Purplish to black Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
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Total mushrooms fount: 119

Inedible
Coprinus disseminatus (Pers. ex Fr.) S. F. Gray syn. Psathyrella disseminala (Pers. ex Fr.) Qu?l. Fairies' Bonnets, Trooping Crumble Cap, Coprin dissemine, Ges?ter Tintling, Zwerminktzwam, Sereges tintagomba. Cap 0.5-1.5cm high, ovoid at first, expanding to convex or bell-shaped; pale buff with buff or honey-buff center; deeply grooved, minutely scruffy. Gills attached, nearly distant, broad; white then amber to black, but not inky or deliquescing. Stem 15-40 x 1-3mm, hollow, fragile; white with a buff tinge near the base, which is covered in white down; smooth to minutely hairy. Flesh fragile. Odor none. Spores ellipsoid to almond-shaped, smooth, 7-9.5 x 4-5?. Deposit dark brown or blackish. Dermatocystidia thin-walled, blunt, cylindrical, with a swollen base, 75-100 x 20-30?. Habitat in large groups (sometimes hundreds) on stumps and debris of deciduous wood and on lawns and grassy areas. Found widely distributed in eastern North America and California and Europe. Season May-October (November-March in southern California). Edible but not worthwhile.
Poisonous/Suspect
Coprinus atramentarius (Bull. ex Fr.) Fr. Common Inkcap, Tippler's Bane, Coprin noir d'encre, Grauer Faltentintling, Fungo dell'inchiostro, Kale inktzwam, R?ncos tintagomba. Cap 3-7cm high, ovoid at first, then broadly conical when expanded, with the margin irregularly puckered at first, then becoming split; gray to gray-brown; dry, smooth or silky with minute scales or veil remnants, especially near the center. Gills free, crowded, broad; white then lavender-gray then inky black and soon deliquescing. Stem 70-170 x 9-20mm, hollow; whitish; dry, silky-fibrous; fibrous white partial veil leaving ring zone near base. Odor faint and pleasant or none. Spores ellipsoid, smooth, with pore at tip, 7-11 x 4-6?. Deposit black. Habitat usually in clusters on the ground near rotting or buried wood or in grass. Found widely distributed throughout North America and Europe. Season May-September (November-April in California). Edible but dangerous because it causes alarming symptoms (nausea, palpitations) when taken in conjunction with alcohol; indeed, it has been given to alcoholics to cause these symptoms and eventually cure their habit. Comment Good black drawing ink used to be made from the deliquesced caps by boiling the black "ink" with a little water and cloves.
Poisonous/Suspect
Chroogomphus rutilus (Fr.) Miller syn. Gomphidius viscidus Fr. Copper Spike, Kupferroter Gelbfuss, Gomphide visqueux, V-r-ses ny-lk-sgomba. Cap 3-15cm across, brick-colour flushed vinaceous, viscid drying shiny, convex, umbonate. Stem 60-120-2-8mm, vinaceous at apex, yellow-buff below, chrome at stem base, slightly viscid with cottony veil which leaves irregular zones on the stem. Flesh vinaceous in cap and stem, deep chrome in stem base. Taste and smell somewhat astringent. Gills deeply decurrent, dull olivaceous buff becoming dirty purplish. Spore print fuscous black to sepia. Spores subfusiform, 15-22 x 5.5-7-. Habitat with conifers, usually pines. Season autumn. Common. Edible but not recommended. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Agaricus sylvaticus Schaeff. ex Secr., Agaricus silvaticus, Echter Waldchampignon, Agaric des for?ts, Psalliote des for?ts, Erdei csiperke, feny?erdei csiperke, Blushing Wood Mushroom Cap 5?10cm across, convex, covered in ochre to brown fibrils breaking up into small adpressed scales. Stem 50?80 x 10?12mm, whitish sometimes with brownish fibrous scales below the dirty brown ring. Flesh white, reddening on cutting when fresh, later turning brownish. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills pale at first then reddish, later dark brown. