Purplish to black Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
Stem type:
Spore colour:
Cap type:
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Total mushrooms fount: 119

Gomphidius subroseus Kauffman Cap 4-6cm across, convex; pink to reddish salmon; smooth, viscid when wet. Gills decurrent, subdistant, thick; white then smoky gray. Stem 35-100 x 6-20mm, equal; white and smooth above the glutinous ring, ivory to yellow at base; viscid from veil covering. Flesh pallid, yellow in base. Odor mild. Taste mild. Spores tapering at ends, 15-21 x 4.5-7-. Deposit black. Habitat under conifers. Found in the Rocky Mountains, Pacific Northwest, and rarely in eastern North America. Season June-September (December on the Pacific Coast). Edible but poor.
Inedible
Gomphidius oregonensis Pk. Cap 2.5-15cm across, broadly convex; ochraceous salmon, turning blackish brown when old; smooth, viscid when wet. Gills decurrent, distant, broad; white then smoky gray-brown. Stem 40-100 x 10-25mm; white above, with yellow flush at base; a white, fibrillose veil above, covered with a secondary glutinous veil; several fruit bodies often clumped together with their stems fused at base. Flesh solid; white, yellow at base of stem. Odor mild. Taste mild. Spores spindle shaped to narrowly ellipsoid, tapered at ends, 10-13 x 4-6?. Deposit smoky black. Habitat normally emerging from a large fleshy mass buried deep in the soil, usually under conifers. Found along the Pacific Coast. Season August-October. Edible but poor.
Inedible
Coprinus xanthorthrix Romagn. S?rgaszemcs?s tintagomba. Cap 1-2.8cm,greyish to brownish, sulcate to the centre (umbrella like, -ribbed as gill lines show through). Stem 30-80x3-4mm white with a volva like veil zone. Gills whitish darkening as the spores mature to violaceous black. Spores 8.5-11 x 5-6.5?. spore print dark, violaceous black. Found on the ground or well rotted twigs in woods, oak and in Poland quite common under birch.
Poisonous/Suspect
Poisonous/Suspect
Coprinus pachyspermus Orton Kuhfladen-Tintling. Cap 1?3cm high, ellipsoid, sometimes with pointed apex, expanding to broadly conical and splitting at the margin, grey or creamy, covered in coarse mealy flocculose scales. Stem 30?110 x 2?4mm, fragile, white, sometimes with the remains of the mealy veil around the base. Smell none. Gills cream then black. Spore print black. Spores ellipsoid to ovoid, 15?17 x 12.5?14um. Basidia two-spored. Mealy covering of cap formed of smooth, thin-walled globose cells. Habitat on cow dung. Season summer. Rare. Edibility unknown -avoid. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Coprinus narcoticus (Batsch. ex Fr.) Fr. Mist-Tintling Cap 1?1.5cm high, cylindric-ovoid becoming flat, the margin becoming split and rolled back, pale grey covered in coarse white granular meal becoming buff and warty towards the centre. Stem 15?65 x 2?8mm, sometimes rooting at the base. Smell strongly of tar-gas. Gills white rapidly becoming black. Spore print black. Spores ellipsoid to almond-shaped, 11?13.5 x 5.5?7?, remains of perispore often visible. Mealy covering of cap formed of thin-walled globose cells ornamented with granular warts. Habitat on dung or manured soil. Season autumn. Rare. Edibility unknown -avoid. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Coprinus macrocephalus (Berk.) Berk.Stroh-Tintling. Cap 1?3cm high, cylindrical to conical at first expanding to broadly bell-shaped or flat, white then grey often buff at centre, covered in coarse fibres which break up into buff-coloured scales. Stem 40?190 x 2?7mm, translucent white. Smell none. Gills white soon becoming black. Spore print violaceous black. Spores ellipsoid, 11?14 x 7.5?8.5?. Habitat on dung-heaps and rotting straw. Season all year round. Uncommon. Edibility unknown -avoid. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Coprinus lagopides Karst. Kohlentintling. Cap 2?6cm high, cylindrical to conical, expanding with margin gradually enrolling, white to grey, at first covered in a conspicuous whitish to greyish fibrillose veil remnants, later less so and striate from margin inwards. Stem 30?110 x 3?12mm, white, initially with white down then smooth in places, base white and woolly. Smell none. Gills soon dark vinaceous then black. Spore print violaceous black. Spores ellipsoid to subglobose, 6?9 x 5?7um. Habitat on burnt soil or charred wood and so differing markedly in habitat from the superficially similar C. lagopus. Season late autumn. Frequent. Edibility unknown-avoid. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Coprinus flocculosus DC ex Fr. Syn Coprinus rostrupianus C. Hansen Pelyhes tintagomba. Cap cylindrical 2-4cm tall, white at first then discolouring with white flakes of tomentum, slightly striate. Stem white, 5-7cm x 2-5mm. Spore print black, spores large excentric, 11-15x6.5-9.5um. Uncommon, found on manure or rotten straw or sawdust. Smell none. Europe.
