White Mushrooms identifications

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Total mushrooms fount: 900

Polyporus squamosus aka Cerioporus squamosus (yet to be confirmed new taxonomy) is a basidiomycete bracket fungus, with common names including dryad's saddle and pheasant's back mushroom.[2] It has a widespread distribution, being found in North America, Australia, Asia, and Europe, where it causes a white rot in the heartwood of living and dead hardwood trees. The name "dryad's saddle" refers to creatures in Greek mythology called dryads who could conceivably fit and ride on this mushroom, whereas the pheasant's back analogy derives from the pattern of colors on the bracket matching that of a pheasant's back. When planting season comes around and I cannot find morels, I am always pleased to find some dryad's saddle to collect. It's been much maligned as an edible of little value but I beg to fluctuate. It is everything regarding finding out how to pick and make it. Cover (pileus) 2-12 in wide-ranging round to kidney or supporter shaped, thick, overlapping on deceased solid wood often. Brown with scales that look much like feathers. Hence the titles pheasant backside and hawk's wing. The aroma is very distinctive smelling much like watermelon rind. Pleasant really! I've seen them referred to as "mealy" but that isn't how they remain here. Skin pores (hymenophore) Actually pipes that are small initially becoming quite large and angular jogging down the stem relatively. Whitish to yellowish tan. Stem (stipe) Very brief 3/4 2 in. mounted on the wood. Flesh White and non bruising. Spores White spore print out. That one makes one of the prettiest spore images of any mushroom I've printed. When and how to locate them (ecology) These increase on various very useless hardwoods (especially elm) largely in-may or June but once in a while later. A tree resting on the floor is your very best bet. Once in a while the may be on a full time income tree nevertheless they appear to favor very dead hardwood. Wet areas seem to be to create more. They are quite common and one of just a few reasonable edibles you will see at the moment of year. It really is nice to find when morel hunting is irritating. These will be within the same places each full season before solid wood is used. These have been called edible by some and poor by others just. They could be quite good though. My guidelines are that they have to be young, the pore level must be very skinny (1/16 in. or less may very well be good), & most importantly your blade needs to have the ability to go through it quickly. Long lasting blade reductions may very well be good easily. Sometimes just the outer edges are usable but nice tender ones are available. Preparation Once you've found sensitive specimens, they are really best prepared straightaway. Like a great many other wild mushrooms the aroma is ephemeral often disappearing within hours. Tempura frying will retain a few of this "watermelon" character. Saut?skillet or ing frying is an excellent way too. Slice them thin and cook them solid. Overcooking shall create toughness. I've tried drying them. They turn out as very white, crunchy potato chips that are pleasurable to eat dried. They maintained more of this unique smell than I expected. I've made a natural powder with them but have not attempted baking with it yet but it appears and smells good. The microwave produced something you will make shoes with. I've had very good luck with hard ones though. I cooked properly them and put them in the blender with poultry stock mixing until these were the consistency of the smoothie and then made mushroom soup. Really very good rather than like any other. Nothing else tastes or has the aroma of this mushroom. It is very good when prepared effectively really. I possibly could identify it by the smell with my eye shut down easily. Maybe it could taste "mealy" if it was stored in the refrigerator for two days. Actually, since differing people understand smell and flavour your experience could vary diversely. Comments Within the spring, that one is quite typical. Many you shall find are very leathery as well as your blade will won't trim it. Let it be just. Spring polypore (Polyporus arcularius) and Polyporus alveolaris look similar to it but are much smaller and incredibly tough.
