Agaricales Mushrooms identifications

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Total mushrooms fount: 161

Poisonous/Suspect
Clitocybe nebularis (Batsch. ex Fr.) Kummer. Clouded Funnel or Clouded Agaric, Clitocybe n?buleux, Nebelkappe, Sz?rke t?lcs?rgomba, Agarico delle nebbie, Nevelzwam. Cap 5?C20cm across, convex at first becoming flattened or occasionally slightly depressed in the centre, the margin remaining inrolled, cloudy grey sometimes tinged with buff, darker at the centre and often covered with a white bloom. Stem 50?C100 x 15?C25mm, swollen towards the base, paler than the cap, fibrous and easily broken. Flesh thick, white, becoming hollow in the stem. Smell strong and sweetish. Gills decurrent, crowded, whitish later with a yellow flush. Spore print cream. Spores ovoid-elliptical, 5.5?C8 x 3.5?C5??. Habitat in deciduous or coniferous woods often in rings or troops. Season late summer to late autumn. Common. Said to be edible but known to cause gastric upsets in many people. Distribution, America and Europe.C. nebularis var. alba differs only in the milk-white cap and be distinguished from other white fleshy Clitocybes by its relatively large spores. Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Armillaria gallica Marxm?ller & Romagnesi Syn. A. bulbosa and A. lutea Gum?s (s?rgapelyhes) tusk?gomba. Ricken Cap 3?15cm across, very variable, convex to shield shapped, yellow brown, tawny, to dark brown, often with an olivaceous tinge, covered in darker fibrillose scales especially at the centre. Stem 60?150?5?15mm, often bulbous towards the base, yellowish becoming reddish-brown at the base, initially with a thick whitish to yellow cottony ring. Flesh white. Taste astringent, smell strong. Gills white at first then yellowish becoming pinkish-brown and often darker spotted with age. Spore print pale cream. Spores elliptic, 8?9 x 5?6?. Habitat in clusters on or around trunks or stumps of deciduous and coniferous treesor shrubs. Season summer to early winter. Very common. Edible when cooked but should only be eaten in small amounts as some forms are known to cause stomach upsets. Distribution, America and Europe. The fungus spreads by long black cords called rhizomorphs resembling bootlaces which can be found beneath the bark of infected trees, on roots or in the soil where they can travel large distances to infect other trees. This is one of the most dangerous parasites of trees, causing an intensive white rot and ultimately death; there is no cure and the fungus is responsible for large losses of timber each year.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita strobiliformis (Vitt.) Quel. Cafrangos gal?ca. Sometimes other authors use the name Amanita solitaria for this mushroom. Cap 15-25cm white, with large plate-like grey remnants of the volva. Stem large 15x5cm, white with a ring. Gills white. Flesh white. Spores 12x8??. Found on chalk or limestone beech woods. Said to be edible, but I advise against because of the possibility of confusion with poisonous white species. Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita regalis Fr. Barna gal?ca. Developing from a white volval sac. Cap up to 15cm or even larger, yellow-brown to greenish-brown, the flesh under the cap skin is yellowish; veil flakes white (whitish) the whole appearance like a brownish Amanita muscaria. Stem with prominent bulb and ring tending to be flaky. Gills white. Spores elliptical 9-12 x6-9??. Found, mainly in pine and spruce woods, more especially in northern Scandinavia. Poisonous found in Europe. Rare.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita porphyria (Alb. & Schw. ex Fr.) Secr. Grey Veiled Amanita, Amanite porphyre, Porphyrbrauner Wulstling, Agarico porporino, Porfieramaniet, B?bor gal?ca. Cap 5?9cm across, convex becoming flattened, pale greyish-brown with vinaceous flush, smooth. Stem 100?130 x 10?15mm, whitish, ring thin and fragile, basal bulb encased in a short volva. Flesh whitish becoming brown. Taste unpleasant, smell slight. Gills free to adnexed, white. Spore print white. Spores globose, amyloid, 7.5?9.5? diameter. Habitat in coniferous or mixed woods. Season late summer to autumn. Occasional. Not edible many amanitas contain poisonous toxins -avoid. Distribution, north America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita gemmata (Fr.) Gillet syn. A. junquillea Qu?l. syn. Amanitopsis adnata (W. G. Smith) Sacc. Jewelled Amanita, Amanite ? pierreries, Zitronengelber Knollenbl?tterpilz, Amanita giunchiglia, Narcisamaniet, S?rga gal?ca. Cap 5?7cm across, flattened convex, pale yellow with more ochre centre, covered in snow-white patches of veil remnants, margin striate. Stem 70?100 x 10?14mm, white with pale yellow flush, with a large basal bulb encased in a short thin volva. Flesh white, flushed pale yellow in the stem. Smell faint. Gills adnexed, white. Spore print white. Spores ovoid ? subglobose, nonamyloid, 8.5?9 x 7?7.5?. Habitat in coniferous woods. Season spring to autumn. Very rare. Deadly poisonous causing symptoms as in A. pantherina poisoning. