Purplish to black Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
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Total mushrooms fount: 119

Choice
The meadow mushroom, Agaricus campestris, is a beautiful white mushroom that is closely related to the cultivated "button mushrooms" (Agaricus bisporus) sold in North American grocery stores. In most areas it is a fall mushroom and, as its common and Latin names suggest, it comes up in meadows, fields, and grassy areas, after rains. It is recognized by its habitat, its pink gills (covered up by a thin white membrane when the mushroom is young) which become chocolate brown as the mushroom matures, its quickly collapsing white ring, and the fact that it does not discolor yellow when bruised. Description: Ecology: Saprobic; growing alone, gregariously, or sometimes in fairy rings, in meadows, fields, lawns, and grassy areas; late fall to early winter (occasionally in summer; sometimes year-long in California); widely distributed and common in North America. Cap: 3-11 cm; convex to broadly convex, occasionally nearly flat; whitish; smooth and glossy to fibrous to nearly wooly or scaly. Gills: Free from the stem; deep pink becoming brown and then dark chocolate brown in maturity; crowded; covered with a thin white partial veil when in the button stage. Stem: 2-6 cm long; 1-2.5 cm thick; more or less equal; sometimes tapering slightly to base; with a quickly collapsing white ring; not bruising yellow. Flesh: Thick and white throughout; not bruising yellow anywhere, even in the base of the stem; very rarely discoloring a pinkish wine color in wet weather. Odor and Taste: Pleasant. Chemical Reactions: Cap surface not yellowing with KOH. Spore Print: Dark chocolate brown. Microscopic Features: Spores: 5.5-10 x 4-7 µ; elliptical. Cheilocystidia to 10 µ wide. Universal veil hyphae (on cap surface and stem base) without inflated elements. The North American forms of this mushroom are apparently numerous--and several closely related (identical?) species have been described, including Agaricus andrewii (cheilocystidia 11-18.5 µ wide; universal veil hyphae with inflated elements) and Agaricus solidipes (spores up to 12 µ long; cheilocystidia absent). See also Agaricus porphyrocephalus.
Edible
Coprinus Coprinus comatus (Fr.) S. F. Gray. Shaggy Mane, Shaggy Inkcap, Lawyer's Wig, Coprin chevelu, Schopftintling, Agarico chiomato, Geschubde inktzwam, Gyapjas tintagomba. Cap 3-7cm across when expanded, more or less a tall ovoid when young, becoming more cylindrical as it expands; white and very shaggy-scaly, often with a pale brownish "skullcap" at apex; margin of the cap dissolves away and progresses steadily upward until the entire cap has liquified away, including the gills. Gills free, crowded, very narrow; white becoming black and inky from the margin upward. Stem 60-120 x 10-20mm, very tall, straight, with a slightly bulbous base, hollow in center; white; smooth, with a ring of veil tissue left lower down on the stem. Flesh soft, fibrous; white. Odor (when young) pleasant. Taste similar. Spores ellipsoid, smooth, with germ pore at apex, (12)13-17(18) x 7-9?. Deposit black. Habitat often in large numbers on roadsides, lawns, and other urban sites, especially where the soil has been disturbed. Found throughout North America and Europe. Season sometimes in the spring but usually July-November. Edible and delicious when young.
