Agaricales Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
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Total mushrooms fount: 161

Edible
Hypsi means "high" or "on high" and zygus means a "yoke" Hypsizygus, then, referring to position of this mushroom often high in the tree. Ulm- refers to "elm" indicating one of the common substrates for this fungus. There are commercially grown forms of this mushroom grown and sold in supermarkets and specialist shops, usually referred to as Buna-shimeji syn Hon-shimeji, the Brown Beech Mushrooms, there is a white form called Bunapi-shimeji. Hypsizygus tessulatus (Bull. ex Fr.) Singer New syn. Hypsizygus marmoreus Laskapereszke. Cap 5-15cm across, convex becoming flatter and rather sunken; white to buff yellow, creamy tan or crust brown in the center; moist, smooth, minutely hairy, becoming cracked with scaly patches. Gills adnexed to sinuate, close to subdistant, broad; whitish becoming cream. Stem 40-110 x 10-30mm solid, off-center, enlarged toward the base; white; dry, smooth, sometimes hairy. Flesh thick, firm; white. Odor mushroomy. Taste mild. Spores globose, smooth, 5-7 x 5-7ยต. Deposit white to buff. Season September-December . Habitat singly or scattered on old hardwood trees, especially elm, often quite high up. Frequent. In nature, shimeji are gilled mushrooms that grow on wood. Most often the mushroom is found on beech trees, hence the common name, Beech Mushroom. They are often small and thin in appearance and popular in many nations across the world. ---- Growing Hypsizygus tessulatus The groups of mushrooms are harvested before the caps open. The beige caps are a little coarse and are often harvested when they have a diameter of ca. 2 cm, while the fully grown mushrooms can reach a diameter of 7 to 9 cm. Recommended substrate: 80% hardwood, mixed fine + coarse; 10% cereals; 10% bran. humidity: 62 % ---- A delicious species, H. tessulatus falls under the umbrella concept of the Japanese "Shimeji" mushrooms. Firm textured, this mushroom is considered one of the most "gourmet" of the Oyster-like mushrooms. Recently, this mushroom has been attributed to having anti-cancer properties. I ncreasingly better know, this obscure mushroom compares favorably to P. ostreatus and P.pulmonarius in North American, European and Japanese markets. Mycelial Characteristics: Mycelium white, cottony, resembling P. ostreatus mycelium but not as aerial. Also, the mycelium of H. tessulatus does not exude the yellowish-orange metabolite nor does it form the classically thick, peelable mycelium, two features that are characteristic of Pleurotus species. Mircroscopic Features: This mushroom produces white spores. Suggested Agar Culture Media: Malt Yeast Peptone Agar (MYPA), Potato Dextrose Yeast Agar (PDYA), Dog Food Agar (DFA), or Oatmeal Yeast Agar (OMYA) Spawn Media: The first two generations of spawn can be grain. The third generation can be sawdust or grain. Substrates for Fruiting: Supplemented sawdust. Good wood types are cottonwood, willow, oak, alder, beech, or elm. The effectiveness of other woods has not yet been established. It seems that straw does not provide commercially viable crops unless inoculated up to 25% of its weight with sawdust spawn. Yield Potentials: 1/2 lb. of fresh mushrooms per 5 lb. block (wet weight) of supplemented hardwood sawdust/chips. Comments: A quality mushroom, Buna shimeji is popular in Japan and is being intensively cultivated in the Nagano Prefecture. The only two mushrooms which come close to this species in over-all quality are H. ulmarius or Pleurotus eryngii. In the same environment ideal for Shiitake (i.e. normal light, CO2 less than 1000 ppm), strains of H. tessulatus produce a stem less than 2 inches tall and a cap many times broader than the stem is long. When the light is reduced and the carbon dioxide levels are elevated, the mushrooms metamorphosize into the form preferred by the Japanese. Here again, the Japanese have set the standard for quality. In the growing room, abbreviated caps and stem elongation is encouraged so that forking bouquets emerge from narrow mouthed bottles. Modest light levels are maintained (400 lux) with a higher than normal carbon dioxide levels (>2000 ppm) to promote this form of product. From a cultivator's point of view, this cultivation strategy is well merited, although the mushrooms look quite different from those found in nature. This cultivation strategy is probably the primary reason for the confused identifications. When visiting Japan, American mycologists viewed these abnormal forms of H. tessulatus, a mushroom they had previously seen only in the wild, and suspected they belonged to Lyophyllum. Many of the strains of H. marmoreus cultivated in Japan produce dark gray brown primordia with speckled caps. These mushrooms lighten in color as the mushrooms mature, becoming tawny or pale woody brown at maturity. Most strains obtained from cloning wild specimens of H tessulatus from the Pacific Northwest of North America are creamy brown when young, fading to a light tan at maturity, and have distinct water-markings on the caps. The differences seen may only be regional in nature. This mushroom does not exude a yellowish metabolite from the mycelium typical of Pleurotus species. However, it has been found that H. tessulatus produces a mycelium-bound toxin to nematodes, similar to that present in the droplets of P. ostreatus mycelium. This discovery may explain why it is not likely to see a nematode infestation in the course of growing Hypsizygus tessulatus. Given the number of potentially valuable by-products from cultivating this mushroom, entrepreneurs might want to extract the water soluble anti-cancer compounds and/or menatacides before discarding the waste substrate.
