not edible.
Inedible
Daedalea quercina L. ex Fr. syn. Trametes quercina (L. ex Fr.) Pil?t. Mazegill, D?dal?e, Tram?te, Lenzite du ch?ne, Eichenwirrling, Labirintustapl?, Fungo della quercia, Doolhofzwam. Bracket 4?20cm across, 3?8cm wide, 1.5?5cm thick, hard and corky, singly or occasionally in shelved groups; upper surface uneven, creamy or ochraceous tinged with grey, drying pallid or umber. Flesh pale wood-coloured. Smell faintly acrid or fungusy. Tubes 10?30mm long, ochraceous-cream coloured. Pores large, irregular and maze-like, often elongate resembling gills. Spores ellipsoid, 6?7.5 x 3?3.5?. Hyphal structure trimitic. Habitat on dead deciduous wood, virtually restricted to oak in this country. Season from spring onwards. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Cortinarius praestans Goliath Webcap. (Cordier) Gill. (Phlegmacium) Cortinaire remarquable ?ri?s p?kh?l?sgomba. Cap 8-20cm across sticky to slimy, convex to semi-spherical chestnut-brown or foxy coloured sometimes more violaceous tints, margin inrolled with white patches often wrinkled. Stem 20?50?8?15mm, base swollen to bulbous, white with violaceous tints. Flesh white to pallid. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills whitish or pallid grey-violaceous, finally clay-brown. Spore print rust. Spores elliptic, 12-16 ? 8?9m. Habitat deciduous and coniferous woods, on chalk. Season autumn. Rare. Said to be edible ?but I would avoid it, many Cortinarius contain toxins. Found In Europe.
Edible
Clitocybe geotropa (Bull. ex St. Amans.) Qu-l. syn. Clitocybe maxima ([Fl. Wett.] Fr.) Kummer New syn. Infundibulicybe geotropa. M-nchskopf, -ri-s t-lcs-rgomba, Agarico geotropo, Grote trechterzwam, Trooping Funnel. Cap 4-20cm across, convex at first with a prominent broad umbo, becoming depressed, the margin remaining strongly incurved, pale yellowish buff when young later more flesh-coloured. Stem 50-150 x 20-30mm, swollen and slightly downy at the base, concolorous with the cap or paler. Flesh white. Smell faint and sweet. Gills decurrent, concolorous with cap. Spore print white. Spores subglobose, 6.5-7 x 5-6μ. Habitat in open deciduous or mixed woodland or grassy clearings, often in rings or troops. Season autumn. Occasional. Edible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Boletus rhodoxanthus (Krombh.) Kall. Rosah-tiger R-hrling B-bor tin-ru. Cap 6-20cm across, convex, whitish-pink, more pink at margin, discolouring yellowish with age, covered in pinkish-grey slime but appearing reddish pink where this has been removed in handling. Stem 50-150 x 20-50mm, with a purple-red net on an orange-yellow ground, net becoming indistinct at the olive-grey base. Flesh lemon-yellow turning light blue in the cap on cutting, eventually fading to yellow. Taste sweet, smell strong, fungusy. Tubes yellow, blueing slightly on cutting. Pores golden-yellow at first becoming bright blood red. Spores olive-brown, 10-16 x 4-5.5-. Habitat beech and oak woods. Season autumn. Very rare. Poisonous. Found In Europe.
Edible
Boletus pinophilus Pilat & Dermek syn. Boletus pinicola (Vitt.) Venturi syn. B. edulis var pinicola Vitt. Kieferensteinpilz, V-r-sbarna varg-nya (tin-ru), C-pe des pins, C-pe acajou Cap 8-20cm, red brown or chestnut, with a white margin, smooth and greasy at first then dry and slightly downy. Stem robust, becoming wider and darker brown below, covered in a fine whitish or cinnamon net which bruises red. Flesh whitish, becoming deep vinaceous below cuticle when cut. Taste and smell pleasant. Tubes whitish, then greenish yellow. Pores small, white, then greenish yellow, finally olivaceous. Spore print olivaceous snuff-brown. Spores subfusiform, 13-17 x 4-5-. Habitat in coniferous woods. Season late spring until as late as November. Rare. Edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Choice
Boletus edulis Bull. ex Fr. King Bolete, Porcini, Cep or Penny Bun, C?pe de Bordeaux, Bolet comestible, Champignon polonais, Steinpilz, ?zletes varg?nya (tin?ru), Porcino, brisa, Eekhoorntjesbrood, Borowik prawdziwy. Cap 8?20(30)cm, brown often with a whitish bloom at first gradually lost on expanding leaving a white line at the margin, smooth and dry initially becoming greasy, in wet weather slightly viscid and polished. Stem 30?230 x 30?70(110)mm, robust, pallid with white net. Flesh white, unchanging, flushed dirty straw-colour or vinaceous in cap. Taste and smell pleasant. Tubes white becoming grey-yellow. Pores small and round, similarly coloured. Spore print olivaceous snuff-brown. Spores subfusiform, 14?17 x 4.5?5.5?. Habitat coniferous, broad-leaved or mixed woodland. Season summer to late autumn. Common. Edible ? excellent. Distribution, America and Europe. This fungus is perhaps the most important edible species, it can often be found on sale in continental markets. Commercially it is dried and used as flavouring for soups. Comment Var. aurantio-ruber Dick & Snell differs in its ferruginous-red cap, and pores staining yellow-olive when bruised.