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, clavate. Spore print brown. Spores ovoid, 4.5?6 x 3?3.5?. Habitat coniferous woods. Season summer to autumn. Rare. Edible ? good. Distribution, America and Europe. A. haemorrhoidarius (formerly a subspecies of A. silvaticus) is distinguished by its different habitat; it grows in deciduous woods. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Agaricus semotus Fr. syn. A. comtulus var. amethystinus (Qu?l.) Konrad & Maubl. syn. Psalliota amethystina (Qu?l.) Lange Apr? csiperke Weinr?tlicher Zwergegerling Rosy Wood Mushroom Cap 2?5cm across, obtusely ovoid expanding flattened-convex, white at first soon covered in small lilaceous scales at the centre with vinaceous fibres radiating out towards the white margin, finally yellowing to a dirty brownish. Stem 30?60 x 4?8mm, white but yellowing at the bulbous base; ring double, pendulous. Flesh white, staining yellow in stem base. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills very pale at first then pinkish, finally grey-brown. Cheilocystidia numerous, thin-walled, ovate to broadly clavate, hyaline or brownish, 12?26 x 4?14?. Spore print brown. Spores elliptic, 4.5?5 x 2.5?3?. Habitat in clearings and on the edges of deciduous and coniferous woods. Season summer to autumn. Rare. Poisonous to some people; best avoided. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Agaricus praeclaresquamosus Freeman syn. Agaricus meleagris of many American authors Cap 5-20cm across, convex with flattened disc; with gray to gray-brown or blackish flattened scales on a white background; dry. Gills free, crowded; white to grayish then deep brown. Stem 80-150 x 10-30mm, equal to clavate; white, often discoloring reddish brown; smooth; ring white, thick, felt-like, membranous, very persistent. Flesh firm; white, bruising bright yellow in the extreme base of the stem, finally reddish brown. Odor unpleasant, phenolic, ink-like, especially when flesh is crushed or cooked. Taste similar. Spores ovoid, 4-6.5 x 3-3.5(4)?. Deposit deep brown. Habitat under mixed woods, along roads and paths. Frequent. Found throughout western North America. Season September-December. Not edible- poisonous to many. Comment The name meleagris cannot be used for this since another fungus-formerly placed in Agaricus- was given this name earlier.
Edible
Agaricus macrosporus (M?ller & Schaeff.) Pil?t syn. Psalliota subsp. macrospora M?ller & Schaeff. Grosssporiger Egerling Agaric ? grande spores Nagysp?r?s csiperke. Cap 8?25(50)cm across, convex, whitish splitting into large ochraceous scales or patches and the margin becoming toothed with age. Stem 50?100 x 25?35mm, frequently with a fusiform rooting base, whitish cream covered in easily removable floccules; ring thick and scaly on the underside. Flesh firm and whitish, sometimes reddening in the stem on cutting. Taste mushroomy, smell faint of crushed almonds when young, rapidly smelling more ammoniacal. Gills whitish-grey at first, finally dark brown. Cheilocystidia numerous, ovate, 8?31 x 6?16?. Spore print brown. Spores ellipsoid, 8?12 x 5.5?6.5?. Habitat in rings in pastureland. Season summer to autumn. Occasional. Edible ? good. Found In Europe.
Edible
Agaricus leucotrichus M?ller Cap 8-13cm across, ovate-campanulate, flattened at disc; white to pale straw yellow with age; silky, densely fibrillose-hairy with tiny erect, pointed scales. Gills free, crowded; white to pink then dark brown. Stem 80-120 x 15-25(30)mm, equal to clavate-swollen; white to buff; smooth above the ring, floccose tomentose below; ring white, thin, pendant, undersurface with small veil remnants. Flesh white, pinkish buff when old or bruised. Odor pleasant, almond-like. Taste pleasant, almond-like. Spores ellipsoid-ovoid, 6.5-7.5(8) x 4.5-5?. Deposit deep brown. Habitat in spruce woods. Found in Colorado. Season September. Edible. Comment This group of specimens agrees very well with the European description, except that the gills are rather more pink than recorded. Pending a better American name being found for this fungus, the European name is applied here.