In theory, this species of Hericium is easy to identify: it is the only species that forms a single clump of dangling spines, rather than hanging its spines from a branched structure. Additional identifying features include the fact that it typically appears on the wounds of living or very recently cut hardwoods, and the fact that its spines are mostly more than 1 cm in length. That's the theory. In practice positive identification is more difficult, since immature specimens of the branched species of Hericium often begin more or less as a single clump, and develop their branches with age. Further confusion stems from the fact that the long-spined species of Hericium, like Hericium erinaceus, may have short spines (1 cm in length or less) when they are young. In short, you must be sure that your specimen is mature (look for signs of brownish or yellowish discoloration) before betting the house on your identification of Hericium erinaceus. Description: Ecology: Saprobic and parasitic; usually growing alone or in pairs; fruiting from the wounds of living hardwoods (especially oaks); late summer and fall, or over winter and spring in warmer climates; widely distributed in North America. The illustrated and described collections are from Illinois. Fruiting Body: 8-16 cm across; consisting of one, unbranched clump of 1-5 cm long, soft spines hanging from a tough, hidden base that is attached to the tree; spines white, or in age discoloring brownish to yellowish. Odor and Taste: Odour not distinctive; when cooked the taste is reportedly delicious and, to some at least, rather like lobster cooked in butter. Habitat Saprobic, nearly always on beech and oak trees, stumps and fallen logs in Britain, but sometimes on other hardwoods. Bearded Tooth fungus is also reported to fruit occasionally on piles of sawdust. Microscopic Features: Spores 5-6 x 5.5-6 µ; globose to subglobose or subellipsoid; smooth or minutely roughened; hyaline and uniguttulate in KOH; amyloid. Gloeoplerous hyphae present, sometimes extending into hymenium to become cystidia (up to 50 x 6 µ, cylindric with knobbed apices, smooth, thin-walled).
Scientific name: Meripilus sumstinei (Murrill) M. J. Lombard and larsen Derivation of name: Meri- means "part" or "section" and pil- means "cover." The genus name might make reference to the framework of the fungi having numerous hats fanning out and dividing from the base. Polyporus giganteus Fr. Phylum: Basidiomycota Occurrence on lumber substrate: Parasitic and saprobic; on surface (from origins) around stumps or living deciduous trees and shrubs, especially oak; Through November july. Dimensions: Individual hats (fronds) 5-20 cm extensive, forming large thick clusters mounted on a short, dense common stalk; stalks (when present) 1-3 cm long or more to 11 cm solid. Top surface: Grayish to yellowish-tan, becoming smoky and dark with era; wrinkled radially; finely hairy; bruising dark over the margins where dealt with or in era. Pore surface: White; bruising dark-colored; skin pores 4-7 per mm. Edibility: Edible. Remarks: Clusters of Meripilus sumstinei may attain diameters of 40 cm or even more. * More mature specimens become darker with time. * The cap surface types turn dark where touched. * The white pore surface obvious under one frond contrasts very well with the darker colors of the top cap surface. * The skin pores of Black-staining polypore are incredibly small, providing the pore surface a uniformly white, almost "pore-less" appearance.
Mycena leaiana (Berk.) Sacc. Cap 1-5cm across, bell-shaped becoming convex, with center sometimes depressed; bright reddish orange becoming more yellow in age; slimy, shiny, smooth. Gills adnate, close to crowded, broad; dirty yellow-pink, staining orange-yellow when cut, with bright red-orange edges. Stem 30-70 x 1-3mm, tough, fibrous; orange to yellow, paler near apex, exuding a little watery, orange juice; slimy and somewhat sticky with base covered in dense, coarse hairs. Flesh thickish, pliant; white beneath the orange cuticle. Odor faintly mealy. Taste slight. Spores ellipsoid, amyloid, 7-10 x 5-6-. Deposit white. Habitat in dense clusters on deciduous wood. Common. Throughout central and eastern states of North America. Season f one-September. Edibility not known- avoid. ----------- This month's fungi, Mycena leaiana, is