Ring on stem Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
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Total mushrooms fount: 208

Choice
The meadow mushroom, Agaricus campestris, is a beautiful white mushroom that is closely related to the cultivated "button mushrooms" (Agaricus bisporus) sold in North American grocery stores. In most areas it is a fall mushroom and, as its common and Latin names suggest, it comes up in meadows, fields, and grassy areas, after rains. It is recognized by its habitat, its pink gills (covered up by a thin white membrane when the mushroom is young) which become chocolate brown as the mushroom matures, its quickly collapsing white ring, and the fact that it does not discolor yellow when bruised. Description: Ecology: Saprobic; growing alone, gregariously, or sometimes in fairy rings, in meadows, fields, lawns, and grassy areas; late fall to early winter (occasionally in summer; sometimes year-long in California); widely distributed and common in North America. Cap: 3-11 cm; convex to broadly convex, occasionally nearly flat; whitish; smooth and glossy to fibrous to nearly wooly or scaly. Gills: Free from the stem; deep pink becoming brown and then dark chocolate brown in maturity; crowded; covered with a thin white partial veil when in the button stage. Stem: 2-6 cm long; 1-2.5 cm thick; more or less equal; sometimes tapering slightly to base; with a quickly collapsing white ring; not bruising yellow. Flesh: Thick and white throughout; not bruising yellow anywhere, even in the base of the stem; very rarely discoloring a pinkish wine color in wet weather. Odor and Taste: Pleasant. Chemical Reactions: Cap surface not yellowing with KOH. Spore Print: Dark chocolate brown. Microscopic Features: Spores: 5.5-10 x 4-7 µ; elliptical. Cheilocystidia to 10 µ wide. Universal veil hyphae (on cap surface and stem base) without inflated elements. The North American forms of this mushroom are apparently numerous--and several closely related (identical?) species have been described, including Agaricus andrewii (cheilocystidia 11-18.5 µ wide; universal veil hyphae with inflated elements) and Agaricus solidipes (spores up to 12 µ long; cheilocystidia absent). See also Agaricus porphyrocephalus.
Edible
Coprinus Coprinus comatus (Fr.) S. F. Gray. Shaggy Mane, Shaggy Inkcap, Lawyer's Wig, Coprin chevelu, Schopftintling, Agarico chiomato, Geschubde inktzwam, Gyapjas tintagomba. Cap 3-7cm across when expanded, more or less a tall ovoid when young, becoming more cylindrical as it expands; white and very shaggy-scaly, often with a pale brownish "skullcap" at apex; margin of the cap dissolves away and progresses steadily upward until the entire cap has liquified away, including the gills. Gills free, crowded, very narrow; white becoming black and inky from the margin upward. Stem 60-120 x 10-20mm, very tall, straight, with a slightly bulbous base, hollow in center; white; smooth, with a ring of veil tissue left lower down on the stem. Flesh soft, fibrous; white. Odor (when young) pleasant. Taste similar. Spores ellipsoid, smooth, with germ pore at apex, (12)13-17(18) x 7-9?. Deposit black. Habitat often in large numbers on roadsides, lawns, and other urban sites, especially where the soil has been disturbed. Found throughout North America and Europe. Season sometimes in the spring but usually July-November. Edible and delicious when young.
