Light to dark brown Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
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Total mushrooms fount: 276

Inedible
Inonotus hispidus (Bull. ex Fr.) Karst. Pelzporling, Almafa rozsd?stapl? (tapl?) Polypore h?ris?e, Shaggy Bracket. Habitat: Commonly between 10-20ft on the trunks of ash, but seen on walnut sometimes, london and apple plane. Strategy: Parasitic creating simultaneous white rot. Value: Brittle fracture at point of decay. The probability of standing timber being created is wonderful for biodiversity Annual bracket ranging from: 6 to 25 cm across 4 to 12 cm wide 2 to 10 cm thick Fan-shaped, usually single but occasionally fusing with others into overlapping groups, surface felty-hairy varying from ochraceous to tobacco-brown, finally blackish and bristly. Red to brown and like velvet on top and usually growing independently. The bracket will blacken with age and finally drop off within the year, remaining on the ground below the tree for a long time. Spores exuded from red to brown pores. Tubes 10-20(50)mm long. Pores 2 - 3 per mm, circular to angular, pale ochraceous at first, later brown and glancing in the light. Spores rust, subglobose, 9?12?4?10m. Habitat usually on ash but commonly on other trees such as elm, apple and walnut. Season summer but persisting on the tree in blackened state throughout the year, annual ( Seen in October ). Frequent. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Inonotus dryadeus, commonly known as oak bracket, warted oak polypore, weeping polypore or weeping conk, is an inedible species of fungus belonging to the genus Inonotus, which consists of bracket fungi with fibrous flesh. Most often found growing at the base of oak trees, it causes white rot and decay of the trunks. It secretes an amber liquid which weeps from tubes in its upper surface. Bracket 10x65cm across, 5x25cm wide, 2x12cm thick, or sometimes forming large, irregular cushions, corky; Upper surface uneven, white-grey becoming brownish, finally very dark, margin broadly rounded and paler, exuding drops of yellowish liquid. Flesh rusty brown, fibrous. Tubes 5x20mm long, rusty-brown. Pores 3x4 per mm, circular then angular, white-grey becoming rusty. Spores white to yellowish, subglobose, 7x9x6.5x7.5m. Hyphal structure monomitic; generative hyphae lacking clamp-connections. Setae in the tubes dark brown with swollen base and hooked pointed tips. Habitat parasitic on various species of oak, found at the base of trunks. Season all year. Uncommon. ---- Ecology: Parasitic on living oaks in eastern North America and, in the west, on true firs; causing a white butt rot and root rot; annual; growing alone, gregariously, or in shelving clusters; summer and fall (or over winter in warm climates); fairly widely distributed in North America but apparently absent in the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains. Cap: Up to 40 cm across; semicircular, kidney-shaped, cushion-shaped, or irregular; usually convex; finely velvety, becoming bald with age; often lumpy; buff to dull yellow, becoming brown with age; often exuding drops of amber liquid when fresh, especially along the margin; the margin thick. Pore Surface: Buff to yellowish when young, becoming brown; bruising slowly brown; exuding drops of amber liquid when fresh and young; with 4-6 circular to angular pores per mm; tubes to 2 cm deep. Stem: Absent. Flesh: Yellowish brown becoming reddish brown; soft, becoming leathery or corky; zoned. Chemical Reactions: Flesh black with KOH. Spore Print: Yellowish to brownish. Microscopic Features: Spores 6-8 x 5-7 µ; smooth; subglobose; hyaline in KOH; dextrinoid. Setae usually present but sometimes very rare; to about 40 x 15 µ; usually curved. Contextual hyphae thin- to thick-walled; simple-septate. ---- Habitat • At ground level attached to the base and larger roots of living trees • On stumps or dead trees Fruiting Time of Year • Summer through fall Fruiting (Hymenial) Surface • Small pores and gray-brown or darker Type of Decay • White root and butt rot with most of the decay concentrated in larger roots Mode of Action • Moderately slow progressing root rot eventually leading to root failure Frequency • Common Tree Health Symptoms • Often none other than the appearance of the fruiting bodies and extensively decayed root when a tree fails ---- Occurrence A basidiomycetes widespread and fairly common in Britain attacking various species of oak (Quercus), in my experience this year it has been seen on a regular basis. The fungus is sometimes also found on horse chestnut, sweet chestnut, beech, London plane, elm and more rarely on conifers. The fruiting body (Sporophore) is not very regular in its appearance, and quite often several years may elapse between the production of the fruiting body on an infected tree. The fruiting body is usually seen only on large, old living trees and occurs almost invariably near the butt. Fruiting Body It is a thick lumpy bracket, being sessile (without stalk) and can measure up to 300mm across and 80mm thick. Sometimes the fruiting bodies are imbricated (arranged so as to overlap) in groups. The upper surface colour is at first pale chamois yellow, later becoming brown. A constant and very characteristic feature of this fungus is the presence of drops of coloured liquid in little round depressions on the margin of the actively growing fruit-body. These depressions may persist after the drops have evaporated. The underside bears small whitish pores, and the flesh and tubes are rusty brown. The consistency of the flesh is soft at first, later becoming corky and then brittle with age. The fruiting bodies appear in the early Autumn and decompose during the winter turning black. Colonisation Strategy The attack is more or less confined to the heartwood and never spreads very far up the trunk, at most reaching 2 metres above soil level.
