Olivaceous Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
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Total mushrooms fount: 86

Edible
Boletus aereus, described by some as the Queen Bolete but just lately given the normal name Bronze Bolete in Britain and Ireland, is a most sought-after edible mushroom. It is merely as good as its famous close relative, Boletus edulis (Cep or Cent Bun Bolete) but its flesh is quite firmer. In the pub marketplaces of France, for example, these excellent boletes can be purchased as well as Boletus edulis and Boletus reticulatus, and customers are evenly happy with whichever of the meaty mushroom varieties can be found. A exceptional find in Ireland and Britain, where it is restricted to southern parts mainly, Boletus aereus is a lot more prevalent in southern European countries. Commonly bought at the sides, beside strolls or in clearings in oak and beech woodlands, Boletus aereus will berry just a little than boletus edulis later, which looks later than the summertime Bolete relatively, Boletus reticulatus. Most boletes, and certainly every one of the common ones within Britain and Ireland, are ectomycorrhizal fungi. Which means that they form mutualistic romantic relationships with the main systems of trees and shrubs or shrubs. The fungi help the tree to obtain moisture and essential minerals from the soil, and in exchange the main system of the tree gives energy-rich nutrients, the merchandise of photosynthesis, to the fungal mycelium. Although most trees and shrubs may survive without their mycorrhizal companions, boletes (and a great many other varieties of forest-floor fungi) cannot endure without trees; subsequently these so-called 'obligately mycorrhizal' fungi do not happen in wide open grassland. The medical name Boletus aerus started in Jean Baptiste Francois Pierre Bulliard's 1789 descriotipon of the varieties. Synonyms of Boletus aereus includeBoletus mamorensis Redeuilh. The universal name Boletus comes from the Greek bolos, indicating lump of clay; the foundation of the precise epithet aereus is Latin and means copper or bronze (in shade) - hence the normal name Bronze Bolete. Some individuals make reference to it as the Dark colored Porcini or the Dark Cover Bolete. Boletus aereus, the dark cep or bronze bolete, is a highly prized and much sought-after edible mushroom in the family Boletaceae. Dark cigar brown, bay to dark sepia, often dark brick-coloured near the margin, minutely cracking making the surface roughly textured, slightly downy at first then smooth. Stem 60-80 x 11-12mm, robust, covered with network which is brown near apex, clay pink or buff around the middle and rusty below. Flesh white, unchanging or becoming dirty vinaceous when bruised. Taste pleasant, smell strong and earthy. Boletus aereus comes with an earthy smell and a pleasurable mild taste. Habitat with broad-leaved trees, especially beech and oak. To Oct in Britain and Ireland august, this bolete are available from Oct to Feb in a few elements of southern European countries. ( Season summer to autumn ) Rare. Edible. Distribution, America and Europe. Cap: First downy but becoming gentle with a finely damaged or granular surface soon, the dark-brown to dark sepia-brown hats of Boletus aereus range between 7 to 20cm size at maturity. The cover margin is a far more reddish brownish than the centre often. When cut, the cover flesh remains white or very gradually converts somewhat purplish usually. Spores: Spores olivaceous snuff-brown, subfusiform, 13,5 - 16 x 4 - 5 ┬Ám. Pores and tubes: Tubes white to cream, finally sulphur-yellow. Pores similarly coloured but bruising vinaceous on handling and often flushed rust with age. The pipes of Boletus aereus (seen when the cover is damaged or chopped up) are white or pale cream, becoming smart sulphur yellow at maturity; they terminate in really small creamy white skin pores that become rust-coloured (see remaining) with years. When bruised or cut, the skin pores and pipes of Boletus aereus swiftly do not change shade, but after the right time they create a vinaceous tinge. Stem: A fine brown online structure (reticulum) is obvious on the pale darkish track record of the stem surface, darkest on the apex with the bottom and usually relatively paler and pinker near to the inflamed centre of the stem. Sometimes clavate (club-shaped) but more regularly barrel-shaped, the stem of Boletus aereus is 5 to 12cm high or more to 8cm in size at its widest point. The stem flesh is white and incredibly organization. Habitat & Ecological role: Boletus aereus develops on garden soil beneath broadleaf trees and shrubs, beech and oaks notably. Similar species Boletus edulis has a pale stem with a white reticulum; its dark brown cover has a whitish marginal region. Tylopilus felleus has a darker stem reticulum and a pinkish tinge to its skin pores; it has an extremely bitter taste.