Choice
Agaricus andrewii Freeman False Meadow Mushroom Cap 2-6cm across, convex then flattened, but with inrolled margin until fully mature; pure white, to cream when old; smooth, silky-fibrillose, margin of cap with floccose remnants of white veil. Gills free, crowded, broad; bright pink when young, then soon chocolate brown, and finally black. Stem 25-50 x 10-15mm, equal to tapered at the base; white; fibrillose to woolly below the faint evanescent ring zone. Flesh firm; white. Odor very pleasant. Taste very pleasant. Spores broadly ellipsoid, 7-8 x 4-5µ. Deposit purplish brown. Marginal cystidia sparse, prominent and turnip-shaped to club-shaped. Habitat As yet the exact distribution of this species is uncertain because of confusion with Agaricus campestris. However, it would appear to be widespread at least in eastern north America as far south as North Carolina. Season late September-November. Edible and choice, it has doubtless been mistakenly collected many times as Agaricus campestris. Comment The more familiar Agaricus campestris lacks any marginal cystidia and may not be as common in America as is usually supposed. Apart from the microscopic differences, Agaricus andrewii would appear to differ hardly at all macroscopically, except that it seems to have a more consistently smooth and purer white cap than Agaricus campestris. ---- Ecology: Saprobic; growing alone, gregariously, or sometimes in fairy rings, in meadows, fields, lawns, and grassy areas; late fall to early winter (occasionally in summer; sometimes year-long in California); widely distributed and common in North America. Cap: 3-11 cm; convex to broadly convex, occasionally nearly flat; whitish; smooth and glossy to fibrous to nearly wooly or scaly. Gills: Free from the stem; deep pink becoming brown and then dark chocolate brown in maturity; crowded; covered with a thin white partial veil when in the button stage. Stem: 2-6 cm long; 1-2.5 cm thick; more or less equal; sometimes tapering slightly to base; with a quickly collapsing white ring; not bruising yellow. Flesh: Thick and white throughout; not bruising yellow anywhere, even in the base of the stem; very rarely discoloring a pinkish wine color in wet weather. Odor and Taste: Pleasant. Chemical Reactions: Cap surface not yellowing with KOH. Spore Print: Dark chocolate brown. Microscopic Features: Spores: 5.5-10 x 4-7 µ; elliptical. Cheilocystidia to 10 µ wide. Universal veil hyphae (on cap surface and stem base) without inflated elements. The North American forms of this mushroom are apparently numerous--and several closely related (identical?) species have been described, including Agaricus andrewii (cheilocystidia 11-18.5 µ wide; universal veil hyphae with inflated elements) and Agaricus solidipes (spores up to 12 µ long; cheilocystidia absent). See also Agaricus porphyrocephalus.
Inedible
Tricholoma myomyces (Fr.) Lange, Feny?pereszke, eg?rsz?rke pereszke. Cap I-7cm across, obtusely conic expanding to convex, then flat with a low umbo; margin incurved at first, then often wavy; dark drab gray to brownish gray or blackish gray, generally paler on the margin; dry, densely matted, and hairy on the disc and hairy to scaly elsewhere. Gills arcuate to sinuate, close, broad; light gray, fading near the stem in age, very rarely discoloring with dull yellow spots. Stem 15-70 x 5-10mm, solid or hollow, generally rounded or abruptly tapered; white to pale gray; silky with white or gray hairs. Veil a cortina of white or gray hairs that leaves a faint, quickly disappearing zone on the stem. Flesh pale gray. Spores ellipsoid, smooth, nonamyloid, 6.7-7.6 x 4.3-4.8? (4-spored form), 8.6-1 1.4 x 3.8-5.7? (2-spored form). Deposit white. Habitat in groups or dense clusters under conifers in woods or on lawns. Frequent and sometimes abundant. Found in Europe and widely distributed in northern North America. Season August-October. Edibility not known -avoid.