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Amanita fulva (Schaeff.) Secr. syn. Amanitopsis vaginata var. fulva (Schaeff.) Fr. Tawny Grisette, Rotbrauner Scheidenstreifling, Falso farinaccio fulvo, Roodbruine slanke amaniet, R?t selyemgomba. Cap 4-9cm across, ovoid at first, expanding to almost flat with a low umbo and a distinctly grooved margin; orange-brown; slightly paler toward the margin; smooth, slightly sticky when moist then dry. Gills free, close, broad; white to creamy. Stem 70-150 x 5-12mm, slender, hollow, quite fragile, tapering toward the top; white tinged with orange-brown and very fine white hairs; no ring; no basal bulb, but base of stem encased in large baglike volva, white tinged with orange-brown. Flesh white. Odor not distinctive. Taste not distinctive. Spores globose, nonamyloid; 9.7-12.5 x 9.7-12.5?. Deposit white. Habitat singly or in small groups on the ground in deciduous and coniferous woods. Fairly common. Found widely distributed throughout North America. Season July-September (January-March in California). Edible but I advise avoiding it as I would all amanitas, because there are so many deadly poisonous species.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita crocea (Qu?l.) K?hn. & Romagn. syn. A. vaginata var. crocea Qu?l. syn. Amanitopsis crocea (Qu?l.) Gilbert Orange Grisette Orangebrauner Scheidenstreifling, Falso farinaccio giallo, Narancssz?n? selyemgomba. Cap 4?10cm across, convex becoming flattened or turning up at margin, with a broad umbo, pale yellow orange or apricot at centre, paler towards the lined margin. Stem 100?150 x 10?20mm, gradually attenuated towards the apex, covered in silky or cottony tufts of the cap colour throughout the length, the non-bulbous base encased in a thick, persistent volva which is white on the outside and flushed with the cap colour on the interior surface, no ring. Flesh thin, white often pale orange below the cap cuticle. Smell sweet, taste sweet and nutty. Gills adnexed or free, cream. Spore print white. Spores subglobose, nonamyloid, 11?12.5 x 9?10?. Habitat amongst broadleaved trees especially birch. Season late summer to autumn. Occasional. Not known to be edible -best avoided. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Found In Europe and north America from New York west to Colorado.
Inedible
Agrocybe erebia (Fr.) K?hn. syn. Pholiota erebia (Fr.) Gillet Lederbrauner Erdsch?ppling S?t?t r?tgomba Dark Fieldcap. Cap 3?6cm across, convex becoming flattened with a broad umbo, the margin wavy in older specimens, dull clay-brown when dry, darker and slightly viscid when moist. Stem 60?80 x 8?12mm, whitish at first gradually darkening brown from base upwards, with whitish grooved ring. Flesh pale brownish. Gills pale at first then dark umber brown. Spore print very dark brown. Spores ellipsoid, 10?13 x 5?6?. Cap cuticle cellular. Habitat on bare soil or in leaf litter in deciduous woods. Season autumn. Frequent. Not edible ? easily confused with poisonous species. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Agrocybe cylindracea (DC. ex Fr.) Maire syn. Pholiota aegerita (Brig.) Qu?l. Pappel-Sch?ppling, D?li t?kegomba, d?li r?tgomba, Albarelle, Pholiote du peuplier Poplar Fieldcap Cap 4?10cm across, hemispherical convex becoming flattened and sometimes cracked at centre and often wavy near the margin, pale buff to almost white with rust flush at centre when young becoming darker brown with age. Stem 50?100 x 10?15mm, cream at first, darker brown with age, with persistent ring which soon becomes dusted brown by the spores. Flesh white in the cap and stem, brown in the stem base. Taste nutty, smell of old wine casks. Gills adnate or slightly decurrent, cream at first then tobacco brown due to the spores. Spore print tobacco brown. Spores ovoid-ellipsoid, 8.5?10.5 x 5?6?. Cap cuticle cellular. Habitat in tufts wood especially willows and poplars. Season all year round. Rare. Edible. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Agaricus xanthodermus Genevier syn. Psalliota xanthoderma (Genevier) Richon & Roze. Yellow Stainer, Agaric jaunissant, Giftchampignon, Agarico giallescente, Karbolchampignon, S?rgul? csiperke, karbolszag? csiperke. Cap 5?15cm across, subspherical with the top flattened later expanded convex, white at first later often with tiny indistinct greyish-brown scales and bruising bright chrome-yellow, especially towards the margin. Stem 50?150 x 10?20mm, white, bulbous at the base; ring white with a thickened edge which can cause it to appear double. Flesh white, staining chrome-yellow in the stem base. Taste slightly unpleasant, smell slightly of ink. Gills white at first then pale pink, finally grey-brown. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, sub-globose or ovate, hyaline, 10?20 x 8?14?. Spore print purple-brown. Spores ellipsoid, 5?6.5 x 3?4?. Habitat in woods, meadows and gardens. Season summer to autumn. Occasional. Poisonous. The symptoms are sweating, flushing and severe stomach cramps, but only some people are affected. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Agaricus silvicola (Vitt.) Peck. Wood Mushroom, Agaric des bois, D?nnfleischiger Anisegerling, Agarico di boschi, Slanke anijchamignon, Karcs? csiperke. Cap: 5 - 10cm across, convex, cream, readily bruising ochraceous and becoming more yellow with age. Hymenium is free ( cap is convex or flat ). Stem: 50 - 80 x 10 - 15mm, concolorous with the cap, base usually bulbous. Stipe: has a ring. Ring: large and pendulous, upper surface white, lower drab. Flesh: thin, white. Taste: mushroomy, smell of aniseed. Gills: free, pale greyish-pink at first later chocolate brown. Smell: Aniseed. Cheilocystidia numerous, thin-walled, oval to subglobose, hyaline, 10 - 20 x 7 - 20. Spore print purple-brown. Spores ellipsoid 5-6 x 3-4-. Habitat in coniferous and deciduous woods. Season autumn. Occasional. ---- The cap is light cream, and bruises yellow ochre when damaged. It is much the same colour as the cap, and has a fragile drooping ring. The flesh is thin and white, and smells of aniseed. It looks fairly similar to a young death cap, it is believed by some mycologists. ---- Agaricus silvicola grows in both deciduous and coniferous woodland in Britain, Europe, and North America. Appearing in the autumn, it is rarely seen in huge numbers, usually just a few, or solitary ( Season: August to November ). Often found in loose groups. ---- It is suspected to have caused an allergic reaction in a few people in North America. ---- Agaricus xanthodermus, the yellow stainer looks very alike but bruises chrome yellow when handled or cut and smells of Indian ink or Agaricus pilatianus which stains yellow on cutting and smells of carbolic. Both do not smell edible. People can mistake some of the Amanitas for field mushrooms but on inspection they are quite different.
Inedible
Agaricus porphyrocephalus M-ller syn. Psalliota porphyrea M-ller Rotbrauner Egerling Cap 3-8cm across, hemispherical to flat, brown, with darker radiating fibrils. Stem 30-40 x 10-20mm, white, slightly tapering towards the base or sometimes slightly swollen and bulbous; ring thin and white. Flesh white to pale flesh-coloured. Taste and smell mushroomy. Gills pink at first, later chocolate brown. Cheilocystidia absent. Spore print brown. Spores 5-7-3-4.5m. Habitat lawns or pastures. Season autumn. Rare. Edibility suspect -avoid. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Agaricus pocillator, a woodland mushroom, is distributed through southeastern North America in ranges a minimum of as far north as Illinois. It will be distinguished within the field by its dark center, its small, bulbous base, that stains yellow, and its relatively slight stature. It's very similar to agaricus placomyces, however is a slightly smaller mushroom with a scalier cap and a more northern range among the united states. Edibility isn't certain for agaricus pocillator, however many other yellow-staining agaricus species ar poisonous. Hikers are typically warned to avoid eating it when spotted. ---- Cap: Whitish to dingy, developing vaguely concentric brown to greyish scales towards the middle. 3-10 cm; Convex to broadly convex or nearly flat in age, sometimes with an obscure, darker bump; Dry; Gills: Free from the stem; Close; White, turning into pink, then brown. Stem: With a small bulbous base that bruises yellow; with a ring that usually persists into maturity; 4 - 8 cm long; 0.5 - 1 cm. thick; Partial veil when covering the gills not developing dark droplets. Flesh: Staining bright yellow in the base; White throughout; Taste: Odor typically unpleasant, however sometimes not distinctive; Taste not distinctive or somewhat unpleasant. Spores: 4.5 - 6 x 3 - 3.8 ยต. Chem. Reacti.: Flesh and cap yellow with KOH. Ecology: They are saprobic, meaning that they survive by decomposing dead or decaying organic material. Growing alone or gregariously beneath hardwoods and in mixed woods; Saprobic; Summer and fall.