Inedible
Clathrus archeri (Berk,) Dring Syn Anthurus archeri (Berk.) E. Fisher. Tintahalgomba, Tintenfischpilz, Octopus Stinkhorn. Fruit body growing from an egg shaped whitish volva 5 x 4cm, breaking into 4-8 starfish-like arms up to 10cm long, red to pink with the olivaceous-black spore bearing material on the inner side, odour strong and fetid with a hint of radish. Spores olive-brown average 5 x 2um. Habitat gardens and leaf litter. A native Australian fungus that is now found in both north America and Europe in warmer areas. Thanks to Geoffrey Kibby for the first photograph and to Mark Hampton for the second and Robert Corbyn for the third.
Inedible
Rhizopogon luteolus Fr. Gelbliche Barttr?ffel, S?rg?s istr?ngos-?lp?feteg, Rhizopogon jaun?tre, Yellow False Truffle. Fruit body 1.5?5cm across, ovate to globose, whitish at first then dirty ochre-yellow, finally olive brown covered in tawny mycelial strands, outer wall thick and tough. Gleba olivaceous at maturity. Spores olivaceous, oblong-elliptical, 7?10?2.5?3.5m. Habitat sandy conifer woods. Season autumn. Rare but less so in Scottish pine woods. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Inedible
Clathrus ruber Mich.: Pers. Syn. Clathrus cancellatus. Kos?rkagomba Basket Stinkhorn. Fruit body egg shaped, white to greyish at first then the volva bursting open to show a orange-red lattice, 10 x 6cm. spongy and rather brittle in texture, the greenish black spore baring material is on the inside of the lattice, odour, strong, fetid, attractive to flies. The mycelium commonly forms into ?rooting? rhizomorphs. Spores 4.5 ?5.5 x x2-2.5um olive-brown. Habitat gardens and rubbish heaps. Throughout Europe, rare in the north, reported and seemingly becoming more common in north America. Not edible. The two latest images were sent to me by Sheri from South Florida USA. The one just breaking out of the 'egg@ came from Ronnie Plews in France.
Edible
Boletus speciosus Frost Meggyv-r-s (piszkosr-zs-s) tin-ru. Cap 6-15cm across, rounded to flattened; bright red, rose red, to dull vinaceous with age; dry, smooth, fibrillose with age. Tubes bright yellow to olive-yellow with age, bruising blue. Pores small (2 per mm); bright yellow bruising blue. Stem 50-130 x 15-40mm, equal to clavate; pale lemon yellow, reddish at base; reticulate over upper half, sometimes overall. Flesh solid, thick; pale yellow, quickly blue when cut, often chrome yellow in base of stem; grayish with FeS04. Odor pleasant. Taste pleasant, not distinctive. Spores subfusiform, smooth, 11-15 x 3-4-. Deposit olive-brown. Habitat usually solitary in mixed woods. Rather rare. Edibility unknown, I have found no reliable evidence as to edibility or flavour. Found throughout northeastern North America. Season July-September. Edible. Comment See also the very similar Boletus pseudopeckii.