Choice
Agaricus andrewii Freeman False Meadow Mushroom Cap 2-6cm across, convex then flattened, but with inrolled margin until fully mature; pure white, to cream when old; smooth, silky-fibrillose, margin of cap with floccose remnants of white veil. Gills free, crowded, broad; bright pink when young, then soon chocolate brown, and finally black. Stem 25-50 x 10-15mm, equal to tapered at the base; white; fibrillose to woolly below the faint evanescent ring zone. Flesh firm; white. Odor very pleasant. Taste very pleasant. Spores broadly ellipsoid, 7-8 x 4-5µ. Deposit purplish brown. Marginal cystidia sparse, prominent and turnip-shaped to club-shaped. Habitat As yet the exact distribution of this species is uncertain because of confusion with Agaricus campestris. However, it would appear to be widespread at least in eastern north America as far south as North Carolina. Season late September-November. Edible and choice, it has doubtless been mistakenly collected many times as Agaricus campestris. Comment The more familiar Agaricus campestris lacks any marginal cystidia and may not be as common in America as is usually supposed. Apart from the microscopic differences, Agaricus andrewii would appear to differ hardly at all macroscopically, except that it seems to have a more consistently smooth and purer white cap than Agaricus campestris. ---- Ecology: Saprobic; growing alone, gregariously, or sometimes in fairy rings, in meadows, fields, lawns, and grassy areas; late fall to early winter (occasionally in summer; sometimes year-long in California); widely distributed and common in North America. Cap: 3-11 cm; convex to broadly convex, occasionally nearly flat; whitish; smooth and glossy to fibrous to nearly wooly or scaly. Gills: Free from the stem; deep pink becoming brown and then dark chocolate brown in maturity; crowded; covered with a thin white partial veil when in the button stage. Stem: 2-6 cm long; 1-2.5 cm thick; more or less equal; sometimes tapering slightly to base; with a quickly collapsing white ring; not bruising yellow. Flesh: Thick and white throughout; not bruising yellow anywhere, even in the base of the stem; very rarely discoloring a pinkish wine color in wet weather. Odor and Taste: Pleasant. Chemical Reactions: Cap surface not yellowing with KOH. Spore Print: Dark chocolate brown. Microscopic Features: Spores: 5.5-10 x 4-7 µ; elliptical. Cheilocystidia to 10 µ wide. Universal veil hyphae (on cap surface and stem base) without inflated elements. The North American forms of this mushroom are apparently numerous--and several closely related (identical?) species have been described, including Agaricus andrewii (cheilocystidia 11-18.5 µ wide; universal veil hyphae with inflated elements) and Agaricus solidipes (spores up to 12 µ long; cheilocystidia absent). See also Agaricus porphyrocephalus.
Inedible
Ustulina deusta (Fr.) Petrak syn. Kretzschmaria deusta (Hoffm.:Fr.) P. Martin. Korsthoutskoolzwam Szenes ripacsosgomba. Fruit body forming irregular wavy cushions or encrusting the substrate, greyish white in the early stages soon becoming brittle enough to crush between the fingers, finally black and very brittle resembling charred wood. Asci 300 x 15m. Spores black, fusiform, 28?34 x 7?10um. Habitat on old dead stumps or roots of deciduous trees especially beech. Season late spring to summer, although the blackened state may be seen all year round. Common. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Choice
Ustilago maydis (DC) Corda syn. Ustilago zeae Ung. Corn Smut, Kukorica?sz?g, Cuitlacoche, Huitlacoche. This smut fungus attacks maize or corn causing a bulbous greyish-white fungal growth with a black interior to form on the corn ears, and sometimes a series of grey-black patches on leaves or stems. For farmers all over the world it has been considered a pest, but in Mexico the sweet corn infected with the fungus is a culinary delicacy known as Cuitlacoche or Huitlacoche (the name taken from the ancient Nauhatl). Pseudohyphae and short hyphae with clamp connections are sometimes present. The blastoconidia are irregular, spindle shaped. The teliospores are generated in the corn cob and on maturity are dispersed by wind, they then can overwinter in the soil and infect the next year's growth. For best eating, cuitlacoche should be harvested 16-18 days after infection, once the teliospores are mature. Edible and choice when maturing on corn cobs. Found all over the world, but most easily found in Mexico and some parts of the USA where deliberate infection takes place in order to produce a crop for sale. The images of Cuitlacoche in the edible stage has been lent to me by Jane Levi and Alex Veness.
