Over 15cm Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
Stem type:
Spore colour:
Cap type:
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Total mushrooms fount: 94

Inedible
Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. syn. Fomes annosus (Fr.) Cke. Root Fomes, Polypore du rond des pins, Wurzelschwamm, Gy?k?rront? tapl?, Dennermoorder. Fruit body variable in shape, frequently forming large resupinate patches or irregular knobbly brackets 5?30cm across, 3?15cm wide, 1?2cm thick; upper surface uneven and lumpy covered in a light brown crust which darkens with age; margin thin, acute, white. Flesh whitish to pale wood-coloured. Smell strongly fungusy. Tubes 2?5mm long in each annual layer. Pores 2?4per mm, varying from circular to angular or irregularly elongated, white browning with age. Spores white, ovate, 4.5?6 x 3.5?4.5um. Hyphal structure dimitic; generative hyphae without clamp connections. Habitat parasitic on the roots of coniferous trees causing intensive rot and ultimately death of the infected tree; occasionally also infecting deciduous trees. Season all year, perennial. Common causing serious economical losses of conifers. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Grifola umbellata (Pers. ex Fr.) syn. Polyporus umbellatus Pers. ex Fr. Eichhase T?skegomba (tapl?) Polypore en ombelle. Fruit Body up to 50cm in diameter consisting of a thick fleshy base from which repeated branching occurs, the ultimate branchlets ending in small umbrella-like caps, each 1?4cm across and centrally depressed with a thin, wavy margin, covered in fibrils or small fibrous scales, initially grey-brown becoming ochraceous with age. Stem thin, flushed with cap colour, merging at the bottom into the common trunk-like base. Flesh thin in cap, white. Taste pleasant but with acrid aftertaste, smell pleasant when fresh. Tubes 1?1.5mm long, decurrent on to the stem, straw-yellow. Pores 1 per mm, angular, whitish to straw-yellow. Spores cylindric-ellipsoid, 7?10 x 3?4um. Habitat on the ground arising from a subterranean sclerotium associated with roots of deciduous trees, especially oak. Season summer to autumn. Very rare. Edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Grifola frondosa (Dicks. ex Fr.) S. F. Gray Klapperschwamm, Laubporling, Bokrosgomba, -gas tapl-, Polypore en touffe, Poule des bois, Hen of the Woods, Maitake. Fruit Body 15-40cm diameter, subglobose, consisting of a central repeatedly branched stem, each branch ending in a flattened tongue-shaped cap; each cap 4-10cm across, 0.5-1cm thick, leathery and wavy at the margin, upper surface usually wrinkled, grey or olivaceous drying brownish. Stem cream or pale greyish. Flesh white. Taste pleasant when young and fresh, soon acrid, smell reminiscent of mice. Tubes 2-3mm long on the underside of each cap, and decurrent far down the stem, whitish. Pores two per mm, subcircular to slightly angular, larger and more irregular on the stem. Spores ellipsoid, 5.5-7 x 3.5-4.5um. Hyphal structure monomitic; generative hyphae with clamp connections. Habitat parasitic on deciduous trees especially oak and beech fruiting at the extreme base of the trunk. Season autumn. Uncommon. Edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Ganoderma adspersum (Schulz.) Donk. Krustiger Lackporling Vastagk-rg- tapl-. Bracket 7-60cm across, 5-25cm wide, 3-30cm thick, upper surface with a thick dark brown hard knobbly crust which is concentrically ridged, margin thick and obtuse, white in the growing season. Flesh dark brown, thicker than the tube-layer. Tubes stratified, reddish-brown. Pores 3-4 per mm, circular, white to pale yellow-ochre, discolouring when handled. Spores brown, ovate, truncate at one end, 8-13 x 5.5-9um, mostly about 10 x 6.5um. Hyphal structure trimitic; generative hyphae with clamp-connections but these often difficult to demonstrate. Habitat parasitic on deciduous trees, usually found on the lower part of the trunks; the cocoa-like spore deposit is often very dense on top of the cap and on the wood above it. Season all year, perennial. Common. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Fuscoboletinus ochraceoroseus (Snell) Pomerleau & Smith Cap 8-25cm across, convex becoming broadly convex and slightly umbonate, with an incurved margin sometimes adorned with veil remnants; variable in color but generally lemon yellow along the margin and rose-pink toward the disc; dry, uneven, with a dense, whitish felt sometimes becoming scurfy. Tubes 5mm deep, adnate to decurrent; yellow, ochre, or dingy brown. Pores elongated to angular, radially arranged. Stem 30-50 x 10-30mm, solid, sometimes swollen at the base; yellowish, and often reddish or brownish at base; netlike pattern, unpolished or felty below ring. Veil thin, membranous, whitish to yellowish; leaving remnants on cap margin and evanescent ring. Flesh thick, soft; yellowish, with a pink zone under the cuticle, may slightly bruise bluish green. Odor acid. Taste slightly acrid. Spores ellipsoid, smooth, 7.5-9.5 x 2.5-3.2-. Deposit reddish brown. Habitat scattered or in groups under western larch. Common. Found in the Pacific Northwest. Season August-October. Edibility suspect-not advisable.