Inedible
Tricholoma albobrunneum (Pers. ex Fr.) Kummer. Tricolome brun et blanc, Weissbrauner Ritterling, Keserny?s pereszke, Agarico bianco e bruno, Witbruine ridderzwam. Cap 5?8cm across, conico-convex, reddish-brown and covered in fine innate radiating fibrils, greasy or viscid. Stem 60?80 x 10?15mm, whitish above the distinctive ring zone but reddish brown below remaining slightly scaly in the upper portion. Flesh white tinged brownish below the cap cuticle and towards the stem base. Smell faintly mealy. Gills white, reddish-brown with age. Spore print white. Spores broadly elliptical, 5 x 3?4um. Habitat with conifers. Season autumn. Rare. Edible ? poor and indigestible. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Suillus luteus (Fr.) S. F. Gray syn. Boletus luteus Fr. Slippery Jack, Bolet Jaune, Nonnette voil-e, Bolet annulaire, Butterpilz, Barna gy-r-stin-ru (-tin-ru), Boleto giallo, Bruine Ringboleet. Cap 5-10cm, chestnut to sepia covered in brown gluten, becoming more rust-coloured with age, shiny on drying. Stem 50-100 x 20-30mm, pale straw-coloured at apex rapidly discoloured with darkening glandular dots, with a large white to cream ring which darkens to sepia, white below becoming vinaceous brown with age. Flesh white, often vinaceous at base of stem. Taste and smell not distinctive. Tubes lemon-yellow to straw-colour. Pores round, similarly coloured, becoming flushed sienna. Spore print clay to ochraceous. Spores subfusiform to elongate ellipsoid, 7-10 x 3-3.5um. Habitat with conifers, usually Scots pine. Season autumn. Common. Edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Suillus flavidus (Fr.) Sing. syn. Boletus flavidus Fr. Moor-R-hrling L-pi feny-tin-ru (-tin-ru). Cap 2-6cm across, umbonate, straw-yellow to pale ochre, viscid. Stem 50-75x 5-8mm, straw-yellow above the gelatinous, tawny ring, dull yellow to buff below. Flesh pale yellow becoming vinaceous when cut. Taste and smell not distinctive. Tubes decurrent, deep yellow. Pores large, angular, concolorous with tubes. Spore print ochraceous snuff-brown. Spores subfusiform-elliptic, 8-10 x 3.5-4.5um. Habitat wet mossy areas, usually with Scots pine and often in sphagnum. Season late summer. Rare and more or less confined to the Scottish Highlands. Edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Stropharia squamosa (Fr.) Qu?l. Pikkelyes harmatgomba. Cap 3-5cm across, convex-campanulate; dull yellow-ochre to tawny, with paler, faint scales at margin; viscid. Gills adnate, crowded; pallid then purple-brown. Stem 60-120 x 3-l0mm, long, rigid; brownish; scaly below the small ring. Flesh thin; whitish. Odor not distinctive. Taste not distinctive. Spores ellipsoid, with pore at tip, 12-14 x 6-7.5?. Deposit purple-brown. Habitat on decayed wood chips in mixed woodlands. Found in Europe and throughout northern North America. Season August-October. Not edible.
Inedible
Stropharia semiglobata (Batsch. ex Fr.) Qu?l. Dung Roundhead, Strophaire semi-globuleux, Halbkugeliger Tr?uschling, Dombor? harmatgomba, f?lg?mbalak? harmatgomba, Kleefsteel-stropharia. Cap 1?3cm across, hemispherical, light yellow, viscid. Stem 60?100 x 2?3mm, yellowish, apex paler, viscid below the ring; ring incomplete, often represented by zone of blackish fibrils. Flesh thin, pallid. Gills purplish-brown becoming black-spotted. Spore print dark purplish-brown. Spores elliptic, 15?17 x 9?10um. Habitat on dung. Season spring to late autumn. Common. Not edible -avoid. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Stropharia rugosoannulata Farlow ex Murr. King Stropharia, Wine Cup, -ri-s harmatgomba. Cap 5-20cm across, convex-flattened to umbonate; deep purplish red to dull brown or even grayish or white with age; smooth, not viscid. Gills adnate, crowded; pallid then gray and finally purple-brown. Stem 100-180x 10-25mm, equal to clavate; white; smooth; ring large, prominent, deeply wrinkled or segmented below, very thick, white. Flesh firm; white. Odor pleasant. Taste pleasant. Spores ellipsoid, with germ pore, 10-13 x 7.5-9-. Deposit purple-brown. Habitat on wood chips and bark mulch and around flower beds. Very common. Found Europe and widely distributed in northern North America. Season June-October. Edible-delicious. Comment An almost pure white form is not infrequent; also a closely related (probably undescribed) yellow species with viscid cap may be found at the same time.