a great mushroom to find in the woods. It's shiny orange, with glowing orange marginate gills (more on that later), and therefore often sticks out from an extended distance. Despite the fact that the mushrooms themselves are very small at maturity, usually significantly less than an inch (3 cm) in diameter, they could be very prolific fruiters, so there is a huge amount of it to be seen often. Even in dry weather you could find it since it uses this found very deep in the log to create its fruiting bodies. Understand that mushrooms are 90-95% normal water, so if there is no drinking water there are no mushrooms, but Mycena leaiana appears to be an excellent scavenger of drinking water through its mycelium from solid wood. The edibility of the fungus is unidentified, but is as yet not known to be poisonous. That said, there appears to be nothing at all to recommend it for the stand anyway, since it is rather small and has a fairly rubbery surface if you make an effort to cut it. The orange color comes off on the hands when you touch it, and it might be dreamed by me would do the same in the mouth area. So how about these marginate gills? If you look on the lower of the mushroom, you can view that the gills are orange. This seems just like a contradiction, because the spore printing is white. In the event that you look just a little deeper however, e.g. with a side lens, you can view that the orange color is mainly limited to the advantage of the gills. A straight closer look with a microscope reveals that the orange pigment is mainly limited to cystidia, sterile cells at the edge of the gill. Cystidia on the border of the gill are medically called "cheilocystidia" (practically, "lip cystidia"). Compare these to the "pleurocystidia" ("part cystidia") entirely on (you guessed it) the attributes of the gills of Pluteus cervinus. Mycena leaiana microscopic mix portion of the gills The cystidia are shiny orangeBelow and the left you can view what these cystidia appear to be microscopically. Observe that the strikingly beautiful orange cystidia include almost all of the advantage of the gill, offering this varieties its quality orange margin. However if you look from the gill advantage toward the basidia (basidiospore producing set ups), you will get some wayward orange cystidia borne singly on the list of basidia often.
Hypsi means "high" or "on high" and zygus means a "yoke" Hypsizygus, then, referring to position of this mushroom often high in the tree. Ulm- refers to "elm" indicating one of the common substrates for this fungus. There are commercially grown forms of this mushroom grown and sold in supermarkets and specialist shops, usually referred to as Buna-shimeji syn Hon-shimeji, the Brown Beech Mushrooms, there is a white form called Bunapi-shimeji. Hypsizygus tessulatus (Bull. ex Fr.) Singer New syn. Hypsizygus marmoreus Laskapereszke. Cap 5-15cm across, convex becoming flatter and rather sunken; white to buff yellow, creamy tan or crust brown in the center; moist, smooth, minutely hairy, becoming cracked with scaly patches. Gills adnexed to sinuate, close to subdistant, broad; whitish becoming cream. Stem 40-110 x 10-30mm solid, off-center, enlarged toward the base; white; dry, smooth, sometimes hairy. Flesh thick, firm; white. Odor mushroomy. Taste mild. Spores globose, smooth, 5-7 x 5-7µ. Deposit white to buff. Season September-December . Habitat singly or scattered on old hardwood trees, especially elm, often quite high up. Frequent. In nature, shimeji are gilled mushrooms that grow on wood. Most often the mushroom is found on beech trees, hence the common name, Beech Mushroom. They are often small and thin in appearance and popular in many nations across the world. ---- Growing Hypsizygus tessulatus The groups of mushrooms are harvested before the caps open. The beige caps are a little coarse and are often harvested when they have a diameter of ca. 2 cm, while the fully grown mushrooms can reach a diameter of 7 to 9 cm. Recommended substrate: 80% hardwood, mixed fine + coarse; 10% cereals; 10% bran. humidity: 62 % ---- A delicious species, H. tessulatus falls under the umbrella concept of the Japanese "Shimeji" mushrooms. Firm textured, this mushroom is considered one of the most "gourmet" of the Oyster-like mushrooms. Recently, this mushroom has been attributed