Inedible
Stropharia hardii Atkinson Cap 3-10cm across, convex-flattened; yellow-ochre; slightly viscid, then soon dry. Gills adnate, crowded; pale gray-buff then purple-brown. Stem 50-80 x 5-15mm, equal; pale yellowish; slightly scaly to smooth, with white rhizomorphs at base. Flesh soft; white. Odor not distinctive. Taste not distinctive. Spores ellipsoid, with germ pore at tip, 5-9 x 3-5p?. Deposit purple-brown. Habitat in deciduous woods in leaf litter. Found in eastern North America, west to Ohio. Season July-September. Edibility not known -avoid.
Poisonous/Suspect
Stropharia ambigua (Pk.) Zeller Cap 5-15cm across, convex to broadly umbonate; pale yellow to bright ochre; smooth, but with veil remnants at margin. Gills adnate, crowded; pale gray then soon purplish brown. Stem 75-150 x 10-20mm; white with fibrillose-scaly covering below faint ring zone; with many white rhizomorphs at base. Flesh white. Odor not distinctive. Taste not distinctive. Spores ellipsoid, smooth, with germ pore at tip, 11-14 x 6-7.5?. Deposit purple-brown. Habitat in conifer woods. Often numerous. Found in the Pacific Northwest and on the California coast. Season August-November. Edibility not known suspect.
Inedible
Stropharia albonitens (Fr.) Karsten. Feh?r harmatgomba. Cap 2-6cm across, convex, often umbonate; white to cream with yellowish center; smooth, viscid. Gills sinuate; pale violet-gray-brown. Stem 40-80 x 3-5mm; white, yellow-floccose below the apical ring zone. Flesh thin; white. Odor not distinctive. Taste not distinctive. Spores ellipsoid, 8-9 x 4-5?. Deposit purple-black. Habitat in grassy meadows. Found in Europe and the Pacific Northwest. Season July-November. Not edible.
Edible
Strobilomyces floccopus (Vahl. ex Fr.) Karst. syn Boletus floccopus Vahl. ex Fr. syn. Boletus strobilaceus Fr. New syn. Styrobilomyces strobilaceus Pikkelyes tin?ru Strubelkopf Bolet pomme de pin, Old Man of the Woods. Cap 5?12cm, smoke-grey with white patches, soon becoming mouse-grey or cigar-brown to olivaceous black covered with large, thick, concolorous wart-like scales some of which overhang the margin giving the cap a ragged appearance. Stem 80?120?10?20mm, white to mouse-grey above, concolorous with cap below and covered in large scales. Flesh firm, white gradually vinaceous to coral then brown on cutting. Taste and smell not distinctive. Tubes white to grey, coral then red on bruising. Pores large, angular, similarly coloured. Spore print violaceous black. Spores subglobose to broadly ellipsoid with reticulate ornamentation, 10?12?8.5?11m. Habitat broad-leaved or coniferous woods. Season early autumn. Rare. Edible when young but not worth eating. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Earthstar Puffball Scleroderma geaster Fr. syn. Scleroderma polyrhizon Pers. Fruit body 5-10cm across, subglobose, flattened on top, tapering below into a stem-like base with a large basal mycelial mass binding together the soil into a large mass. Surface of the very thick cuticle a dirty tan-brown to ochre; roughened, granular, splitting into irregular star-like segments, soon peeling back to a varying extent, exposing the blackish cracked inner surface. Spore mass deep purple-brown; powdery. Spores globose, warted, 5-10 x 5-l0?. Habitat at first almost completely below ground, pushing up through sandy soils. Found in Europe and widely distributed in North America. Season August-November. Not edible.
Inedible
Red-cap Psilocybe, Psilocybe squamosa (Pers. ex Fr.) Orton var. thrausta (Schultz ex Kalchb.) Lange syn. Stropharia squamosa var. thrausta (Schultz ex Kachlb.) Lange New syn. Leratiomyces squamosus var. thraustus Pikkelyes harmatgomba. Cap 2.5-7cm across, convex to obtuse, then campanulate-flattened, with central umbo; intense reddish orange to brick red; viscid, smooth, but with numerous small white evanescent scales at margin. Gills adnate, rather crowded to almost distant, broad; whitish to gray then almost black with pale margin. Stem 60-120 x 3-8mm, long, slender, densely scaly in lower half, brownish orange to red like cap, whitish above the distinct membranous cottony ring, which is soon stained purple-black from spores. Flesh thin; pale cream. Odor not distinctive. Taste not distinctive. Spores ellipsoid, with germ pore distinctly eccentric, 12-14 x 6-7.5?. Deposit purple brown. Habitat in small scattered clusters on wood chips and twigs. Rather rare. Found over most of North America. Season August-October. Not edible, although placed in Psilocybe this fungus has been found not to be hallucinogenic. Comment Frequently confused with the much duller colored, ochre-brown Psilocybe squamosa (Pers. ex Fr.) Orton, of which it is often regarded as a variety; but the germ pore in that species is centrally placed. Both species possess chrysocystidia, which removes them from the genus Stropharia, where they were formerly placed.