Deadly
Boletus satanas Lenz. Satan?s or Devil?s Bolete, Bolet satan, Satanpilz, S?t?ntin?ru (-tin?ru), Boleto satana, porcino malefico, Satansboleet. Cap 8?25cm, almost white with buff or sepia flush frequently with faint red flush at margin, becoming flushed ochre with age, slightly downy then smooth with minute cracks particularly at centre, bruising brown with handling. Stem 60?90 x 50?110mm, often markedly swollen at base, saffron orange to lemon-chrome at apex, red with ochre flush at base, covered with a red net. Flesh pale straw-coloured to saffron in cap, white or pale lemon in stem gradually becoming pale sky blue on cutting with rusty patches in stem and dirty buff fading to greenish blue or blotched with red at stem base. Taste and smell unpleasant. Tubes yellowish green then dark olivaceous, blue on cutting. Pores small, round, blood-red but orange towards the margin, finally tinged orange, bruising greenish. Spore print olivaceous snuff-brown. Spores subfusiform, 11?14 x 4.5?6.5?. Habitat with broad-leaved trees, especially beech and oak, usually on calcareous soils. Season summer. Very rare. Poisonous ? possibly deadly. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Boletus rhodoxanthus (Krombh.) Kall. Rosah-tiger R-hrling B-bor tin-ru. Cap 6-20cm across, convex, whitish-pink, more pink at margin, discolouring yellowish with age, covered in pinkish-grey slime but appearing reddish pink where this has been removed in handling. Stem 50-150 x 20-50mm, with a purple-red net on an orange-yellow ground, net becoming indistinct at the olive-grey base. Flesh lemon-yellow turning light blue in the cap on cutting, eventually fading to yellow. Taste sweet, smell strong, fungusy. Tubes yellow, blueing slightly on cutting. Pores golden-yellow at first becoming bright blood red. Spores olive-brown, 10-16 x 4-5.5-. Habitat beech and oak woods. Season autumn. Very rare. Poisonous. Found In Europe.
Edible
Bolete Boletus queletii Schulzer Glattstieliger Hexenr-hrling V-r-stin-ru (-tin-ru) C-pe de Quelet Deceiving Cap 5-15cm, red-brown to brick colour, minutely pruinose at first particularly towards the margin, becoming more polished, bruising bluish-black on handling. Stem 70-100 x 25-45mm, yellow flushed with coral from apex to middle and minutely dotted with red or orange, more red towards the base. Flesh lemon-yellow in cap immediately turning blue on cutting sometimes with a red line above tubes, base of stem blackish purple. Taste and smell not distinctive. Tubes dirty ochre becoming bluish olivaceous on cutting. Pores initially peach becoming more orange then rusty, with a pale zone at margin, bruising dark blue. Spore print olivaceous snuff-brown. Spores subfusiform, 12-14 x 5.5-6.5-. Habitat with broad-leaved trees, especially beech and oak in South-east England. Season autumn. Rare. Edible. Found In Europe.
Inedible
Boletus pruinatus Fr. & H?k Bereifter R?hrling Pomp?s nemezestin?ru (-tin?ru). Cap 4?10cm, dark red-brown or chestnut when young becoming lighter and more pink with age, with a hoary bloom which is destroyed by handling. Stem 90?100 x 20?30mm lemon-yellow or yellow-chrome at apex, irregularly covered with fine blood-red dots, base more red and arising from apricot-coloured mycelium. Flesh lemon-chrome throughout with darker brown base, slowly turning blue-green on cutting. Taste and smell not distinctive. Tubes lemon-yellow, becoming bluish with age. Pores small, similarly coloured. Spore print olivaceous snuff-brown. Spores subfusiform, 11.5?14 x 4.5?5.5?. Habitat mixed broad-leaved woods, especially when beech is present. Season summer and autumn. Rare. Edible but not worthwhile. Found In Europe.