Inedible
Ganoderma tsugae Murr. Hemlock Varnish Shelf. Fruit body annual. Cap 5-25cm across, kidney- or fan-shaped; reddish to maroon or brownish, margin often white or yellow; surface smooth to wrinkled with a shiny, lacquered appearance. Tubes up to 1.5cm deep; pale purplish brown. Pores 5-6 per mm, circular to angular; surface cream-colored bruising yellowish or brownish. Stem up to 30-150 x 15-30mm, usually lateral; reddish brown to mahogany or almost black; surface has a highly varnished crust. Flesh up to 5cm thick, upper part soft and spongy, lower part corky when dried; creamy-colored to bud, with a darker layer next to tubes. Spores ellipsoid, blunt at one end, with thick double wall, 9-11 x 6-8-. Deposit rust-brown. Hyphal structure dimitic; clamps present. Habitat singly or in clusters on dead or dying coniferous wood, especially hemlock and spruce. Found in eastern North America, California, and Arizona. Season May-November. Comment The similar Ganoderma lucidum (Curt. ex Fr.) Karsten grows on deciduous trees. Ganoderma curtisii (Berk.) Murr., which occurs in the South, is probably not a distinct species but a form of Ganoderma lucidum (see our picture with the younger specimens). It has a distinct, usually central stem, and the cap is pallid or bright ochre rather than red-brown.
Inedible
Phallus duplicatus syn. Phallus duplicatus syn. Phallus indusiatus Vent. & Pers. syn. Dictyophora indusiata. Long-net tinkhorn, Crinoline Stinkhorn, Bridal Veil Fungus or Veiled Lady. Stem up to 30cm, with a very large distinctive white 'Veil' hanging often to the ground. The cap is covered in a brownish-green slime that contains the spores, which is scented like rotten meat to attract flies, the flies alight on the sticky mass and thus disperse the spores on their feet. In China it is cultivated and dried for sale as an aphrodisiac. Found in Mexico and further south and quite common in China, india and Malasia. The habitat is usually on wood chips or remains of wood in forests including bamboo. Possible typo: dictyophota ( Dictyophora indusiata )
Edible
Vascellum pratense (Pers.) Kreisel syn. V. depressum (Bon.) Smarda syn. Lycoperdon depressum Bon. syn. Lycoperdon hiemale Vitt. M?nzenst?ubling, Sz?lessz?j? laposp?feteg (p?feteg), Lycoperdon des pr?s, Meadow Puffball. Fruit body 2?4cm across, subglobose narrowed into a short squat stem, white at first then yellowish flesh-coloured, finally light brown, outer layer scurfy and with some small white spines, inner wall smooth and shining opening by a small pore but eventually the upper part breaking away totally leaving the fruit body bowl-shaped. Gleba olive-brown; sterile base well-developed, separated from the spore mass by a distinct membrane. Spores olive-brown, globose, finely warted, 3?5.5m in diameter. Habitat on lawns, golf-courses or pasture. Season summer to late autumn. Common. Edible when young. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Tulostoma brumale Pers. ex Pers. Zitzenbovist, ?ves nyelesp?feteg, nyeles p?feteg, Tulostome mamelonn?, Winter Stalkball. Fruit body consisting of a globose head 1?2cm across attached to a slender fibrous stem 20?50 x 3?4mm. Head opening by a circular pore surmounting a pale ochre to whitish cylindrical mouth. Spores globose and finely warted, 3.5?5m in diameter. Habitat in sandy calcareous soil or dunes usually amongst moss, formerly found on old stone walls where mortar was used instead of cement. Season autumn. Rare. Not edible. Found In Europe and possibly in north America.
