Light to dark brown Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
Stem type:
Spore colour:
Cap type:
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Total mushrooms fount: 276

Choice
Langermannia gigantea (Batsch ex Pers.) Rostk. syn. Lycoperdon giganteum Batsch ex Pers. syn. Calvatia gigantea (Batsch ex Pers.) Lloyd syn. Lasiosphaera gigantea (Batsch ex Pers.) Giant Puffball, Smarda Riesenbovist Vesse-de-loup g?ante, ?ri?sp?feteg (p?feteg). Fruit body 7?80cm across, subglobose, whitish and leathery, the outer wall breaking away to expose the spore mass, attached to the substrate by a root-like mycelial cord which breaks leaving the fruit body free to roll around and so scatter the millions of spores. Gleba olivaceous-brown and powdery at maturity; sterile base absent or rudimentary. Spores tawny brown, globose, finely warted, 3.5?5.5m in diameter. Habitat in gardens, pasture and woods. Season summer to autumn. Uncommon but locally frequent. Edible when still white and firm ? good. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Kuehneromyces mutabilis (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Sing. & Smith syn. Galerina mutabilis (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Orton syn. Pholiota mutabilis (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Kummer Stockschw?mmchen ?zletes t?kegomba Pholiote changeante Sheathed Woodtuft. Cap 3?6cm across, convex then expanded and usually umbonate, bright orange-cinnamon when moist drying pale ochraceous from the centre and often appearing distinctly two-coloured. Stem 30?80 x 5?10mm, whitish above becoming darker tan to blackish towards the base, scaly below the ring. Flesh white tinged brownish. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills pallid at first later cinnamon. Spore print deep ochre. Spores ovoid to slightly almond-shaped with germ-pore, 6?7.5 x 4?5um. Habitat in dense clusters on stumps or trunks of deciduous trees. Season spring to early winter. Common. Edible ? good. Take great care not to confuse this species with other smallish brown poisonous fungi. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Inocybe umbrina Bres. syn. Astrosporina umbrina (Bres.) Rea. B?scheliger Risspilz. Cap 1.5?4cm across, bell-shaped with prominent umbo, umber or chestnut brown initially covered by a greyish veil. Stem 30?50 x 3?5mm, whitish at apex and bulb, concolorous with cap below. Flesh whitish turning brown in stem. Taste mild, smell not distinctive. Gills adnate, pale clay. Cystidia thick-walled, fusoid with apical encrustation. Spore print snuff-brown. Spores oblong with slight protuberances, 7?8 x 5?6?. Habitat in coniferous and deciduous woods. Occasional. Not edible most Inocybes have been found to contain toxins. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Inocybe praetervisa Qu?l. Knolliger Risspilz, Inocbye m?connu. Cap 3?5cm across, bell-shaped then expanded, dirty yellowish-brown, fibrous, splitting radially. Stem 50?60 x 3?8mm, with submarginate bulb, white then pale straw, entirely finely mealy. Flesh white discolouring yellowish in stem. Taste mild, smell faintly of meal. Gills whitish at first later clay-brown. Cheilo- and pleurocystidia fusoid with thickened hyaline or pale yellowish walls and apical encrustation. Spore print clay-brown. Spores oblong with numerous distinct angular knobs, 10?12 x 7?9?. Habitat mixed woods, often under beech. Season late summer to late autumn. Uncommon. Not edible most Inocybes have been found to contain toxins. Found In Europe.