Inedible
Thelephora terrestris (Ehrh.) Fr. Earthfan, T?l?phore terrestre, Erdledepilz, Talajlak? szem?lcsgomba (szem?lcs?sgomba), Franjezwam. Fruit body 3?6cm across, fan-shaped, vertical to horizontal, forming large clustered groups, reddish- to chocolate-brown, darkening to almost black with age, covered in radiating fibres, becoming paler and fringed at the margin. Lower or fertile surface clay-brown to pallid, irregularly wrinkled. Spores purple-brown, angular and warted, 8?9 x 6?7?. Habitat in conifer woods or heaths, usually on sandy soil. Season late summer to early winter. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Stropharia squamosa (Fr.) Qu?l. Pikkelyes harmatgomba. Cap 3-5cm across, convex-campanulate; dull yellow-ochre to tawny, with paler, faint scales at margin; viscid. Gills adnate, crowded; pallid then purple-brown. Stem 60-120 x 3-l0mm, long, rigid; brownish; scaly below the small ring. Flesh thin; whitish. Odor not distinctive. Taste not distinctive. Spores ellipsoid, with pore at tip, 12-14 x 6-7.5?. Deposit purple-brown. Habitat on decayed wood chips in mixed woodlands. Found in Europe and throughout northern North America. Season August-October. Not edible.
Inedible
Stropharia semiglobata (Batsch. ex Fr.) Qu?l. Dung Roundhead, Strophaire semi-globuleux, Halbkugeliger Tr?uschling, Dombor? harmatgomba, f?lg?mbalak? harmatgomba, Kleefsteel-stropharia. Cap 1?3cm across, hemispherical, light yellow, viscid. Stem 60?100 x 2?3mm, yellowish, apex paler, viscid below the ring; ring incomplete, often represented by zone of blackish fibrils. Flesh thin, pallid. Gills purplish-brown becoming black-spotted. Spore print dark purplish-brown. Spores elliptic, 15?17 x 9?10um. Habitat on dung. Season spring to late autumn. Common. Not edible -avoid. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Stropharia rugosoannulata Farlow ex Murr. King Stropharia, Wine Cup, -ri-s harmatgomba. Cap 5-20cm across, convex-flattened to umbonate; deep purplish red to dull brown or even grayish or white with age; smooth, not viscid. Gills adnate, crowded; pallid then gray and finally purple-brown. Stem 100-180x 10-25mm, equal to clavate; white; smooth; ring large, prominent, deeply wrinkled or segmented below, very thick, white. Flesh firm; white. Odor pleasant. Taste pleasant. Spores ellipsoid, with germ pore, 10-13 x 7.5-9-. Deposit purple-brown. Habitat on wood chips and bark mulch and around flower beds. Very common. Found Europe and widely distributed in northern North America. Season June-October. Edible-delicious. Comment An almost pure white form is not infrequent; also a closely related (probably undescribed) yellow species with viscid cap may be found at the same time.
Poisonous/Suspect
Stropharia hornemannii (Fr.) Lundell Fenyves harmatgomba. Cap 6-15cm across, broadly convex umbonate; dull reddish brown or purple-brown, with white veil remnants at margin; very viscid when wet. Gills adnate, crowded; pallid then purple-brown. Stem 60-120x 10-20mm; white; strongly fibrillose-scaly below the prominent ring. Flesh white. Odor a little unpleasant. Taste a little unpleasant. Spores ellipsoid, with germ pore, 10-14 x 5.5-7?. Deposit purple-brown. Habitat on rotting conifer logs. Found in Europe and northern North America. Season August-November. Not edible- possibly poisonous.