to having anti-cancer properties. I ncreasingly better know, this obscure mushroom compares favorably to P. ostreatus and P.pulmonarius in North American, European and Japanese markets. Mycelial Characteristics: Mycelium white, cottony, resembling P. ostreatus mycelium but not as aerial. Also, the mycelium of H. tessulatus does not exude the yellowish-orange metabolite nor does it form the classically thick, peelable mycelium, two features that are characteristic of Pleurotus species. Mircroscopic Features: This mushroom produces white spores. Suggested Agar Culture Media: Malt Yeast Peptone Agar (MYPA), Potato Dextrose Yeast Agar (PDYA), Dog Food Agar (DFA), or Oatmeal Yeast Agar (OMYA) Spawn Media: The first two generations of spawn can be grain. The third generation can be sawdust or grain. Substrates for Fruiting: Supplemented sawdust. Good wood types are cottonwood, willow, oak, alder, beech, or elm. The effectiveness of other woods has not yet been established. It seems that straw does not provide commercially viable crops unless inoculated up to 25% of its weight with sawdust spawn. Yield Potentials: 1/2 lb. of fresh mushrooms per 5 lb. block (wet weight) of supplemented hardwood sawdust/chips. Comments: A quality mushroom, Buna shimeji is popular in Japan and is being intensively cultivated in the Nagano Prefecture. The only two mushrooms which come close to this species in over-all quality are H. ulmarius or Pleurotus eryngii. In the same environment ideal for Shiitake (i.e. normal light, CO2 less than 1000 ppm), strains of H. tessulatus produce a stem less than 2 inches tall and a cap many times broader than the stem is long. When the light is reduced and the carbon dioxide levels are elevated, the mushrooms metamorphosize into the form preferred by the Japanese. Here again, the Japanese have set the standard for quality. In the growing room, abbreviated caps and stem elongation is encouraged so that forking bouquets emerge from narrow mouthed bottles. Modest light levels are maintained (400 lux) with a higher than normal carbon dioxide levels (>2000 ppm) to promote this form of product. From a cultivator's point of view, this cultivation strategy is well merited, although the mushrooms look quite different from those found in nature. This cultivation strategy is probably the primary reason for the confused identifications. When visiting Japan, American mycologists viewed these abnormal forms of H. tessulatus, a mushroom they had previously seen only in the wild, and suspected they belonged to Lyophyllum. Many of the strains of H. marmoreus cultivated in Japan produce dark gray brown primordia with speckled caps. These mushrooms lighten in color as the mushrooms mature, becoming tawny or pale woody brown at maturity. Most strains obtained from cloning wild specimens of H tessulatus from the Pacific Northwest of North America are creamy brown when young, fading to a light tan at maturity, and have distinct water-markings on the caps. The differences seen may only be regional in nature. This mushroom does not exude a yellowish metabolite from the mycelium typical of Pleurotus species. However, it has been found that H. tessulatus produces a mycelium-bound toxin to nematodes, similar to that present in the droplets of P. ostreatus mycelium. This discovery may explain why it is not likely to see a nematode infestation in the course of growing Hypsizygus tessulatus. Given the number of potentially valuable by-products from cultivating this mushroom, entrepreneurs might want to extract the water soluble anti-cancer compounds and/or menatacides before discarding the waste substrate.
Xylaria polymorpha (Pers. ex M-rat) Greville. Dead Man-s Fingers, Xilaire polymorphe, Vielgestaltige Holzkeule, Bunk-s agancsgomba, Houtknotszwam. Fruit body 3-8cm high, 1-3cm wide, irregularly club-shaped passing into a short cylindrical stalk below, black with a finely wrinkled or roughened surface. Flesh tough, white; the section shows the distinctive pattern of the spore-producing cavities, the perithecia, just below the surface crust. Asci 200 x 10um. Spores blackish, fusiform, 20-32 x 5-9um. Habitat in groups on stumps, usually beech. Season all year. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe. The two super latest shots were sent to me by David Tuckett. Thanks David.