Deadly
Inocybe patouillardii Bres. New syn. Inocybe erubescens A. Blytt. Red-staining Inocybe, Inocbye de Patouillard, Ziegelroter Risspilz, Giftige vezelkop, T?glav?r?s susulyka. Cap 2.5?8cm across, conical or bell-shaped often with low, broad umbo, margin becoming lobed or split, ivory covered in red or brown-staining radial fibres. Stem 30?100 x 10?20mm, white staining red, sometimes with a marginate bulb. Flesh white, unchanging. Taste mild, smell faint when young, rank in older specimens. Gills adnate, rose-pink at first then cream, finally olive-brown, bruising red. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, subcylindric without apical encrustation. Spore print dull brown. Spores smooth, bean-shaped, 10?13 x 5.5?7?. Habitat path sides in deciduous woods, usually beech, on chalky soils. Season spring to autumn. Occasional. Deadly poisonous. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Inocybe maculata Boud. Gefleckter Risspilz, Inocbye tachet?, Frosty Fibrecap, Foltos susulyka. Cap 2?8cm across, conical to bell-shaped, covered in long chestnut fibres and initially with a veil of dense white down which persists on the prominent umbo, often radially split or cracked. Stem 30?80 x 5?12mm, white becoming flushed brown, sometimes slightly smoother at the base. Flesh white. Taste mild, smell strong and fruity. Gills adnate pale greyish buff, edge white. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, clavate without apical encrustation. Spore print snuff-brown. Spores smooth, bean-shaped 9?11 x 4.5?5.5?. Habitat in beechwoods on chalk. Season autumn. Occasional. Poisonous. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Inocybe lacera (Fr.) Kummer. Gemeiner Wirrkopf, Inocbye d?chir?, Torn Fibrecap, Ors?sp?r?s (k?z?ns?ges) susulyka. Cap 1?3cm across, convex with slight umbo, snuff-brown, fibrillose, sometimes splitting from the margin inwards. Stem 20?30 x 3?6mm, whitish near apex, brownish towards the slightly bulbous base, fibrillose. Flesh white. Taste mild, smell mealy. Gills adnexed, white at first, soon clay-buff with white edge. Cystidia thick-walled, fusoid, with apical encrustation. Spore print snuff-brown. Spores smooth, subcylindric, 11?15 x 4.5?6?, making this species easily recognizable microscopically. Habitat on sandy soils especially with pines. Season autumn. Occasional. Not edible most Inocybes have been found to contain toxins. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Inocybe jurana Pat. Schuppiger Risspilz, Inocbye du Jura, Borv?r?s susulyka. Cap 2?6cm across, conical to bell-shaped, buff with radiating darker brown fibres radiating from the centre, soon flushed reddish brown or sometimes vinaceous-purple; note, the black patches on the caps are mould. Stem 20?60 x 4?10mm, white soon reddish, base slightly swollen. Flesh white becoming flushed pink in cap and stem base. Taste mild or mealy, smell strongly mealy. Gills adnate or free, white at first then tinged clay, edge white at first then tinged clay, edge white. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, clavate, without apical encrustation. Spore print snuff-brown. Spores smooth, bean-shaped, 10?15 x 5?7?. Habitat deciduous or mixed woods especially beechwoods on chalk. Season autumn. Uncommon. Not edible, most Inocybes have been found to contain toxins. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Inocybe godeyi Gillet. R?tender Risspilz, Inocbye de Godey, Pirul? susulyka. Cap 2?5cm across, conical then expanded, cream then ochraceous to tan, bruising bright red, often becoming entirely so, smooth and silky becoming radially fissured with age. Stem 40?60 x 3?8mm, ending in a distinctly marginate bulb, whitish then reddening, mealy to the base. Flesh white, gradually reddening when cut. Taste acrid, smell strong, unpleasant. Gills whitish at first then cinnamon. Cheilo- and pleurocystidia fusoid or bottle-shaped with thickened walls and apical encrustation. Spore print snuff brown. Spores almond-shaped, smooth, 9?11.5 x 5.5?7?. Habitat deciduous woods, especially with beech on chalk. Season autumn. Uncommon. Poisonous. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Inocybe geophylla (Sow. ex Fr.) Kummer. Erdbl?ttriger Faserkopf, Inocbye terrestre, White Fibrecap, Selymes susulyka. Cap 1.5?3.5cm across, conical, soon expanding, with prominent umbo, smooth and silky, white with yellowish tinge. Stem 10?60 x 3?6mm, white, silky fibrillose. Flesh white, unchanging. Taste mild, smell earthy or mealy. Gills crowded, adnexed, cream at first darkening to clay. Cystidia thick-walled, fusoid with apical encrustation. Spore print snuff-brown. Spores smooth, almond-shaped, 8?10.5 x 5?6?. Habitat on pathsides in deciduous, mixed and coniferous woods. Season early summer to late autumn. Common. Poisonous. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Inocybe cookei Bres. Knolliger Risspilz, Inocbye de Cooke, Straw Fibrecap, Gum?st?nk? susulyka. Cap 2?5cm across, conical or bell-shaped then flattened with a prominent umbo, margin cracking, ochre, covered in long fibrous fibres. Stem 30?60 x 4?8mm, whitish with ochre flush, bulb marginate. Flesh whitish then straw-yellow. Taste mild, smell slight. Gills adnexed, whitish then pale cinnamon. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, pyriform and non-encrusted. Spore print snuff-brown. Spores smooth, bean-shaped, 7?8 x 4?5?. Habitat mixed woods. Season summer to late autumn. Occasional. Poisonous. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Inocybe calamistrata (Fr.) Gillet. Blauf?ssiger Risspilz, Greenfoot Fibrecap. Cap 1?5cm across, convex to bell-shaped, dark brown, covered in erect pointed scales. Stem 30?70?5?10mm, concolorous with cap, apex paler, covered in recurved brown scales, base with bluish-green down. Flesh white becoming reddish, bluish-green at stem base. Taste mild, smell fishy or acidic. Gills whitish later rusty-brown. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, vesicular or clavate lacking apical encrustation. Pleurocystidia absent. Spore print snuff-brown. Spores bean-shaped, smooth, 9.5?11.5?5?6.5m. Habitat coniferous or mixed woods. Season summer. Rare. Edibility unknown -avoid, most Inocybes have been found to contain toxins. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Hypoxylon fragiforme (Pers. ex Fr.) Kickx. Roestbruin kogelswammetje, Beech Woodwart, V?r?ses ripacsgomba. Fruit body 0.1?1cm across, gregarious, hemispherical, bright salmon-pink at first becoming brick-red and later blackening, with a finely warted surface. Flesh hard, blackish. Asci cylindrical, 150 x 8?. Spores dark brown, subfusiform, containing one to three oil drops, 11?15 x 5?7?. Habitat dead beech. Season late summer to early spring. Common. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Inedible
Hydnellum caeruleum (Horn. ex Pers.) Karst. Blauer Korkstacheling K-k gereben Blue Tooth. Fruit body solitary or fused with other. Cap 3-11cm across, convex to depressed, velvety to matted, at first white often with a blue margin, at length becoming yellowish- to rusty-brown. Flesh zoned bluish in cap, orange brown in stem. Smell of cucumber when cut. Spines 1-5mm long, bluish at first, then white, finally purplish-brown. Spores brown, irregularly lobed and warted, 5.5-6-3.5-4.5m. Hyphae with clamp connections. Habitat conifer woods. Season autumn. Very rare - confined to Highland pine forest. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Hydnellum aurantiacum (Fr.) Karsten Narancss-rga gereben. Fruit body often fused together. Cap 3-15cm across, flattened-depressed; orange-brown to rusty cinnamon; tomentose-velvety, often with coarse lumps and protrusions at center when mature. Spines on undersurface white then brownish with white tips. Stem 30-60 x 10-20mm; orange to dark brown. Flesh distinctly zoned; orange to cinnamon. Odor fragrant, persistent. Taste not distinctive. Spores strongly tuberculate, 5.5-7.5 x 5-6-. Deposit buff. Habitat under conifers, often in large groups. Common. Found throughout North America and in Europe. Season July-August. Not edible.
Poisonous/Suspect
Hebeloma sacchariolens Qu?l. Duftender F?lbling ?desillat? (illatos) fak?gomba Sweet Poisonpie. Cap 2?7cm across, convex then flattened, sometimes with an indistinct umbo, ochre buff at the centre paling to buff at the margin, greasy. Stem 40?80 x 5?12mm, whitish apex mealy, silky-fibrous below. Flesh white. Taste bitter, smell sweet and flowery. Gills clay-brown then rusty. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, hyaline, cylindric. Spore print deep rust. Spores almond-shaped, warted, 12?17 x 7?9um. Habitat damp woodland. Season autumn. Occasional. Edibility unknown -avoid, as many Hebelomas contain toxins. Found In Europe and north America.
