Purplish to black Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
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Spore colour:
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Total mushrooms fount: 119

Inedible
Panaeolus sphinctrinus (Fr.) Qu-l. syn. Paneolus campanulatus var. sphinctrinus (Fr.) Qu-l. New syn. Panaeolus papilionaceus Gez-huter D-ngerling Csipk-s (halv-ny) tr-gyagomba. Cap 2-4cm across, broadly conical to bell-shaped sometimes with a slight umbo, dark grey to almost black when moist drying out pale grey with dark ochre centre, margin overhanging gills forming pale delicate teeth. Stem 60-120 x 2-3mm, grey, paler at apex. Flesh thin, pale grey. Gills adnate, grey soon becoming black, edge white. Spore print black. Spores lemon-shaped, 14-18 x 10-12um. Habitat in pastureland, on or near dung. Season late spring to autumn. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Panaeolus semiovatus (Sow. ex Fr.) Lund. syn. Anellaria separata (L. ex Fr.) Karst. syn. P. separatus (L. ex Fr.) Gillet Ring-D?ngerling Gy?r?s tr?gyagomba Egghead Mottlegill. Cap 2?6cm across, ovate-bell-shaped, never expanding, clay white tinged yellowish towards centre, viscid, drying shiny, velar remnants often adhering to margin. Stem 50?100 x 4?8mm, slightly thickened at base, whitish; ring white and membranaceous, persistent. Flesh whitish, yellowish in stem. Gills broad, whitish, soon brown-black, often with a white edge. Pleurocystidia in form of broad lanceolate chrysocystidia with pointed apices. Spore print black. Spores pip-shaped, 16?20 x 10?12um. Habitat on dung. Season spring to early winter. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Panaeolus rickenii Hora Wiesend-ngerling V-r-sbarna tr-gyagomba. Cap 1-2cm across, convex to conical with prominent umbo, dark brown and striate at margin when moist drying pale buff or tan, flushed tan towards centre. Stem 50-100 x 2-3m, pinkish brown or tan with paler apex. Flesh thin, tan. Taste not distinctive, smell mushroomy. Gills adnate, grey soon becoming black. Spore print black. Spores lemon-shaped, 13-16 x 9.5-11um. Habitat in damp pastureland. Season summer to autumn. Frequent. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Inedible
Panaeolina foenisecii (Pers. ex Fr.) Maire syn. Psilocybe foenisecii (Pers. ex Fr.) Qu?l. syn Panaeolus foenisecii (Pers. ex Fr.) Schroeter Heud?ngerling R?ti tr?gyagomba Brown Mottlegill. Cap 1?2cm across, bell-shaped to convex, dark dull-brown drying out pale clay brown from the rust-coloured centre outwards to the margin which often remains darker. Stem 40?70 x 2?3mm, paler than cap. Flesh buff to pale brown. Smell not distinctive. Gills adnate, pale brown when young soon becoming mottled darker. Spore print brownish black. Spores lemon-shaped, rough, with germ-pore, 12?15 x 7?8.5um. Habitat in grassland and on lawns and roadsides. Season summer to autumn. Common. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Hypholoma sublateritium (Fr.) Qu?l. Syn. Naemateloma sublateritium (Fr.) Kar. Brick Caps, Hypholome presque brique, Ziegelroter Schwefelkopf, Falso chiodino, V?r?ses k?nvir?ggomba, Rode zwavelkop. Cap 3?10cm across, convex, brick red to reddish-brown at centre on ochraceous ground often with fibrillose remnants of veil towards margin. Stem 50?180 x 5?12mm, pale yellow near the apex becoming ochre brown towards the base, and with a cortinal zone near the apex. Flesh pale yellowish, reddish-brown towards stem base. Taste bitter, smell mushroomy. Gills pale yellowish becoming olive-brown. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, hair-like. Pleurocystidia clavate with beak-like apex. Spore print purplish-brown. Spores elliptic with an indistinct pore, 6?7 x 3?4.5um. Habitat stumps of deciduous trees. Season autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Hypholoma fasciculare (Huds. ex Fr.) Kummer syn. Geophila fasciculari (Huds. ex Fr.) Qu?l. syn. Naematoloma fasciculare (Huds. ex Fr.) Karst. Sulphur Tuft, Hypholome en touffe, Gr?nbl?ttriger Schwefelkopf, S?rga k?nvir?ggomba, Falso chiodino, zolfino, Gewone zwavelkop. Cap 2?7cm across, convex or slightly umbonate, remains of the pale yellow veil often adhering to the margin, bright sulphur-yellow tinged orange-tan towards the centre. Stem 40?100 x 5?10mm, often curved, sulphur at the apex becoming dirty brownish towards the base with a faint ring zone often made more obvious by trapped purple-brown spores. Flesh sulphur-yellow, more brownish towards the stem base. Taste very bitter, smell mushroomy. Gills sulphur-yellow becoming olivaceous, finally dark brown. Spore print purplish-brown. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, cylindric, hair-like. Pleurocystidia broadly clavate with beak-like apex. Spores oval, with pore 6?7 x 4?4.5um. Habitat in dense clusters on stumps of deciduous and coniferous tress. Season all year. Very common. Not edible very bitter. -Now known to be poisonous, deaths have been recorded due to this fungus. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Hypholoma capnoides (Fr. ex Fr.) Kummer Syn Naemateloma capnoides (Fr.) Kar. Graubl?ttriger Schwefelkopf Hypholome capno?de Conifer Tuft Feny? k?nvir?ggomba. Cap 2?6cm across, convex with an indistinct umbo, pale ochraceous flushed tan in the centre, margin buff. Stem 40?100 x 5?10mm, ochraceous buff flushed tan from base up, with white cortinal zone. Flesh yellowish. Taste sweetish, smell not distinctive. Gills whitish at first then greyish-lilac. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, cylindric, hair-like. Pleurocystidia broadly clavate with beak-like apex. Spore print dark brown. Spores ellipsoid-ovate with a distinct pore, 7?8 x 4?5um. Habitat conifer stumps. Season spring to late autumn. Uncommon. Said to be edible -avoid. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Gomphidius roseus (Fr.) Karst. Rosy Spike, Rosa Schmierling, R-zsaszin ny-lk-sgomba, Gomphide rose, Rozsaszin ny-lk-sgomba. Cap up to 5cm across, coral becoming more brick with age, convex at first then flattened, very viscid. Stem 25-45 x 4-10mm, whitish flushed with pink or vinaceous tint, the white glutinous veil leaving an indistinct ring zone. Flesh dirty white tinted coral, occasionally dirty yellow in stem base. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills deeply decurrent, greyish, finally mouse-grey with olivaceous tinge. Spore print fuscous black. Spores subfusiform 15.5-17.5(20) x 5-5.5um. Habitat with conifers, especially pines. Season autumn. Uncommon. Edible but not recommended. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Gomphidius maculatus Fr. Fleckender Schmierling Foltos ny?lk?sgomba Gomphide macul?. Cap 3?6cm across, whitish or greyish and blotched with black in older specimens, glutinous. Stem 45?75 x 10?20mm, whitish becoming streaked sepia, base yellowish, dry at apex. Flesh white in cap reddening throughout with a vinaceous tint in stem base, blackening with age in places. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills distant, decurrent, whitish becoming vinaceous grey, darkening with age. Spore print fuscous black. Spores subfusiform, 17?23 x 6?8um. Habitat with larch. Season late summer to autumn. Uncommon. Edible but not recommended. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Elaphomyces muricatus Fr. V?ltoz?kony ?lszarvasgomba (szarvasgomba). Fruit body 2?5cm across, globose, outer rind bright ochre-brown covered in pointed warts, inner much thicker and marbled purplish-brown; within these layers is an internal powdery spore mass which becomes grey-black as the spores mature. Asci globose, usually four-spored. Spores purplish-black, globose and warted, 18?24?. Habitat subterranean in the top soil of pinewoods, less frequently in deciduous woods. Season all year but most easily found in autumn when the parasite Cordyceps ophioglossoides which often attacks this species may be seen above ground. Rare. Edibility unknown. Found In Europe.
Inedible
Elaphomyces granulatus Fr. ?lszarvasgomba. Fruit body 2?5cm across, globose, outer rind bright reddish-brown covered in small warts; remnants of yellowish mycelium will often be seen, the internal powdery spore mass becomes pinkish-brown to purplish as the spores mature. Asci globose, usually 6-8 spored. Spores purplish-black, globose, 23?35? ornamented with rods or spines. Habitat subterranean in the top soil of conifer or deciduous woods. Season all year but most easily found in autumn. Rare. Edibility unknown. Found In Europe and north America.
Inedible
Coprinus truncorum (Schaeffer) ex Fr. Csill?ml? tintagomba. Cap conical up to 20mm deep creamy-buff, granular at first covered with white mealy granules, wrinkled striate except at the centre. In outward appearance very similar to Coprinus micaceus, to separate them you will need to examine the spore. Gills pale at first then darkening. Stem 50-85 x3-5mm upper part shiny base white tomentose. Smell none. Spore print brownish-black. Spores smaller than C. micaceus, 6-8.54.5-6um with a central rounded germ pore. Found on or next to stumps and logs often in large groups. Could be quite common, as it is normally lumped with C. micaceus. Not edible.
Poisonous/Suspect
Coprinus silvaticus Pk. Erdei tintagomba. Cap 1-3cm high, ovoid expanding to conical-convex, with a deeply striate margin grooved to the center and often split; cream-buff with darker sienna or cinnamon center; apparently smooth but actually minutely hairy. Gills free, crowded; white then gray-umber becoming black. Stem 40-85 x 3-6mm, rather fragile; white discoloring pale buff, especially in the lower section; silky-lined with top finely woolly and lower part becoming smooth. Odor none. Spores almond-shaped, ornamented with low warts and ridges, 11-15 x 8-10?. Deposit black. Dermatocystidia 90-180 x 16-25?. Habitat on soil attached to burned wood. Rare. Found in the Pacific Northwest. Season September-October. Edibility not known -avoid.