Xylaria longipes Nitschke. Langstielige Holzkeule, Nyeles agancsgomba, Dead Moll's Fingers. Similar to X. polymorpha but altogether more slender. Spores smaller, 12?16 x 5?7um. Habitat on stumps and fallen branches usually of sycamore. Season all year. Occasional. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Xylaria hypoxylon (L. ex Hook.) Greville. Stag?s Horn or Candlesnuff Fungus, Xilaire du bois, Geweihf?rmige Holzkeule, Geweizwam, Szarvasagancsgomba. Fruit body 1?7cm high, subcylindric at first becoming flattened and branched into an antler-like shape, the upper branches powdered white, finally tipped black when mature, stalk black and hairy. Asci 100 x 8um. Spores black, bean-shaped, 11?14 x 5?6um. Habitat on dead wood. Season all year. Common. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Xylaria carpophila (Pers.) Fr. Kleine Holzkeule. Similar to X. hypoxylon but generally much more slender. Habitat on old, rotting beech masts. Season all year. Occasional. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Verpa bohemica (Krombh.) Schroer. B-hmische Verpel, Cseh kucsmagomba, Rapunzelverpel. Cap 1-2.5cm high, thimble- to bell-shaped; dull yellow-brown to sepia; surface deeply wrinkled and convoluted; margin completely free from the stem, cap attached only at top. Stem 50-100 x 10-25mm, slightly clavate; white; smooth to scurfy-granular, often ridged. Flesh white. Odor pleasant. Taste pleasant. Asci each ascus holds only 2 spores. Spores huge, ellipsoid, smooth, 60-80 x 15-18-. Deposit yellow. Habitat in damp woods along stream banks, pathsides. Found in Europe and throughout most of North America although rare in the East. Season March-early May. Edible with caution. Although widely eaten, it has caused adverse symptoms in some people.
Tyromyces caesius (Schrad. ex. Fr.) Murr. syn. Polyporus caesius Schrad. ex Fr. New syn. Postia caesia Blauender Saftporling Elk?k?l? likacsosgomba (tapl?). Bracket 1?6cm across, 1?4cm wide, 0.3?1cm thick, single or in overlapping groups, semicircular; upper surface covered in fine long hairs, whitish, grey-blue with age or where handled. Tubes 0.5?4.5mm long, white later grey-blue. Pores 3?4 per mm, circular, white at first more grey or grey-blue with age. Spores white with grey-blue tint, sausage-shaped, amyloid, 4?5 x 0.7?1.0um. Hyphal structure monomitic; generative hyphae appearing glassy in KOH, and with clamp-connections. Habitat on dead conifers, especially spruce. Season all year, annual. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Tuber aestivum Vitt. Summer Truffle, Truffe de ?t?, Truffe de la Saint-Jean, Sommertr?ffel, Ny?ri szarvasgomba, Tartufo d'estate, tartufo nero d'estate, tartufo nero nostrale, Zommertruffel. Fruit body 3?14cm across, globose, covered in pyramidal warts, blackish brown. Flesh whitish becoming marbled grey-brown. Taste nutty, smell sweet. Spores ovoid, reticulate, 20?40 x 15?30um. Habitat buried usually near beech on calcareous soil. Season late summer to autumn. Rare. Edible ? good. Found In Europe.
Tricholomopsis rutilans (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Sing. syn. Tricholoma rutilans (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Kummer. Plums and Custard, Tricolome rutilant, Pleurote rutilant, R?tlicher Holzritterling, B?rsonyos pereszke (fapereszke), Agarico rutilante, Koningsmantel. Cap 4?12cm across, convex to bell-shaped when expanded often with a low broad umbo, yellow densely covered in reddish-purple downy tufts or scales, more densely covered at the centre. Stem 35?55 x 10?15mm, yellow covered in fine downy purplish scales like the cap but to a much lesser extent; no mycelial strands. Flesh pale yellow or cream. Taste watery, smell like rotten wood. Gills rich egg-yellow. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, voluminous, 20?30um wide. Spore print white. Spores ellipsoid, 6?8.5 x 4?5um. Habitat on and around conifer stumps. Season late summer to late autumn. Very common. Considered edible by some but not recommended. Distribution, America and Europe.