Poisonous/Suspect
Hebeloma radicosum (Bull. ex Fr.) Ricken syn. Pholiota radicosa (Bull. ex Fr.) Kummer Marzipanf?lbling Gy?keres fak?gomba H?b?lome radicant Rooting Poisonpie. Cap 6?9cm across, convex, cream to pale yellowish-brown, glutinous in wet weather. Stem 50?80 x 10?15mm, tapering into a long ?tap-root?, white and mealy above the ring, covered in brownish fibrous scales below. Flesh white. Taste sweet, smell of almonds. Gills pallid at first darkening slightly with age. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, hyaline, subcylindric to slightly clavate. Spore print dull brown. Spores almond-shaped, minutely warted, 9?10 x 5?6um. Habitat deciduous woods, usually with oak or beech. Season autumn. Rare. Not Edible -suspect. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Hebeloma mesophaeum (Pers.) Qu?l Dunkelscheibiger F?lbling Veiled Poisonpie S?t?tl?b? fak?gomba. Cap 2?4.5cm across, convex then expanded, yellowish-brown, darker tan to date-brown at the centre, viscid when moist, margin covered in white fibrous remains of veil in young specimens. Stem 40?70 x 4mm, whitish above, with a poorly developed fibrillose ring zone, brownish towards the base. Flesh white in cap, brownish towards stem base. Taste bitter, smell strongly of radish. Gills clay-brown. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, hyaline, elongate-cylindric with obtuse apex, base often slightly enlarged. Spore print rusty-clay. Spores elliptic, very minutely punctate, 8?10 x 5?6um. Habitat damp woodland, often on burnt ground. Season late summer to early winter. Occasional. Edibility unknown ?avoid, as many Hebelomas contain toxins. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Hebeloma crustuliniforme (Bull. ex St. Amans) Qu?l. Poison Pie, H?b?lome ?chaud?, Tr?nender Rettichf?lbling, Radijsvaalhoed, Zsemlesz?n? (retekszag?) fak?gomba. Cap 3-11 cm across, convex then expanded and often obtusely umbonate, the margin remaining inrolled for a long time and often lobed; buff to pale ochre-tan, darker at the center; slightly greasy to sticky when moist. Gills adnate or notched, crowded; pale clay-brown exuding watery droplets in moist conditions, spotted when dry. Stem 40-130 x 5-20mm, solid with an enlarged base; whitish or tinged with cap color; top powdery or finely flaky, center finely hairy, base with white mycelium. Veil not showing when cap is extended. Flesh thick; white. Odor strongly of radish. Taste bitter. Spores almond-shaped, smooth or finely warted, 9-13 x 5.5-7.5?. Deposit rust-brown. Cheilocystidia club-shaped, thin-walled, hyaline. Habitat singly or in groups on the ground on wood edges, on lawns, or under trees. Common. Found widely distributed in North America. Season September-November (through May in California). Poisonous.
Poisonous/Suspect
Gymnopilus penetrans (Fr. ex Fr.) Murr. syn. Flammula penetrans (Fr. ex Fr.) Quid. Geflecktbl-tteriger Tannenfl-mmling Common Rustgill Foltoslemez- l-nggomba (t-kegomba). Cap 2-5cm across, bell-shaped to convex then flattened, often with a wavy margin; chrome yellow to golden then tawny and fading yellowish in age; smooth. Gills adnate, close, moderately broad; gold or yellowish white becoming tawny-spotted. Stem 40-60 x 4-7mm, sometimes enlarged toward base; yellowish; base whitish with downy hairs. Veil white, fibrous; leaves no ring. Flesh whitish. Odor none or mild. Taste bitter. Spores ellipsoid, warted 7-9 x 4-5.5- Deposit orange-brown. Cheilocystidia present; no pileocystidia; clamp connections present. Habitat singly or in small tufts on hardwoods and conifers. Found throughout North America. Season July-October. Not edible, some species of Gymnopilus can be deadly poisonous.
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