Choice
Tuber melanosporum Vitt., Perigord Truffle, Truffe du P?rigord, Die Perigord-Tr?ffel, Francia szarvasgomba, Tartufo nero di Norcia, tartufo di P?rigord, Perigordtruffel. Spherical or lumpy, 2-10cm across with a covering of polygonal warts, and the cut flesh turning violaceous-black with white river like lines throughout, wonderfully scented. Asci with up to 6 spoes 90-100 x 80-120um Spores elliptic, completely covered in spines 2-4um long, 29?55 x 22?35um. A specialty of the Perigore region of France, but also known from other countries around the Mediterranean, north Africa and Asia. Edible ? excellent considered the best truffle. Found In Europe, under trees especially cork oak.
Inedible
Tubaria furfuracea (Pers. ex Fr.) Gillet. Sch?ppchen-Trompetenschnitzling Gyakori szem?tgomba, t?li szem?tgomba Scurfy Twiglet. Cap 1?4cm across, convex then flattened or centrally depressed, cinnamon to tan and striate from margin inwards when moist drying pale buff and slightly scurfy. Stem 20?50 x 2?4mm, more or less concolorous with the cap, base covered in white down. Flesh concolorous. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills broad, distant, adnate to slightly decurrent, cinnamon. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, hyaline, cylindric to clavate. Spore print pale ochre. Spores elliptic with rounded apex, 7?9?4.5?5m. Habitat on twigs and woody debris. Season all year, usually autumn to early winter. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Thelephora palmata (Scop.) Fr. Stinkende Lederkoralle B?d?s szem?lcs?sgomba (szem?lcsgomba), b?d?s b?r-korallgomba. Fruit body 2?5cm high, 1?3cm across, comprising several erect, flattened, palmate purple-brown branches arising from a common stem 10?15 x 2?5mm. Flesh leathery. Smell fetid or strongly of garlic. Spores reddish-brown, angular and spiny, 8?11 x 7?8?. Habitat on the ground near conifers. Season late summer to late autumn. Rare. Easily recognized by the strong smell. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Suillus variegatus (Fr.) O. Kuntze syn. Boletus variegatus Fr. Sandr-hrling, Semmelpilz, Tarka feny-tin-ru (-tin-ru), Bolet mouchet-, C-pe tachet- ou verget-, Velvet Bolete. Cap 6-13cm, rusty tawny or ochraceous to olivaceous, speckled with darker, small, flattened scales, initially slightly downy becoming slightly greasy with age, tacky in wet weather. Stem 50-90 x 15-20mm, ochre, more yellow towards apex, flushed rust-colour below. Flesh pale lemon in cap, more deeply coloured in stem base, sometimes tinged with blue throughout or above the tubes. Taste slight, smell strongly fungusy. Tubes dark buff. Pores subangular and compound, ochre with olivaceous tint at first becoming more cinnamon. Spore print snuff-brown. Spores subfusoid-elongate to ellipsoid, 9-11 x 3-4um. Habitat with conifers. Season late summer. Occasional. Edible. Found In Europe and north America.