Inedible
Stropharia coronilla (Bull. ex Fr.) Qu?l. syn. S. obturata (Fr.) Qu?l. Stropharia coronilla Kr?nchen-Tr?uschling S?rga harmatgomba Strophaire coronille Garland Roundhead. Cap 2?4cm across, convex then flattened, light yellow, slightly viscid or greasy. Stem 25?40 x 6?8mm, white tapering towards base; ring white, but often accentuated by trapped deposit of dark spores. Flesh thick, white. Gills white then clay-brown. Pleurocystidia broadly lanceolate with acutely pointed apex, staining deeply in aniline blue in lactic acid. Spore print purple-brown. Spores elliptic with indistinct pore, 7?9 x 4?6um. Habitat lawns and pasture. Season autumn. Common. Edible ? not worthwhile. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Stropharia aurantiaca (Cke.) Orton New syn. Leratiomyces ceres Orangeroter Tr?uschling T?glav?r?s harmatgomba, narancspiros harmatgomba Redlead Roundhead. Cap 1.5?5.5cm across, convex then expanded, orange-red with paler patches when dry, viscid when moist, margin often with whitish velar remnants. Stem 20?100 x 2?10mm, slightly thickened at base, whitish becoming streaked ochraceous or orange-red below. Flesh pale buff to concolorous. Gills whitish at first then olivaceous-clay. Pleurocystidia thin-walled, lanceolate with a sharp-pointed apex and yellowish contents. Cheilocystidia variable in shape, mostly thin-walled and lageniform often with flexuous necks, sometimes irregularly cylindric or clavate with a swollen or even capitate apex. Spore print dark purplish-brown. Spores elliptic, 11?13 x 6?7.5um. Habitat on rotting sawdust, usually in parks or gardens. Season autumn. Rare. Edibility unknown -avoid. Found In Europe.
Inedible
Scleroderma citrinum Pers. syn. S. aurantium (Vaill.) Pers. syn. S. vulgare Horn. Common Earthball, cl-roderme vulgaire, Scl-roderme orang-, Kartoffelbovist, R-t (k-z-ns-ges) -ltrifla, Scleroderma commune, tartufo falso, Aardappelbovist. Fruit body 2-10cm across, subglobose, attached to the substrate by cord-like mycelial threads, wall dirty yellow to ochre-brown, thick and tough, coarsely scaly, breaking open irregularly to liberate the spores. Gleba purplish-black at first patterned by whitish veins, powdery when mature. Spores brown, globose, with a net-like ornamentation, 9-13m in diameter. Habitat on mossy or peaty ground on heaths or in rich woodland, especially on sandy soil. Season late summer to early winter. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe. This species is sometimes parasitized by Boletus parasiticus.
Inedible
Scleroderma areolatum Ehr. syn. S. lycoperdoides Schwein. Netzbovist Pikkelyes (leop-rd) -ltrifla Leopard Earthball. Fruit body 1-3(4)cm across, subglobose, tapering into a thick rooting stalk which passes into a few strong mycelial strands, yellowish-brown covered in smooth very dark scales surrounded by a ring giving a dotted, reticulate pattern when the scales have been worn off, opening by an irregular slit or pore. Gleba deep purplish-brown. Spores dark brown, globose, 9-14m in diameter, covered in spines 1.5m long. Habitat damp places on bare ground or amongst sparse grass or moss. Season autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Hallucinogenic
Psilocybe semilanceata (Fr. ex Secr.) Kummer. Liberty Cap or Magic Mushroom, Spitzkegeliger Kahlkopf, Hegyescs?cs? badargomba, Puntig kaalkopje. Cap 0.5?1.5cm across, elongate conical with a distinct sharply pointed umbo, puckered at margin, hygrophanous, yellowish-brown with olivaceous tinge drying ochre-buff, covered with a viscid pellicle. Stem 25?75 x 1?2mm, white to cream, sometimes with a bluish tinge at the stem base. Flesh cream to pallid. Gills pale clay at first, finally dark purple-brown. Spore print dark purplish-brown. Spores elliptic, 11.5?14.5 x 7?9um. Habitat lawns, pasture and roadsides. Season late summer to late autumn. Frequent. Hallucinogenic. Edible but not recommended. Hallucinogenic and widely collected for this purpose, but should be regarded as mildly poisonous; also, there is the possibility of misidentification. Distribution, America and Europe.