Edible
Boletus pinophilus Pilat & Dermek syn. Boletus pinicola (Vitt.) Venturi syn. B. edulis var pinicola Vitt. Kieferensteinpilz, V-r-sbarna varg-nya (tin-ru), C-pe des pins, C-pe acajou Cap 8-20cm, red brown or chestnut, with a white margin, smooth and greasy at first then dry and slightly downy. Stem robust, becoming wider and darker brown below, covered in a fine whitish or cinnamon net which bruises red. Flesh whitish, becoming deep vinaceous below cuticle when cut. Taste and smell pleasant. Tubes whitish, then greenish yellow. Pores small, white, then greenish yellow, finally olivaceous. Spore print olivaceous snuff-brown. Spores subfusiform, 13-17 x 4-5-. Habitat in coniferous woods. Season late spring until as late as November. Rare. Edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Boletus luridus Schaeff. ex Fr. Netzstieliger Hexenr-hrling V-ltoz-kony tin-ru Bolet blafard Lurid Bolete Cap 6-14cm, snuff brown or olive brown with rusty or bay tints, slightly downy at first then becoming smooth and polished, bruising dark brownish or blue-black. Stem 80-140 x 10-30mm yellowish red with orange-red net, bruising blue. Flesh lemon-yellow in cap soon becoming greenish-blue to dark blue on cutting with a persistent red line above tubes, lemon in stem and blackish-red in stem base. Taste and smell not distinctive. Tubes yellowish-green, blue on cutting. Pores small, orange-red, more yellow at margin, bruising dark blue. Spore print olivaceous snuff-brown. Spore subfusiform to broadly ellipsoid, 11-15 x 4.5-6.5-. Habitat in broad-leaved woods, particularly with oak or beech and on calcareous soils. Season summer to autumn. Occasional. Edible when cooked, but has been known to cause gastric upsets. (Two forms illustrated.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Boletus legaliae (Pilat) ex Pilat & Dermek Teufelsr-hrling syn. Boletus satanoides Smotlacha syn. B. splendidus Martin subsp. splendidus F-nyes (r-zs-skalap-) tin-ru. Cap 5-14cm, initially whitish or milky coffee-coloured then grey olivaceous with a flush of red becoming more intense with age, particularly at the margin, bruising blue only after rough handling. Stem 80-160-20-40mm, orange above the red central zone, lower half lemon-yellow or coral, with an orange net at apex which is gradually lost towards the base, bruising blue. Flesh white to pale lemon, discolouring blue-green and red in the base of the stem when cut. Taste unpleasant, smell spicy. Tubes lemon-chrome bruising blue. Pores small, orange red becoming darker red with age, lighter at margin. Spore print olivaceous snuff-brown. Spores subfusiform, 10.5-12.5-4.5-5m. Habitat with oaks. Season summer. Rare. Poisonous. Found In Europe.
Edible
Boletus impolitus Fr. syn. Xerocomus impolitus (Fr.) Qu-l Fahler R-hrling Okkersz-n- varg-nya (tin-ru) Iodine Bolete Cap 5-15cm, clay coloured, sometimes with tawny or olive tints with a pale grey hoariness at first, dry, slightly velvety, then smooth. Stem 60-100 x 30-50mm, robust, straw-coloured at apex, darker brown towards the base. Flesh pale lemon-yellow with deeper yellow region above the pores, becoming faintly pink or very rarely faintly blue after some time on cutting. Taste mild, smell of iodoform in stem base. Tubes lemon-yellow then lemon-chrome. Pores small, similarly coloured. Spore print olivaceous snuff-brown. Spores subfusiform, 10-14 x 4.5-5.5-. Habitat on rides in broad-leaved woods, particularly oak and often on clay soils. Season early summer to autumn. Rare. Edible. (Two forms illustrated.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Boletus erythropus (Fr. ex Fr.) Secr. Flockenstieliger Hexenr-hrling C-klatin-ru (tin-ru) Bolet - pied rouge Cap 8-20cm, bay to snuff-brown with olivaceous tints, tending to yellowish ochre towards the margin, slightly velvety at first, soon becoming smooth and sometimes slightly viscid when wet, bruising blue-black. Stem 45-145 x 20-50mm, robust, yellowish densely covered in red dots. Flesh yellow, immediately dark blue on cutting. Taste and smell not distinctive. Tubes lemon-yellow then greenish, becoming dark blue on cutting. Pores small, round, orange-red becoming rusty with age, readily bruising dark blue to black. Spore print olivaceous snuff-brown. Spores subfusiform 12-15 x 4-6-. Habitat in coniferous, broad-leaved and mixed woodland. Season late summer to autumn. Common. Edible only when cooked, can cause gastric upsets. Distribution, America and Europe.