Tricholoma virgatum (Fr. ex Fr.) Kummer. Tricolome verget?, Brennender Erdritterling, Cs?p?s pereszke, Tricoloma vergato, Scherpe ridderzwam, Ashen Knight. Cap 3?7cm across, convex with a low broad umbo, brownish-black or greyish initially with violaceous tints, streaked with very fine black fibrils. Stem 50?90 x 10?18mm, white and smooth, often flushed grey. Flesh white to greyish. Taste bitter and peppery, smell musty. Gills greyish tinged flesh-colour, often browning at the edges. Spore print white. Spores 6.5?8 x 5?6um. Habitat deciduous and coniferous woods. Season autumn. Uncommon. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Tricholoma vaccinum (Pers. ex Fr.) Kummer. Tricolome ?cailleux, Tricolome de vache, Zottiger Ritterling, Szak?llas pereszke, Agarico vaccino, Ruige ridderzwam, Scaly Knight. Cap 4?7cm across, slightly umbonate, flesh-brown, darker towards the centre, disrupting into woolly scales. Stem 30?45 x 8?12mm, fibrous, paler than cap. Flesh pallid to rosy, often hollow in stem. Taste bitter, smell mealy. Gills white at first, later pallid flesh-colour. Spore print white. Spores ovate, 5?7 x 4?5um. Habitat conifer woods. Season late summer to late autumn. Uncommon. Inedible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Tricholoma ustaloides Romagn. Kastanienbrauner Ritterling, Gesztenyebarna pereszke. Cap 4?9cm across, hemispherical to convex, chestnut brown, paler towards the inrolled margin, viscid. Stem 60?100 x 8?15mm, white at the apex, rusty-brown and speckled towards the base; a fragile and very short-lived cortina is sometimes present near the top of the stem in young specimens. Flesh white. Taste and smell strongly of meal. Gills whitish becoming spotted with rust. Spore print white. Spores 6?7 x 4?5um. Habitat deciduous woods. Season autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Found In Europe.
Tricholoma ustale (Fr. ex Fr.) Kummer. Tricolome br?l?, Brandiger Ritterling, Szenesed? (feketed?) pereszke, Beukridderzwam, Burnt Knight. Cap 4?8cm across, convex then expanded, viscid in wet weather, chestnut brown, paler at margin, blackening with age. Stem 30?60 x 10?15mm, fibrous, reddish-brown, apex paler. Flesh whitish, sometimes reddening slightly. Taste slightly bitter, smell not distinctive. Gills white, becoming rust-spotted, edges blackening with age. Spore print white. Spores elliptic-ovate, 5.5?7 x 4?5um. Habitat deciduous woods, especially beech. Season late summer to late autumn. Rare. Poisonous. Distribution, America and Europe.
Tricholoma terreum (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Kummer. Tricolome couleur de terre, Petit-gris, Saint-Martin, Graubl?ttriger Erdritterling, Feny?pereszke, Agarico color di terra, cavarese, Donkergrijze ridderzwam, Grey Knight. Cap 4?7cm across, convex with a low broad umbo, light to dark grey, downy to felty. Stem 30?80 x 10?15mm, white and silky smooth. Flesh whitish grey. Taste pleasant, not mealy, smell not distinctive. Gills emarginate, distant, whitish to grey. Spore print white. Spores 6?7 x 3.5?4.5um Habitat in woods, especially with conifers. Season late summer to late autumn. Uncommon. Edible with caution. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Tricholoma sulphureum (Bull. ex Fr.) Kummer syn. T. bufonium (Pers. ex Fr.) Gillet. Tricolome soufr?, Schwefelritterling, B?d?s pereszke, Agarico zolfino, Narcisridderzwam, Sulphur Knight Gas Agaric. Cap 3?8cm across, convex with an indistinct umbo, sulphur-yellow often tinged reddish-brown or olivaceous. Stem 25?40 x 6?10mm, sulphur-yellow covered in reddish-brown fibres. Flesh bright sulphur-yellow. Taste mealy, smell strongly of gas-tar. Gills bright sulphur-yellow. Spore print white. Spores 9?12 x 5?6um. Habitat in deciduous woods, less frequently with conifers. Season autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.