Poisonous/Suspect
Stropharia hornemannii (Fr.) Lundell Fenyves harmatgomba. Cap 6-15cm across, broadly convex umbonate; dull reddish brown or purple-brown, with white veil remnants at margin; very viscid when wet. Gills adnate, crowded; pallid then purple-brown. Stem 60-120x 10-20mm; white; strongly fibrillose-scaly below the prominent ring. Flesh white. Odor a little unpleasant. Taste a little unpleasant. Spores ellipsoid, with germ pore, 10-14 x 5.5-7?. Deposit purple-brown. Habitat on rotting conifer logs. Found in Europe and northern North America. Season August-November. Not edible- possibly poisonous.
Inedible
Stropharia coronilla (Bull. ex Fr.) Qu?l. syn. S. obturata (Fr.) Qu?l. Stropharia coronilla Kr?nchen-Tr?uschling S?rga harmatgomba Strophaire coronille Garland Roundhead. Cap 2?4cm across, convex then flattened, light yellow, slightly viscid or greasy. Stem 25?40 x 6?8mm, white tapering towards base; ring white, but often accentuated by trapped deposit of dark spores. Flesh thick, white. Gills white then clay-brown. Pleurocystidia broadly lanceolate with acutely pointed apex, staining deeply in aniline blue in lactic acid. Spore print purple-brown. Spores elliptic with indistinct pore, 7?9 x 4?6um. Habitat lawns and pasture. Season autumn. Common. Edible ? not worthwhile. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Stropharia aurantiaca (Cke.) Orton New syn. Leratiomyces ceres Orangeroter Tr?uschling T?glav?r?s harmatgomba, narancspiros harmatgomba Redlead Roundhead. Cap 1.5?5.5cm across, convex then expanded, orange-red with paler patches when dry, viscid when moist, margin often with whitish velar remnants. Stem 20?100 x 2?10mm, slightly thickened at base, whitish becoming streaked ochraceous or orange-red below. Flesh pale buff to concolorous. Gills whitish at first then olivaceous-clay. Pleurocystidia thin-walled, lanceolate with a sharp-pointed apex and yellowish contents. Cheilocystidia variable in shape, mostly thin-walled and lageniform often with flexuous necks, sometimes irregularly cylindric or clavate with a swollen or even capitate apex. Spore print dark purplish-brown. Spores elliptic, 11?13 x 6?7.5um. Habitat on rotting sawdust, usually in parks or gardens. Season autumn. Rare. Edibility unknown -avoid. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Stropharia aeruginosa (Curt. ex Fr.) Qu?l. Verdigris Agaric, Strophaire vert-de-gris, Vert-de-gris, Gr?nspantr?uschling, Z?ld harmatgomba, Strofaria grigio-verde, Kopergroenezwam. Cap 2?8cm across, convex to bell-shaped then flattened and slightly umbonate, blue to blue-green from the gluten and flecked with white scales, becoming pale yellowish as this is lost. Stem 40?100 x 4?12mm, whitish to blue, apex smooth, covered in small whitish scales below the spreading membranous ring. Flesh whitish-blue. Smell none. Gills white then clay brown, often with a white edge. Cheilocystidia obtuse, clavate-capitate or lageniform capitate; lanceolate chrysocystidia found on gill face and only rarely on gill-edge. Spore print brownish-purple. Spores elliptic, 7?10 x 5um. Habitat woods, heaths and pastures. Season late spring to late autumn. Common. Poisonous. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Rozites caperatus (Pers. ex Fr.) Karst. syn. Pholiota caperata (Pers. ex Fr.) Kummer syn. Cortinarius caperatus (Pers. ex Fr.) Fr. Reifpilz R?ncos feny?gomba Roziote rid?, Pholiote aux ch?vres The Gypsy. Cap 5?10cm across, convex then expanded and umbonate, ochre-buff to ochre-brown, covered in silky white cobwebby fibrils, more densely at the centre. Stem 40?70 x 10?15mm, slightly swollen at the base or bulbous, whitish; ring whitish, narrow, spreading. Flesh whitish tinged ochre. Taste and smell mild and pleasant. Gills pale clay. Spore print ochre-brown. Spores elliptic, finely warted, 10?13 x 8?9um. Habitat on damp acid soils, usually in open situations amongst conifers and heather. Season autumn. Rare in Europe, more common in the USA. Edible, in America it is said to be choice. Distribution, America and Europe.