Edible
Agaricus devoniensis Orton syn. Psalliota arenicola Wakef. & Pearson, Sandegerling Cap 3?12cm across, convex to flattened-convex, whitish and silky tinted pinkish or violaceous. Stem 30?40 x 10?15mm, white covered in scaly remnants of the veil, bruising reddish; ring sheathing, white and short-lived. Flesh white, tinted pink above the gills and in the lower stem. Taste and smell mushroomy but not distinctive. Gills free, greyish pink darkening with age. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, tufted, clavate, hyaline or brownish, 36?50 x 10?13?. Spore print dark brown. Spores subglobose, 6.5?7 x 5?5.5?. Habitat on sand dunes, only noticeable after the expanded cap has pushed up through the sand. Season late summer to autumn. Rare. Edible. Found In Europe.
Edible
Agaricus bitorquis (Qu?l.) Sacc. syn. A. edulis (Witt.) M?ller & Schaeff. syn. A. campestris subsp. bitorquis(Qu?l.) Konrad & Maubl. syn. Psalliota rodmanii (Peck) Kauffm. Scheidenegerling ?zletes (bocskoros) csiperke Champignon de trottoirs Cap 4?10cm across, convex soon flattened, white with faintly ochraceous flakes. Stem 30?60 x 15?20mm, white with two separate sheathing rings, the lower thinner and resembling a volva. Flesh white, tinged faintly pink on cutting. Taste mushroomy, smell pleasant. Gills dirty pink at first, soon clay, finally dark chocolate brown. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, clavate. Spore print brown. Spores subglobose, 4?6.5 x 4?5?. Habitat in gardens and at roadsides, sometimes found growing through asphalt. Season late spring to autumn. Occasional. Edible ? good. Found In Europe and north America.
Choice
Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Pil?t Zuchtchampignon Agaric cultiv?, Pratelle, Champignon de Paris, K?tsp?r?s csiperke, termesztett csiperke, Cultivated Mushroom. Cap 5?12cm across, hemispherical expanding convex, greyish-brown to umber covered in brown radiating fibres and often slightly scaly with age. Stem 35?55 x 8?14mm, white, often flaky below the membranous sheathing ring. Flesh white bruising faintly red. Taste and smell mushroomy. Gills dirty pinkish darkening with age. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, elongate-clavate, 17?44 x 7?14?. Spore print brown. Spores ovate to subglobose, 4?7.5 x 4?5.5?. Basidia two-spored, separating this species from the rest of this genus which all have four-spored basidia. Habitat on manure heaps, garden waste and roadsides, not in grass. Season late spring to autumn. Occasional. Edible. Distribution, America and Europe. This species is believed to be the wild ?parent? of many of the cultivated crop varieties, all of which have two-spored basidia.
Edible
Agaricus bernardii (Qu?l.) Sacc. syn. A. campestris subsp. bernardii (Qu?l.) Konrad & Maubl. D?nen-Egerling, Sziki csiperke. Cap 1?15cm across, hemispherical then flattened convex and often depressed, whitish to light brown, bruising reddish on handling, surface soon disrupting into coarse brownish scales. Stem 50?70 x 20?40mm, whitish, narrowing slightly at the greyish-brown base; ring sheathing, whitish and narrow. Flesh white becoming reddish orange on cutting. Taste slightly unpleasant, smell fishy. Gills pale grey then flesh-coloured becoming dark brown. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, elongate, cylindric, clavate or fusiform. Spore print dark brown. Spores broadly ovoid, 5.5?7 x 5?5.5?. Habitat on sand dunes and meadows near the sea or sodic lakes, also on roadsides inland, possibly due to the practice of salting the roads in icy weather. Season autumn. Uncommon. Edible. Found In Europe.
Choice
Cap 10-20cm across, obtusely ovoid at first expanding convex, yellowish-brown covered in chestnut-brown fibrous scales. Stem 100-200 x 20-40mm, whitish with small scales below the ring which discolour brownish with age, bruising yellowish; ring white, large and pendulous. Flesh thick and white, becoming tinged reddish with age. Taste mushroomy, smell strongly of bitter almonds. Gills free, white at first then brown. Cheilocystidia formed of chains of bladder-shaped elements. Spore print purple brown. Habitat in coniferous and deciduous woods. Season late summer to autumn. Uncommon. Distribution, America and Europe. ---- The beautiful Agaricus augustus is considered by many to be the most delicious of the edible Agaricus species. It is a happy find for any mushroom hunter, although it is reported to be difficult to find them before the worms do! Like other Agaricus species, the Prince grows on rich organic substrate, often as a litter decomposer in nature. It is probably a secondary decomposer, which means that bacteria and other fungi have to break down raw materials before Agaricus can grow. On a commercial scale this is the process known as composting. The Prince can have caps about one foot (30 cm) in diameter, although many mycophagists prefer to eat them when unexpanded because of their better texture and odor. The gills turn chocolaty brown when the spores are mature. However, even somewhat expanded caps can show gills that are still white. The beautiful veil and scruffy to shaggy stem (at least when young) are also hallmarks of this species.
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