Choice
Boletus edulis Bull. ex Fr. King Bolete, Porcini, Cep or Penny Bun, C?pe de Bordeaux, Bolet comestible, Champignon polonais, Steinpilz, ?zletes varg?nya (tin?ru), Porcino, brisa, Eekhoorntjesbrood, Borowik prawdziwy. Cap 8?20(30)cm, brown often with a whitish bloom at first gradually lost on expanding leaving a white line at the margin, smooth and dry initially becoming greasy, in wet weather slightly viscid and polished. Stem 30?230 x 30?70(110)mm, robust, pallid with white net. Flesh white, unchanging, flushed dirty straw-colour or vinaceous in cap. Taste and smell pleasant. Tubes white becoming grey-yellow. Pores small and round, similarly coloured. Spore print olivaceous snuff-brown. Spores subfusiform, 14?17 x 4.5?5.5?. Habitat coniferous, broad-leaved or mixed woodland. Season summer to late autumn. Common. Edible ? excellent. Distribution, America and Europe. This fungus is perhaps the most important edible species, it can often be found on sale in continental markets. Commercially it is dried and used as flavouring for soups. Comment Var. aurantio-ruber Dick & Snell differs in its ferruginous-red cap, and pores staining yellow-olive when bruised.
Choice
Boletus appendiculatus Schaeff. ex Fr. syn. B. edulis f. appendiculatus Fr. Gelbfleischiger Steinpilz S?rgah?s? tin?ru Bolet appendicul? Oak Bolete Cap 8?14cm, ochraceous with distinct bay to rusty flush particularly near the centre where irregular cracking may occur. Stem 110?125 x 34?37mm, lemon-yellow at apex darker below often with red patches, with a fine cream to pale lemon-yellow net. Flesh white to pale yellow, may turn a little blue on cutting at apex of stem and often ochraceous rust at base. Taste pleasant, smell like puffballs. Tubes lemon-yellow bruising faintly greenish blue. Pores initially lemon-yellow becoming slightly rusty and expanding with age. Spore print olivaceous snuff-brown. Spores subfusiform, 12?15 x 3.5?4.5?. Habitat with broad-leaved trees, associated with oak in the South of England. Season late summer to early autumn. Rare, more frequent in the South of England. Edible ? excellent. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Boletus albidus Rocques syn. B. radicans Pers. ex Fr. s. Kall. Wurzelnder Bitterr?hrling Gy?keres (keserny?s) tin?ru C?pe radicant Cap 8?16cm, dingy white to clay buff with ochraceous tints and smokey-grey margin, downy at first becoming smooth or cracking into small scales at centre, more ochraceous with age. Stem 50?80 x 30?40mm, robust, swollen towards the rooting base, sometimes flushed reddish, lemon-yellow at apex, spotted rusty to dirty ochraceous near base, net straw-coloured and distinct near apex, disappearing below. Flesh yellow then rapidly white in cap when cut; reacting similarly in stem but becoming pale blue especially in apex and rapidly fading. Taste unpleasant or bitter, smell spicy. Tubes lemon-yellow becoming blue on cutting or bruising. Pores small, round, lemon-yellow bruising blue. Spore print olivaceous snuff-brown. Spores subfusiform, 12?16 x 4.5?6?. Habitat with broad-leaved trees, particularly oak and beech. Season summer to autumn. Rare. Not edible due to its bitterness. Found In Europe.
Choice
Boletus aestivalis Fr. syn. B. reticulatus Boud. Sommer-Steinpilz N?ri varg?nya (tin?ru) C?pe r?ticul? Cap 7?20cm, pale straw-colour to pale snuff-brown, dry, soon becoming rough and cracking into small scales, particularly at centre. Stem 60?150 x 20?50mm, robust, covered in a dense white network. Flesh white throughout, sometimes with slight yellowish tinges. Smell and taste strong but pleasant. Tubes white then greenish-yellow. Pores small, round, similarly coloured. Spore print olivaceous snuff-brown. Spores subfusiform, 13?15 x 4.5?5.5?. Habitat with beech and oak. Season early summer to autumn. Rare. Edible ? excellent. Distribution, Europe.
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