Inedible
Coprinus plicatilis (Fr.) Fr. New syn. Parasola plicatilis Glimmeriger Scheibchentintling Gyenge ?ltintagomba Pleated Inkcap Cap 0.5?1.5cm high, cylindric-ovoid expanding to shallowly convex or flat with depressed centre, buff with cinnamon centre, soon deeply grooved and greying from margin inwards. Stem 30?70 x 1?2mm, white discolouring buff from the base upwards. Smell none. Gills clay pink then grey, finally black, hardly deliquescing. Spore print black. Spores ellipsoid to almond-shaped, 10?13-8.5?10.5um. Habitat in grass on lawns at pathsides. Season spring to late autumn. Common. Edible ? not worthwhile. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Coprinus picaceus (Bull. ex Fr.) S. F. Gray New syn. Coprinopsis picacea. Magpie Fungus, Coprin noir et blanc, Spechttintling, Hark?ly tintagomba, Elsterntintling, Spechtinktzwam. Cap 5?8cm high, cylindrical-ovate to conical, broadly bell-shaped when expanded, white then sepia-grey finally black covered in white to clay-pink patches of veil remnant. Stem 90?300 x 6?15mm, with woolly bulbuous base, white. Smell unpleasant. Gills white then clay-pink, finally black and deliquescing. Spore print black. Spores ellipsoid, 13?17 x 10?12um. Habitat on alkaline soil, usually in beech woods. Season late summer to autumn. Uncommon. Said to be poisonous but eaten by some with no ill-effect. Distribution, America and Europe. The last picture comes from Lorand Bartho in Hungary.
Poisonous/Suspect
Coprinus micaceus (Bull. ex Fr.) Fr. Glistening Inkcap, Coprin micac?, Glimmertintling, Kerti tintagomba, Glimmerinktzwam, Mica Cap . Cap 1.5-5cm high, ovoid expanding to bell-shaped, with a split or sometimes rolled-back margin that is lined and grooved almost to the center; tawny becoming cinnamon toward the center; covered with white powdery granules from the veil, especially when young, becoming smooth. Gills attached, close, moderately broad; white becoming date brown then black. Stem 25-85 x 2-5mm, hollow, fragile; white, discoloring buff in lower part; smooth or slightly felty. Odor none. Spores ellipsoid, smooth, with pore at tip, 7-10 x 4.5-6?. Deposit date brown to blackish. Habitat in dense tufts around stumps or on bruised wood. Very common. Found widely distributed throughout North America and Europe. Season April-October (all year in southern California). Said to be edible.
Inedible
Coprinus lagopus (Fr.) Fr. Hasen-Tintling Gaty?s (ny?lsz?rm?s) tintagomba Hare's Foot Inkcap Cap 2?4cm high, cylindrical-ovoid or conical, almost flat when expanded, greyish covered with whitish to greyish fibrillose veil remnants. Stem 65?130 x 2?3mm, swollen at base, white, covered in down as the cap at first then smooth. Smell none. Gills white, rapidly turning black. Spore print violaceous black. Spores ellipsoid, 11?13.5 x 6?7um. Habitat on soil or in leaf litter in shady woods, less frequently in fields. Season summer to autumn. Occasional. Edible ? but not worthwhile. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Coprinus impatiens (Fr.) Quel. syn. Psathyrella impatiens (Fr.) Kuhner. Graublattriger Zwergtintling Sz?rkelemez? tintagomba. Cap 1?3cm high, ellipsoid at first then broadly convex, finally flat, pale buff with cinnamon centre drying whitish, strongly grooved to centre. Stem 70?100 x 2?4mm, white. Smell none. Gills pale clay-buff then greying, hardly deliquescing. Spore print dark umber. Spores ellipsoid, 9?12 x 5?6um. Dermatocystidia 70?120 x 8?14um, thin-walled, lageniform with a rather acute apex. Habitat in leaf litter or soil in broad-leaved woods, especially beech-woods on chalk. Season autumn to winter. Occasional. Edibility unknown-avoid. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Coprinus domesticus (Bolt. ex Fr.) S. F. Gray New syn. Coprinellus domesticus Haus-Tintling H?zi tintagomba Firerug Inkcap. Cap 1?3cm high, ovoid at first expanding convex or bell-shaped, splitting at margin, pale buff with darker tawny centre powdered at first with whitish or buff remains of veil, later smooth and becoming grooved from the margin inwards. Stem 40?155 x 2?10mm, swollen at base, white tinged buff towards the ridged base, often arising from a rust-coloured mat of mycelium. Smell none. Gills white at first rapidly purplish date then black. Spore print dark brown. Spores cylindric ellipsoid, 7.5?10 x 4?5um. Remnants of veil on cap formed of chains of globose or ellipsoid cells which are hyaline or golden brown, thin- to thick-walled and often verrucose. Habitat on dead wood of broad-leaved trees. Season late spring to summer. Uncommon. Not edible. Found In Europe and in America. The picture showing the red mat was taken by Geoffrey Kibby.
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