Hallucinogenic
Psilocybe merdaria (Fr.) Ricken Stropharia merdaria (Fr.) Qu-l. syn. Dung-Tr-uschling. Cap 2-5cm across, obtusely bell-shaped then flattened convex, ochraceous, more cinnamon when moist, viscid. Stem 50-75 x 4-6mm, dry, whitish flushed straw-yellow, base covered in white down. Flesh white, becoming brownish in stem when old. Smell none. Gills pallid then purplish-brown. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, hyaline, lageniform. Spore print brown-black. Spores broadly elliptical and often somewhat angular, with germ-pore, 10-16 x 8-9um. Habitat on horse dung. Season late summer to autumn. Uncommon. Edibility unknown, possibly slightly hallucinogenic although it has not been investigated in detail, all hallucinogenic mushrooms can be dangerous to eat. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Psathyrella pennata (Fr.) Pearson & Dennis syn. Drosophila pennata (Fr.) K?hn. & Romagn. Brand-Faserling Szenes porhany?sgomba. Cap 1?2.5cm across, broadly bell-shaped, grey-brown to reddish-brown becoming ochre, covered in whitish cottony fibrils or scales especially towards the margin. Stem 25?50 x 2?4mm, whitish. Flesh thin, brownish in cap, whitish to ochraceous in stem. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills pallid to purplish-grey. Cheilo- and pleurocystidia thin-walled, hyaline, acutely fusiform. Spore print dark purplish-brown. Spores pip-shaped, 8?9 x 4?4.5um. Habitat on fire sites. Season early summer to autumn. Common. Edibility unknown -avoid. Found In Europe.
Inedible
Psathyrella hydrophila (Bull. ex M?rat) Maire syn. Hypholoma hydrophilum (Bull. ex M?rat) Qu?l. W?ssriger Saumilz Hypholome hydrophile Barna porhany?sgomba. Cap 2?3cm across, convex becoming flattened, tan to dark chestnut or date-brown drying paler often with a tan flush at the centre, margin appendiculate with remnants of the fibrillose veil. Stem 40?100 x 5?10mm, white flushed with cap colour below, fragile. Flesh thin, whitish. Taste bitter, smell not distinctive. Gills crowded, clay-brown becoming chocolate brown with age. Cystidia thin-walled, hyaline, fusiform. Spore print dark brown. Spores elliptic, 4.5?7 x 3?4um. Habitat in dense tufts in damp deciduous woodland. Season late spring to late autumn. Common. Edible ? bitter and not worthwhile -avoid. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Psathyrella gracilis (Fr.) Qu?l. T?r?keny porhany?sgomba. Cap 2-5cm across, campanulate; yellow-ochre to buff brown, pinkish when dry; glabrous. Gills adnate, crowded, broad; pallid then pinkish brown. Stem 60-120 x 2-3mm; white; pruinose at first. Flesh whitish. Spores ellipsoid, 1 I-14 x 6.5-8p.. Deposit purplish brown. Pleurocystidia with an acute apex, 54-75 x 10-16?. Habitat scattered on soil. Found in Europe and throughout North America. Season August-October. Edibility not known -avoid.
Inedible
Psathyrella candolleana (Fr.) Maire. Pale Brittlestem, Behangener Faserling Hypholome de De Candolle, Feh?r porhany?sgomba. Cap 2?6cm across, bell-shaped becoming flattened, pale ochraceous-brown when moist drying almost white or flushed with brown, margin often appearing toothed with remnants of veil. Stem 40?80 x 4?8mm, white, hollow, fragile. Flesh thin, white. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills greyish lilac darkening to chocolate brown. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, hyaline, finger-shaped or cylindric. Spore print dark brown. Spores elliptical or ovate, 6?8 x 3.5?4.5um. Habitat on or near deciduous trees, stumps or cut timbers. Season spring to late autumn. Frequent. Edibility unknown -avoid. Distribution, America and Europe.
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