Edible
Suillus luteus (Fr.) S. F. Gray syn. Boletus luteus Fr. Slippery Jack, Bolet Jaune, Nonnette voil-e, Bolet annulaire, Butterpilz, Barna gy-r-stin-ru (-tin-ru), Boleto giallo, Bruine Ringboleet. Cap 5-10cm, chestnut to sepia covered in brown gluten, becoming more rust-coloured with age, shiny on drying. Stem 50-100 x 20-30mm, pale straw-coloured at apex rapidly discoloured with darkening glandular dots, with a large white to cream ring which darkens to sepia, white below becoming vinaceous brown with age. Flesh white, often vinaceous at base of stem. Taste and smell not distinctive. Tubes lemon-yellow to straw-colour. Pores round, similarly coloured, becoming flushed sienna. Spore print clay to ochraceous. Spores subfusiform to elongate ellipsoid, 7-10 x 3-3.5um. Habitat with conifers, usually Scots pine. Season autumn. Common. Edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Suillus granulatus (Fr.) O. Kuntze. syn. Boletus granulatus Fr. K-rnchenr-hrling, Feny-tin-ru, szemcs-st-nk- feny--tin-ru, Bolet granul-, Nonnette pleureuse Weeping Bolete. Cap 3-9cm, rusty brown to yellowish, viscid, shiny when dry. Stem 35-80 x 7-10mm, lemon-yellow flushed vinaceous to coral towards the base, the upper region covered in white or pale yellow granules which exude pale milky droplets. Flesh lemon-yellow, lemon-chrome in stem, paler in cap. Taste and smell slight but pleasant. Tubes buff to pale yellow, unchanging. Pores small, similarly coloured, exuding pale milky droplets. Spore print ochraceous sienna. Spores subfusiform-ellipsoid, 8-10 x 2.5-3.5um. Habitat with conifers. Season late autumn. Common. Edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Suillus flavidus (Fr.) Sing. syn. Boletus flavidus Fr. Moor-R-hrling L-pi feny-tin-ru (-tin-ru). Cap 2-6cm across, umbonate, straw-yellow to pale ochre, viscid. Stem 50-75x 5-8mm, straw-yellow above the gelatinous, tawny ring, dull yellow to buff below. Flesh pale yellow becoming vinaceous when cut. Taste and smell not distinctive. Tubes decurrent, deep yellow. Pores large, angular, concolorous with tubes. Spore print ochraceous snuff-brown. Spores subfusiform-elliptic, 8-10 x 3.5-4.5um. Habitat wet mossy areas, usually with Scots pine and often in sphagnum. Season late summer. Rare and more or less confined to the Scottish Highlands. Edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Stropharia aeruginosa (Curt. ex Fr.) Qu?l. Verdigris Agaric, Strophaire vert-de-gris, Vert-de-gris, Gr?nspantr?uschling, Z?ld harmatgomba, Strofaria grigio-verde, Kopergroenezwam. Cap 2?8cm across, convex to bell-shaped then flattened and slightly umbonate, blue to blue-green from the gluten and flecked with white scales, becoming pale yellowish as this is lost. Stem 40?100 x 4?12mm, whitish to blue, apex smooth, covered in small whitish scales below the spreading membranous ring. Flesh whitish-blue. Smell none. Gills white then clay brown, often with a white edge. Cheilocystidia obtuse, clavate-capitate or lageniform capitate; lanceolate chrysocystidia found on gill face and only rarely on gill-edge. Spore print brownish-purple. Spores elliptic, 7?10 x 5um. Habitat woods, heaths and pastures. Season late spring to late autumn. Common. Poisonous. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Scleroderma verrucosum (Bull.) Pers. Braunwarziger Kartoffelbovist, Nyeles ?ltrifla, Scl?roderme verruqueux, Scaly Earthball. Fruit body 2.5?5cm across, subglobose often flattened on top, tapering into a long, thick stem-like base which is usually prominently ribbed, yellowish to brown covered in small brownish scales, the thin leathery wall breaking open irregularly above when mature. Gleba olive-brown. Spores dark brown, globose covered in spines or warts, 10?14um in diameter. Habitat on sandy soil in woods or heaths. Season summer to late autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Scleroderma cepa (Vaill.) Pers. Fruit body 1.5-9cm across, subglobose, flattened, or lobed; no stem or almost none, attached by a thick mass of tough, hairy mycelium. Peridium (outer skin) 1-3mm thick; when fresh, hard, quite tough; white in cross-section, becoming reddish or pinkish brown when cut. Surface whitish when young, becoming straw-colored to yellowish brown or leather brown, turning deep pinky-brown if rubbed; smooth becoming very finely cracked and scaly, especially on the top where exposed to light. Spore mass white and firm when young, soon becoming black or purple-black, then paler or browner and powdery. Odor none. Spores globose, spiny but not reticulate, 7-10 x 7-10-. Habitat singly, scattered, or in groups under deciduous and coniferous trees in woods, in gardens, and along roadsides. Common. Found widely distributed in North America. Season July-October. Poisonous.