Hallucinogenic
Psilocybe montana (Fr.) Qu-l. Cap 0.5-2.5cm across, convex to umbonate; deep reddish brown, drying paler; smooth, slightly tacky. Gills adnate, distant; reddish brown. Stem 25-50 x 1.5mm; dark brown; smooth. Odor not distinctive. Taste not distinctive. Spores ellipsoid, with germ pore at tip, 5.5-8 X 4-5-. Deposit purple-brown. Habitat in moss in mountainous areas, especially common in Scandinavia. Found in Europe and western North America. Season July-September. Not edible although a member of a genus with many hallucinogenic mushrooms, this species is not known to be active.
Hallucinogenic
Psilocybe cyanescens Wakefield. Bl?uender Kahlkopf K?k?l? badargomba Blueleg Brownie. Cap 2?4cm across, convex then expanded and irregularly wavy, hygrophanous, reddish buff drying ochraceous cream, developing blue-green tints when handled. Stem 25?50?5?8mm, white, bruising strongly blue to blue-green; cortinate ring forming indistinct ring zone. Flesh whitish, tinged bluish in places. Smell mealy. Gills pale ochre-clay at first becoming dark brown. Chrysocystidia lacking. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, lageniform. Spore print dark purplish-brown. Spores elliptic to almond-shaped, 9?12 x 5?7um. Habitat on rotting sawdust and other herbaceous debris. Season late autumn to early winter. Rare. A powerfully hallucinogenic fungus, all hallucinogenic mushrooms can be dangerous to eat. Found In Europe and western north America.
Hallucinogenic
Psilocybe cubensis (Earle) Singer Kubai badargomba. Cap 1.5-9cm across, broadly conical to bel-shaped, becoming convex and flatter with an umbo, the margin sometimes with hanging veil remnants; white with a yellowish or brownish center, becoming entirely yellowish buff to yellowish brown, bruising and aging bluish; sticky when moist then dry, smooth or some small, whitish veil remnants when young. Gills adnate, close, narrow; gray becoming deep purple-gray to almost black, edges whitish. Stem 40-150 x 4-15mm, often enlarged toward the base; white or yellowish, bruising blue or bluish green; smooth, grooved at the top; membranous partial veil leaves a persistent white ring on the upper stalk which is blackened by the falling spores. Flesh firm; white, bruising bluish green. Spores ellipsoid, smooth, with a distinct pore at the tip, 11-17 x 7-12?. Deposit purple-brown. Habitat singly or in groups on horse dung or cow manure in cattle pastures. Common. Found in the Gulf Coast states and in central America. Season nearly all year. Edibility suspect - strongly hallucinogenic, possibly poisonous.
Inedible
Psathyrella squamosa (Karst.) Moser apud Gams syn. Drosophila squamosa (Karst.) K?hn & Romagn. Schuppiger Faserling Pelyhes porhany?sgomba. Cap 2.5?3.5cm across, ovoid at first becoming conical to expanded bell-shaped, ochre-brown when moist with a broad marginal zone covered in whitish silky fibrils, drying ochre-cream, dingy brown with age. Stem 35?50 x 3?5mm, white, flaky. Flesh ochre-brown, hollow in stem. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills white then ochre-brown finally violet-brown. Cheilo- and pleurocystidia fusoid with slightly thickened yellowish walls when examined in KOH solution. Spore print purplish brown. Spores elliptic with germ-pore, 8.5?9.5 x 4.5?5um. Habitat beech woods. Season autumn. Occasional. Edibility unknown -avoid. Found In Europe.
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