Inedible
Fomitopsis cajanderi (Karsten) Kotlaba & Pouz. Fruit body perennial; no stem. Bracket up to 20cm across, 10cm wide, 7cm thick, flat to convex, with a sharp margin; light pinky-beige becoming darker pinkish brown or gray to blackish; finely felty becoming hairy or smooth. Tubes 1-3mm deep per season; pale pinky-brown; layers stratified, up to 2cm thick. Pores 4-5 per mm, circular to angular; surface rose colored. Flesh up to lcm thick, corky; rosy pink to light pinkish brown. Spores cylindrical, curved, smooth, 5-7 x 1.5-2?. Deposit whitish. Hyphal structure dimitic; clamps present. Habitat singly or overlapping on dead conifer wood; rarely on hardwoods. Found throughout North America. Season all year. Edibility not known -inedible.
Poisonous/Suspect
Cortinarius crassus Fr. sensu Smith subgenus Phlegmacium Vastagh?s? p?kh?l?sgomba. Cap 10-20cm across, slightly convex or flat; buff-colored then cinnamon brown; soon dry, smooth. Gills adnexed; pallid buff at first, then cinnamon brown. Stem 50-80 x 15-40mm, equal; whitish; fibrillose. Flesh off-white with brownish areas. Odor slight. Taste mild. Spores lemon-shaped, lightly roughened, 10-11.6 x 6-6.7?, quotient 1.7. Deposit rusty brown. Habitat under conifers and possibly maple. Found in the Pacific Northwest, in Colorado and other parts of the Rockies, and in the Great Lakes region. Season August-October. Not edible. Comment The flesh goes yellow with KOH. I could not see cheilocystidia nor could Smith, but in Europe cheilocystidia (albeit looking like basidia) are found.
Inedible
Coniophora puteana (Schum.) Karst. syn. C. cerebella Pers. syn. Corticium puteanum (Schum.) Fr. Gelber Holzschwamm Vastagb?r? foltgomba Wet Rot. Fruit body resupinate, forming irregular patches 4?20cm across, creamy white at first then pale yellow becoming dirty chrome to olivaceous, margin broad, white, radiating, surface irregular, rough and warted. Flesh very thin. Spores olivaceous-brown, broadly elliptic, 11?13 x 7?8?. Habitat on trunks, decaying wood or timbers; it is one of the major causes of wet rot in damp buildings. Season all year. Common. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Clitocybe nebularis (Batsch. ex Fr.) Kummer. Clouded Funnel or Clouded Agaric, Clitocybe n?buleux, Nebelkappe, Sz?rke t?lcs?rgomba, Agarico delle nebbie, Nevelzwam. Cap 5?C20cm across, convex at first becoming flattened or occasionally slightly depressed in the centre, the margin remaining inrolled, cloudy grey sometimes tinged with buff, darker at the centre and often covered with a white bloom. Stem 50?C100 x 15?C25mm, swollen towards the base, paler than the cap, fibrous and easily broken. Flesh thick, white, becoming hollow in the stem. Smell strong and sweetish. Gills decurrent, crowded, whitish later with a yellow flush. Spore print cream. Spores ovoid-elliptical, 5.5?C8 x 3.5?C5??. Habitat in deciduous or coniferous woods often in rings or troops. Season late summer to late autumn. Common. Said to be edible but known to cause gastric upsets in many people. Distribution, America and Europe.C. nebularis var. alba differs only in the milk-white cap and be distinguished from other white fleshy Clitocybes by its relatively large spores. Europe.
Inedible
Clitocybe avellaneialba Murr. New syn. Ampulloclitocybe avellaneolba Cap 5-20cm across, flat becoming sunken to funnel-shaped in age, with an inrolled margin that becomes wavy; olive-brown to grayish or blackish brown; smooth, finely felty or scaly. Gills decurrent, close, narrow; whitish to cream. Stem 50-180 x 10-30mm, stuffed, enlarged toward the base, sometimes curved; brownish, finely felty and furrowed. Flesh thicker on the disc, firm; whitish. Odor not distinctive. Taste not distinctive. Spores broadly spindle-shaped, smooth, nonamyloid, 8-11 x 4-5.5?. Deposit white. Habitat in groups or clusters on or near rotting logs and debris of alder and conifers. Quite common. Found in the Pacific Northwest and California. Season September-December. Not edible.