Edible
Rozites caperatus (Pers. ex Fr.) Karst. syn. Pholiota caperata (Pers. ex Fr.) Kummer syn. Cortinarius caperatus (Pers. ex Fr.) Fr. Reifpilz R?ncos feny?gomba Roziote rid?, Pholiote aux ch?vres The Gypsy. Cap 5?10cm across, convex then expanded and umbonate, ochre-buff to ochre-brown, covered in silky white cobwebby fibrils, more densely at the centre. Stem 40?70 x 10?15mm, slightly swollen at the base or bulbous, whitish; ring whitish, narrow, spreading. Flesh whitish tinged ochre. Taste and smell mild and pleasant. Gills pale clay. Spore print ochre-brown. Spores elliptic, finely warted, 10?13 x 8?9um. Habitat on damp acid soils, usually in open situations amongst conifers and heather. Season autumn. Rare in Europe, more common in the USA. Edible, in America it is said to be choice. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Ramaria stricta, Steife Koralle, Merev korallgomba. ---- Ramaria stricta grows from wood--though the wood is often buried. It features branches that are usually "strictly" oriented, so that they are mostly straight and ascending. When fresh, its branch tips are yellow and its branches are dull yellowish buff, but its surfaces bruise and discolor purplish brown. Under the microscope it features roughened spores, clamp connections, and thick-walled hyphae. Several very similar species have been separated by mycologists (see below), and the name Ramaria stricta should probably represent a group of potential species awaiting contemporary study. ---- Overall, the fruit body appears bushy, and is medium sized, up to 10 by 7 cm (3.9 by 2.8 in), ochraceous tinged with flesh-colour becoming darker or brownish cinnamon with age, tips of branches at first clear yellow then concolorous; All parts bruising vinaceous, stem arising from white mycellum or rhizomorphs, passing into numerous dichotomous branches. Flesh white or pale yellow, tough ( Whitish; fairly tough. ). Taste slightly peppery, smell sweet ( Odor not distinctive, or sweet and fragrant; taste bitter ). Spores cinnamon-ochraceous, oblong, minutely rough to almost smooth 7.5-10.5 x 3.5-5 µ ( Spore Print: Rusty yellowish ). Habitat on stumps of conifers and broad-leaved trees. Season late summer to winter. Uncommon. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe. ---- Ecology: Uncertain; while most ramarias are thought to be mycorrhizal, the wood-inhabiting species could be mycorrhizal or saprobic; growing from the dead (but sometimes buried) wood of conifers (and sometimes hardwoods); appearing alone, scattered, or gregariously; early summer through fall; apparently widely distributed in North America, but more common from the Rocky Mountains westward. Branches: Vertically oriented and elongated; often flattened; smooth; yellowish buff, becoming orangish buff as the spores mature; bruising and discoloring purplish brown; tips yellow when fresh and young. Base: Nearly absent, or fairly well developed; to 2 cm wide; white below; colored like the branches above; attached to numerous white rhizomorphs. Chemical Reactions: Iron salts green on branches; KOH orangish to brownish on branches.
Inedible
Psathyrella multipedata (Peck) Smith B?scheliger Faserling Clustered Brittlestem Csoportos porhany?sgomba. Fruit bodies growing in very dense tufts of up to seventy individuals arising from a common base. Cap 1?3cm across, conical-convex, dingy clay-brown drying or ageing cream, striate. Stem 70?120 x 2?4mm, whitish. Flesh thin, whitish. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills dark purplish-brown. Cystidia thin-walled, narrowly fusoid with somewhat swollen base. Spore print dark brown. Spores elliptic, 6.5?10 x 3.5?4.5um. Habitat amongst grass in open deciduous woodland and roadsides. Season summer. Rare. Edibility unknown -avoid. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Piptoporus betulinus (Bull. ex Fr.) Karst. syn. Polyporus betulinus Bull. ex Fr. Birch Polypore or Razorstrop Fungus, Polypore du bouleau, Birkenporling, Ny?rfa-tapl?, ny?rtapl?, Berkezwam. Bracket 10?20cm across, 2?6cm thick, subglobose at first, expanding to hoof-shaped often with a rudimentary stem, margin thick and rounded; upper surface with a thin separable skin, smooth, whitish when young darkening to fleshy grey-brown with age. Flesh white, rubbery. Taste slightly bitter, smell strong and pleasant. Tubes 1.5?5mm long, white. Pores 3?4 per mm, circular, white at first, later pale grey-brown. Spores cylindric to bean-shaped, 4.5?6 x 1.3?1.5um. Habitat on birch. Season all year, annual, although fruit bodies remain intact from one year into the next. Very common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
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