Poisonous/Suspect
Mushroom is sticky with brownish cap and grills are brown too. Stalk more like yellowish to brown. Cap Size is from 1 to 3 cm ( 0.39 to 1.18 inches ). Cap type is Convex or broadly convex which transforms to flat. It has whitish patches on cap. Cap is smooth, dark reddish-brown color which fades to grayish-brown. Grills Coprophila has attached grill. Nearly distant; Broad; Color of grill is whitish to brown or purplish-brown. Stalk Height is 2 to 4 cm ( 0.78 to 1.57 inches ) Thick is 1.5 to 5 mm Color: whitish, darkening to brown ( NOT bruising blue ). Veil Some times it present. Partial veil evanescent. Spores: 11-14 X 7-8.5 m; elliptical, smooth, with pore at tip. Spore print purplish-brown. Season June - October. Habitat Single to numerous, on horse or cow dung. Look-alikes: P. merdaria has central ring zone on stalk. Stropharia semiglobata is ringed yellowish. Panaeolus species have blackspores. Coprinus species liquefy. Comments: This weak hallucinogen is the most widespread psilocybe in North America. According to Stamets and other sources. P. coprophila is not hallucinogenic. Source: http://books.google.ca/books?id=BQvjx9M-DTgC&pg=PA25&lpg=PA25&dq=Stamets+psilocybe+coprophila+not+hallucinogenic&source=bl&ots=6_0sersnDS&sig=qDR0hlnnlGhLJS79eONHFlEfpv0&hl=en&sa=X&ei=BoOsT6obqpGIAo2wsOsG&ved=0CGIQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=Stamets%20psilocybe%20coprophila%20not%20hallucinogenic&f=false
Edible
Coprinus Coprinus comatus (Fr.) S. F. Gray. Shaggy Mane, Shaggy Inkcap, Lawyer's Wig, Coprin chevelu, Schopftintling, Agarico chiomato, Geschubde inktzwam, Gyapjas tintagomba. Cap 3-7cm across when expanded, more or less a tall ovoid when young, becoming more cylindrical as it expands; white and very shaggy-scaly, often with a pale brownish "skullcap" at apex; margin of the cap dissolves away and progresses steadily upward until the entire cap has liquified away, including the gills. Gills free, crowded, very narrow; white becoming black and inky from the margin upward. Stem 60-120 x 10-20mm, very tall, straight, with a slightly bulbous base, hollow in center; white; smooth, with a ring of veil tissue left lower down on the stem. Flesh soft, fibrous; white. Odor (when young) pleasant. Taste similar. Spores ellipsoid, smooth, with germ pore at apex, (12)13-17(18) x 7-9?. Deposit black. Habitat often in large numbers on roadsides, lawns, and other urban sites, especially where the soil has been disturbed. Found throughout North America and Europe. Season sometimes in the spring but usually July-November. Edible and delicious when young.
Poisonous/Suspect
Poisonous/Suspect
Edible
Volvariella bombycina (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Sing. syn. Volvaria bombycina (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Kummer. Wolliger Scheidling ?ri?s bocskorosgomba Volvaire soyeuse Silky Rosegill. Cap 5?20cm across, ovate then bell-shaped, whitish covered in long fine yellowish silky, almost hair-like fibres. Stem 70?150 x 10?20mm, often curved, tapering upwards from the bulbous base; volva membranous, large and persistant, somewhat viscid, white at first discolouring dingy brown. Flesh white becoming faintly yellowish. Taste slight, smell pleasant, like that of bean sprouts. Gills crowded, white at first then flesh-pink. Spore print pink. Spores elliptic, 8.5?10 x 5?6um. Habitat dead frondose trees, Maple, elm, and others, often in knot-holes or hollow trunks. Season early summer to autumn. Rare. Edible (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tulostoma brumale Pers. ex Pers. Zitzenbovist, ?ves nyelesp?feteg, nyeles p?feteg, Tulostome mamelonn?, Winter Stalkball. Fruit body consisting of a globose head 1?2cm across attached to a slender fibrous stem 20?50 x 3?4mm. Head opening by a circular pore surmounting a pale ochre to whitish cylindrical mouth. Spores globose and finely warted, 3.5?5m in diameter. Habitat in sandy calcareous soil or dunes usually amongst moss, formerly found on old stone walls where mortar was used instead of cement. Season autumn. Rare. Not edible. Found In Europe and possibly in north America.