Inedible
Climacodon septentrionalis (Fr.) Karsten ?szaki t?sk?slaska. Fruit body huge, consisting of overlapping fan-shaped caps growing in horizontal clusters 15-30cm high, arising from a solid base which narrows to an attachment about 2cm wide where it enters the wood. Cap 10-15cm across, 2-5cm thick near the base, shelf-like, thinning toward the margin; whitish to yellowish or buff, turning brownish yellow when dry, with very faint zones; densely hairy and roughened. Spines on undersurface 0.5-2cm long, narrow, with lacerated tips, crowded, pliant; dull white drying yellowish. Flesh up to 4cm thick, fibrous, tough, elastic; white, zoned. Odor none or mild when fresh, of ham when dry. Taste none or mild when fresh, bitter when old. Spores ellipsoid, smooth, 2.5-3 x 4-5.5?. Deposit white. Cystidia thick-walled with encrusted tip. Habitat high up or in the wounds of living deciduous trees such as maple, beech, and birch. Found widely distributed in northeastern North America as far south as Tennessee. Also in Europe. Season July-October. Not edible.
Poisonous/Suspect
Chlorophyllum molybdites (Mayer ex Fr.) Mass. Lepiota morganii (Pk.) Sacc. Green-gilled Lepiota. Cap 5-30cm across, hemispherical to broadly convex becoming flatter; whitish underneath, covered with thin layers of pale pinkish-buff volval tissue which breaks up into many small scales and patches as the cap expands; dry, smooth or minutely hairy below, with scales curling upward in age. Gills free, close, broad; whitish slowly becoming dirty gray-green or darker. Stem 50-250 x 8-25mm, sometimes enlarging toward the base; whitish, slowly becoming dingy gray; smooth. Veil membranous, large, white, leaving double edged, persistent pendant ring on the upper stalk. Flesh thick; white, discoloring dingy red when bruised. Odor faint and pungent or none. Taste mild or none. Spores ovoid or ellipsoid, smooth, thick-walled with small germ pore at tip, 8-13 x 6.5-8?. Deposit green. No pleurocystidia. Habitat often forming fairy rings on grassy places such as lawns, meadows, and wasteland. Found widely distributed in North America but very common in the Gulf Coast area and Colorado. Season July-September. Poisonous. Comment Many people have reported this mushroom as edible, but it definitely contains toxins. These may be reduced by boiling, which may account for some people's eating it without symptoms of vomiting, cramps, and diarrhea.
Edible
Catathelasma ventricosa (Pk.) Singer Cap 7-20cm across, convex to broadly convex; dingy white to brownish or grayish; dry, smooth, and breaking up into patches with age. Gills decurrent, close to nearly distant, narrow to broad; whitish. Stem 50-150 x 26-60mm, stout but narrowing to a point and deep in soil; whitish to yellowish brown; dry. Veil partial double veil leaving flaring double ring; top layer hairy, bottom layer membranous and persistent. Flesh very thick, hard; white. Taste mildly unpleasant. Spores ellipsoid, smooth, amyloid, 9-12 x 4-5.5?. Deposit white. Habitat scattered or in groups under conifers, especially spruce. Frequent. Found in northern North America south to Colorado, and in mountainous areas of northern California. Season August-October. Edible-good.
Edible
Catathelasma imperialis (Fr.) Singer K?tgy?r?s t?lcs?rgomba. Cap 12-40cm across, convex becoming flat with an incurved margin at first; blackish brown to dingy brown; slightly sticky becoming dry and breaking into small areas or patches over the middle. Gills decurrent, close, narrow becoming broad; yellowish to pale greenish gray. Stem 120-180 x 50-80mm, tapers to a pointed base; covered with a dingy yellow-brown or pinky-brown membranous sheath; dry. Veil partial double veil leaving double ring on upper stalk; top layer membranous and striate, bottom layer slimy. Flesh hard, thick; white. Odor mealy. Taste mealy. Spores cylindrical, smooth, amyloid, 11-14 x 4-5.5?. Deposit white. Habitat singly or scattered in dense coniferous forests. Found in the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific Northwest and Europe. Season August-October. Edible.
Edible
Ornate-stalked Bolete Boletus ornatipes Pk. Cap 4-20cm across; with a whitish bloom when young, then gray to yellowish or olive, sometimes strongly yellow; dry and dull to slightly tomentose, slightly viscid when wet. Tubes lemon yellow to tawny. Pores small; lemon yellow bruising orange-brown. Stem 80-150 x 15-30mm, cylindric to slightly clavate, usually rather long; chrome yellow throughout, bruising orange-brown; surface with a prominent network, or reticulum, of raised ridges. Flesh chrome yellow. Odor none. Taste slightly bitterish. Spores ellipsoid, smooth, subfusiform, 9-13 x 3-4?. Deposit olive-brown to yellow-brown. Habitat solitary or often clustered on path sides, woodland edges, and clearings under deciduous trees, usually beech or oak. Common. Found in northeastern North America. Season July-September. Edible-quite good; although some authors report bitterness in the flesh, this collection was mild. Comment When young the stem is usually a brilliant yellow, but with age it may become white.
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