Inedible
Coprinus congregatus (Bull. ex St Amans) Fr. Buscheliger Zwergtintling. Cap 0.5?2cm high, cylindric-ellipsoid expanding to broadly convex, ochraceous buff with darker centre becoming grey from margin inwards. Stem 20?80 x 1?4mm, white, sometimes rooting. Smell slight, pleasant. Gills cream then brown-vinaceous, finally black and deliquescing. Spore print black. Spores ellipsoid, 12?14 x 6?7um. Dermatocystidia 48?106 x 7.5?17um, thin-walled, subcylindric with swollen base to somewhat lageniform. Habitat caespitose, on dung, compost or rotting straw. Season summer. Rare. Edibility unknown -avoid. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Coprinus cinerius (Schaeffer ex Fr.) S.F.Gray Tr?gya tintagomba. Cap cylindrical at first then expanding towards the lower part (like a light shade), 10-50mm deep, white or pale grey covered in easily separated white scales, dark beneath. Gills white then grey finally black. Stem 40-120x3-6mm thickening towards the base rooting in some forms, at first covered in transient white scales, then smooth. The smell can vary from slight to strongish. Spores print fuscous black, spores 9-12x6-7um, with a central germ pore. Normally found on dung heaps or rotting straw or wood chips. Not edible.
Edible
Chroogomphus vinicolor (Pk.) Miller Cap 2-8cm across, convex with a sharp to obtusely pointed umbo; pale orange-ochre to reddish brown or wine color; viscid when wet but soon dry, smooth. Gills decurrent, thick; pale ochre, then blackish when mature. Stem 50-100x5-15mm, tapered at base; pale ochre to vinaceous; with slight ring zone at apex. Flesh ochre-orange. Odor pleasant. Taste pleasant. Spores subfusiform, 17-23 x 4.5-7.5?. Deposit blackish. Habitat in groups under pine. Found in eastern North America. Season July-September. Said to be edible.
Edible
Chroogomphus tomentosus(Murr.) Miller Cap 2.5-8cm across; bluntly conical to almost flattened-umbonate; bright ochre-tawny; dry with fibrillose-tomentose surface. Gills decurrent, distant, thick; ochre-yellow when young, then purplish. Stem 40-150 x 5-25mm, tapered to spindle-shaped; colored like cap; thin, hairy veil leaving slight traces on the upper stem. Flesh firm, pale ochre-orange. Odor mild. Taste mild. Spores ellipsoid, smooth, 15-25 x 6-8?. Deposit blackish gray. Habitat in moss under conifers, especially Douglas fir and hemlock. Found in the Pacific Northwest. Season August-October. Said to be edible, but I have not eaten it so I can't advise.
Inedible
Asero? rubra A stinkhorn from New Zealand. The whole fruit body is pink, arising from an oval white ?egg? with the glebal disk showing dark, sticky, spore mass, the ?tentacles? are strong reddish colour grouped in pairs, normally up to as much as 10cm in height. This is a very very rare fungus, only one record found outside greenhouses in the whole of the northern hemisphere. Found on mixed woodland litter on acid soil. It is native to New Zealand and Australia and other areas in the southern hemisphere. Presumably it was imported on garden plants that had been introduced from the southern hemisphere.