Choice
Boletus aestivalis Fr. syn. B. reticulatus Boud. Sommer-Steinpilz N?ri varg?nya (tin?ru) C?pe r?ticul? Cap 7?20cm, pale straw-colour to pale snuff-brown, dry, soon becoming rough and cracking into small scales, particularly at centre. Stem 60?150 x 20?50mm, robust, covered in a dense white network. Flesh white throughout, sometimes with slight yellowish tinges. Smell and taste strong but pleasant. Tubes white then greenish-yellow. Pores small, round, similarly coloured. Spore print olivaceous snuff-brown. Spores subfusiform, 13?15 x 4.5?5.5?. Habitat with beech and oak. Season early summer to autumn. Rare. Edible ? excellent. Distribution, Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita ovoidea (bull. Ex FR.) Qu?l. Nagy gal?ca. Cap 8?25cm across, it stays at the button stage for a long time and is hemispherical at first . Stem 100- 150 x 50mm, scaly with delicate mealy white scales and ending in a bulbous rooting base, the volval is sack like creamy white to ochraceous in age; the ring is white and of a delicate mealy texture, soon breaking up. Flesh white. Taste and smell slight. Gills free, crowded, white. Spore print white. Spores broadly elliptical, amyloid, 10?12 x 6.5?7.5m. Habitat near in or near mixed woodland, on calcareous soils. Season summer to autumn. Rare. Said to be Edible but easily confused with other deadly species, so we strongly advise never to eat it. Distribution Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita echinocephala (Vitt.) Qu?l. Syn. Amanita solitaria (Bull. ex Fr.) Secr. syn. Aspidella echinocephala (Vitt.) Gilbert Solitary Amanita, Amanite ? verrues, Stachelkopfiger Wulstling, Amanita a cappello aculeato, Stekelkopmaniet, T?sk?s gal?ca. Cap 6?20cm across, colour white with a greenish flush or it can vary from ivory to pale brown, the surface covered with pointed cream warts, less so with age. Stem 80?160 x 20?30mm with ring, swollen towards the pointed, deeply buried base, the lower half of the stem covered in the remains of the volva, the upper part white. Flesh white sometimes with a greenish tinge, bruising yellowish in the stem. Smell unpleasant. Gills free or with a decurrent tooth, white or tinged yellow-green. Spore print white or tinged yellow-green. Spores ellipsoid, amyloid, 9.5?11.5 x 6.5?8?. Habitat on dry, calcareous soils. Season autumn. Rare. Suspect ? should not be eaten many Amanitas contain toxins or poisonous toxins. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Agaricus praeclaresquamosus Freeman syn. Agaricus meleagris of many American authors Cap 5-20cm across, convex with flattened disc; with gray to gray-brown or blackish flattened scales on a white background; dry. Gills free, crowded; white to grayish then deep brown. Stem 80-150 x 10-30mm, equal to clavate; white, often discoloring reddish brown; smooth; ring white, thick, felt-like, membranous, very persistent. Flesh firm; white, bruising bright yellow in the extreme base of the stem, finally reddish brown. Odor unpleasant, phenolic, ink-like, especially when flesh is crushed or cooked. Taste similar. Spores ovoid, 4-6.5 x 3-3.5(4)?. Deposit deep brown. Habitat under mixed woods, along roads and paths. Frequent. Found throughout western North America. Season September-December. Not edible- poisonous to many. Comment The name meleagris cannot be used for this since another fungus-formerly placed in Agaricus- was given this name earlier.
Edible
Agaricus macrosporus (M?ller & Schaeff.) Pil?t syn. Psalliota subsp. macrospora M?ller & Schaeff. Grosssporiger Egerling Agaric ? grande spores Nagysp?r?s csiperke. Cap 8?25(50)cm across, convex, whitish splitting into large ochraceous scales or patches and the margin becoming toothed with age. Stem 50?100 x 25?35mm, frequently with a fusiform rooting base, whitish cream covered in easily removable floccules; ring thick and scaly on the underside. Flesh firm and whitish, sometimes reddening in the stem on cutting. Taste mushroomy, smell faint of crushed almonds when young, rapidly smelling more ammoniacal. Gills whitish-grey at first, finally dark brown. Cheilocystidia numerous, ovate, 8?31 x 6?16?. Spore print brown. Spores ellipsoid, 8?12 x 5.5?6.5?. Habitat in rings in pastureland. Season summer to autumn. Occasional. Edible ? good. Found In Europe.
1
2
3
4
5