Inedible
Tricholomopsis rutilans (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Sing. syn. Tricholoma rutilans (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Kummer. Plums and Custard, Tricolome rutilant, Pleurote rutilant, R?tlicher Holzritterling, B?rsonyos pereszke (fapereszke), Agarico rutilante, Koningsmantel. Cap 4?12cm across, convex to bell-shaped when expanded often with a low broad umbo, yellow densely covered in reddish-purple downy tufts or scales, more densely covered at the centre. Stem 35?55 x 10?15mm, yellow covered in fine downy purplish scales like the cap but to a much lesser extent; no mycelial strands. Flesh pale yellow or cream. Taste watery, smell like rotten wood. Gills rich egg-yellow. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, voluminous, 20?30um wide. Spore print white. Spores ellipsoid, 6?8.5 x 4?5um. Habitat on and around conifer stumps. Season late summer to late autumn. Very common. Considered edible by some but not recommended. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma virgatum (Fr. ex Fr.) Kummer. Tricolome verget?, Brennender Erdritterling, Cs?p?s pereszke, Tricoloma vergato, Scherpe ridderzwam, Ashen Knight. Cap 3?7cm across, convex with a low broad umbo, brownish-black or greyish initially with violaceous tints, streaked with very fine black fibrils. Stem 50?90 x 10?18mm, white and smooth, often flushed grey. Flesh white to greyish. Taste bitter and peppery, smell musty. Gills greyish tinged flesh-colour, often browning at the edges. Spore print white. Spores 6.5?8 x 5?6um. Habitat deciduous and coniferous woods. Season autumn. Uncommon. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Tricholoma ustale (Fr. ex Fr.) Kummer. Tricolome br?l?, Brandiger Ritterling, Szenesed? (feketed?) pereszke, Beukridderzwam, Burnt Knight. Cap 4?8cm across, convex then expanded, viscid in wet weather, chestnut brown, paler at margin, blackening with age. Stem 30?60 x 10?15mm, fibrous, reddish-brown, apex paler. Flesh whitish, sometimes reddening slightly. Taste slightly bitter, smell not distinctive. Gills white, becoming rust-spotted, edges blackening with age. Spore print white. Spores elliptic-ovate, 5.5?7 x 4?5um. Habitat deciduous woods, especially beech. Season late summer to late autumn. Rare. Poisonous. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Tricholoma terreum (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Kummer. Tricolome couleur de terre, Petit-gris, Saint-Martin, Graubl?ttriger Erdritterling, Feny?pereszke, Agarico color di terra, cavarese, Donkergrijze ridderzwam, Grey Knight. Cap 4?7cm across, convex with a low broad umbo, light to dark grey, downy to felty. Stem 30?80 x 10?15mm, white and silky smooth. Flesh whitish grey. Taste pleasant, not mealy, smell not distinctive. Gills emarginate, distant, whitish to grey. Spore print white. Spores 6?7 x 3.5?4.5um Habitat in woods, especially with conifers. Season late summer to late autumn. Uncommon. Edible with caution. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma sulphureum (Bull. ex Fr.) Kummer syn. T. bufonium (Pers. ex Fr.) Gillet. Tricolome soufr?, Schwefelritterling, B?d?s pereszke, Agarico zolfino, Narcisridderzwam, Sulphur Knight Gas Agaric. Cap 3?8cm across, convex with an indistinct umbo, sulphur-yellow often tinged reddish-brown or olivaceous. Stem 25?40 x 6?10mm, sulphur-yellow covered in reddish-brown fibres. Flesh bright sulphur-yellow. Taste mealy, smell strongly of gas-tar. Gills bright sulphur-yellow. Spore print white. Spores 9?12 x 5?6um. Habitat in deciduous woods, less frequently with conifers. Season autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma sejunctum (Sow. ex Fr.) Qu?l. Jaunet, Braungelber Ritterling, Z?ldess?rga pereszke, Streephoedridderzwam, Deceiving Knight. Cap 4?10cm across, conico-convex then expanded, yellowish-green more brown or greyish-brown towards the centre, radially streaky, moist. Stem 50?80 x 10?30mm, white flushed yellowish. Flesh white, yellowing below the cap cuticle in older specimens. Taste mealy. Gills whitish. Spore print white. Spores 5?7 x 4?5um. Habitat deciduous woods. Season autumn. Uncommon. Non edible ? nauseating. Distribution, America and Europe.
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