Poisonous/Suspect
Agaricus xanthodermus Genevier syn. Psalliota xanthoderma (Genevier) Richon & Roze. Yellow Stainer, Agaric jaunissant, Giftchampignon, Agarico giallescente, Karbolchampignon, S?rgul? csiperke, karbolszag? csiperke. Cap 5?15cm across, subspherical with the top flattened later expanded convex, white at first later often with tiny indistinct greyish-brown scales and bruising bright chrome-yellow, especially towards the margin. Stem 50?150 x 10?20mm, white, bulbous at the base; ring white with a thickened edge which can cause it to appear double. Flesh white, staining chrome-yellow in the stem base. Taste slightly unpleasant, smell slightly of ink. Gills white at first then pale pink, finally grey-brown. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, sub-globose or ovate, hyaline, 10?20 x 8?14?. Spore print purple-brown. Spores ellipsoid, 5?6.5 x 3?4?. Habitat in woods, meadows and gardens. Season summer to autumn. Occasional. Poisonous. The symptoms are sweating, flushing and severe stomach cramps, but only some people are affected. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Agaricus vaporarius (Vitt.) Mos. syn. Psalliota vaporaria (Vitt.) M?ller & Schaeff. Garten-Egerling Agaric de Bernard, Psalliote de Bernard, Komposztcsiperke, ?ves csiperke, Clustered Mushroom. Cap 10?15cm across, subglobose at first expanding to flattened convex, dirty brown soon breaking up into large scales. Stem 60?120 x 25?50mm, tapering at the base which is deeply buried in the soil, white and smooth although initially with brown fibrous scales; ring thick and white, pendulous. Flesh white, reddening only slightly on cutting. Taste nutty, smell mushroomy. Gills pale pink at first later chocolate brown. Cheilocystidia numerous, thin-walled, clavate, hyaline, 18?28 x 4?10?. Spore print brown. Spores subglobose, 6?7?4.5?6m. Habitat gardens and deciduous woods often developing below ground and pushing up through the soil as it expands. Season autumn. Rare. Edibility suspect -avoid. Found In Europe.
Edible
Agaricus subrutilescens (Kauffman) Hot. & Stuntz Cap 5-13cm across, convex; whitish; fibrillose-striate, to slightly scaly; fibers deep vinaceous brown. Gills free, crowded, narrow; whitish pink then deep brown. Stem 60-150 x 10-25mm, clavate; whitish; smooth above the ring, with white to vinaceous veil remnants below, often in bands; ring large, thin, woolly below, high on stem. Flesh white. Odor pleasant. Taste pleasant. Spores ellipsoid, 4.5-6 x 3-4?. Deposit deep brown. Habitat in mixed woods. Found on the West Coast of north America. Season August-December. Edible. Dan Manders wrote:I eat it whenever I find it, it's quite good. It's listed in David Arora's book as being a good edible, though less meaty than most other Agaricus, which I've found to be true as well. In Oregon I find it mostly on slopes in mixed company with sword ferns & Oregon grape.
Edible
Agaricus silvicola (Vitt.) Peck. Wood Mushroom, Agaric des bois, D?nnfleischiger Anisegerling, Agarico di boschi, Slanke anijchamignon, Karcs? csiperke. Cap: 5 - 10cm across, convex, cream, readily bruising ochraceous and becoming more yellow with age. Hymenium is free ( cap is convex or flat ). Stem: 50 - 80 x 10 - 15mm, concolorous with the cap, base usually bulbous. Stipe: has a ring. Ring: large and pendulous, upper surface white, lower drab. Flesh: thin, white. Taste: mushroomy, smell of aniseed. Gills: free, pale greyish-pink at first later chocolate brown. Smell: Aniseed. Cheilocystidia numerous, thin-walled, oval to subglobose, hyaline, 10 - 20 x 7 - 20. Spore print purple-brown. Spores ellipsoid 5-6 x 3-4-. Habitat in coniferous and deciduous woods. Season autumn. Occasional. ---- The cap is light cream, and bruises yellow ochre when damaged. It is much the same colour as the cap, and has a fragile drooping ring. The flesh is thin and white, and smells of aniseed. It looks fairly similar to a young death cap, it is believed by some mycologists. ---- Agaricus silvicola grows in both deciduous and coniferous woodland in Britain, Europe, and North America. Appearing in the autumn, it is rarely seen in huge numbers, usually just a few, or solitary ( Season: August to November ). Often found in loose groups. ---- It is suspected to have caused an allergic reaction in a few people in North America. ---- Agaricus xanthodermus, the yellow stainer looks very alike but bruises chrome yellow when handled or cut and smells of Indian ink or Agaricus pilatianus which stains yellow on cutting and smells of carbolic. Both do not smell edible. People can mistake some of the Amanitas for field mushrooms but on inspection they are quite different.
Inedible
Agaricus porphyrocephalus M-ller syn. Psalliota porphyrea M-ller Rotbrauner Egerling Cap 3-8cm across, hemispherical to flat, brown, with darker radiating fibrils. Stem 30-40 x 10-20mm, white, slightly tapering towards the base or sometimes slightly swollen and bulbous; ring thin and white. Flesh white to pale flesh-coloured. Taste and smell mushroomy. Gills pink at first, later chocolate brown. Cheilocystidia absent. Spore print brown. Spores 5-7-3-4.5m. Habitat lawns or pastures. Season autumn. Rare. Edibility suspect -avoid. Found In Europe.
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