Hallucinogenic
Psilocybe merdaria (Fr.) Ricken Stropharia merdaria (Fr.) Qu-l. syn. Dung-Tr-uschling. Cap 2-5cm across, obtusely bell-shaped then flattened convex, ochraceous, more cinnamon when moist, viscid. Stem 50-75 x 4-6mm, dry, whitish flushed straw-yellow, base covered in white down. Flesh white, becoming brownish in stem when old. Smell none. Gills pallid then purplish-brown. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, hyaline, lageniform. Spore print brown-black. Spores broadly elliptical and often somewhat angular, with germ-pore, 10-16 x 8-9um. Habitat on horse dung. Season late summer to autumn. Uncommon. Edibility unknown, possibly slightly hallucinogenic although it has not been investigated in detail, all hallucinogenic mushrooms can be dangerous to eat. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Pholiota squarrosa (M-ller ex Fr.) Kummer syn. Dryophila squarrosa (M-ller ex Fr.) Qu-l. Shaggy Scalycap, Pholiote squarreuse, Sparriger Sch-ppling, T-sk-s t-kegomba, Schubbige bundelzwam. Cap 3-10(15)cm across, convex becoming flattened, the margin remaining inrolled, pale straw-yellow densely covered in coarse red-brown, upturned scales, not viscid. Stem 50-120 x 10-15mm, smooth and pale yellow above torn membranous ring, covered in red-brown recurved scales below and darkening at the base. Flesh tough, pale yellowish becoming red-brown in stem base. Taste and smell radishy. Gills crowded, pale yellow at first later cinnamon. Pleurocystidia clavate with mucronate apex. Spore print rust brown. Spores oval, smooth, 5.5-9 x 3.5-5um. Habitat in dense clusters at the base of deciduous and very occasionally coniferous trees. Season autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Pholiota lenta (Fr.) Singer Fak? t?kegomba. Cap 3-8cm across, convex-hemispherical, becoming more expanded in age; whitish to pinkish buff or smoky gray, with a slightly darker disc; sticky to slimy, with scattered white hairy scales of veil remnants. Gills adnate or with a decurrent tooth, close, narrow to medium-broad, edges even to fringed; white becoming grayish brown. Stem 30-100 x 4-12mm, solid or spongy, sub-bulbous; white above, brownish below; finely hairy. Veil copious, cortinate; white; leaves an evanescent ring. Flesh firm; white. Odor slight, radishy. Taste mild. Spores ellipsoid to oblong, smooth, tiny pore at apex, 5.5-7 x 3.5-4.5?. Deposit cigar brown. Pleurocystidia abundant. Habitat on humus debris in mixed woods. Found in Europe and eastern North America and California. Season July-December. Not edible.
Inedible
Pholiota flavida (Fr.) Singer Cap 3-7cm across, convex expanding to almost flat, with an incurved margin with some faint veil remnants; yellow to dingy, watery yellow-ochre or tawny; thinly sticky and smooth. Gills adnate to adnexed, close, narrow to moderately broad, edges even; pallid, becoming pale rusty brown in age. Stem 50-110 x 5-15mm, solid, slightly tapering to the base; pallid above fine hairy zone of evanescent yellowish veil, dark rust-brown from base upward; grooved and finely hairy in lower part. Flesh thick, firm, yellowish. Odor faintly fragrant. Taste mild. Spores oval to subellipsoid, smooth, distinct pore at apex, 7-9 x 4-5-. Deposit cigar brown. No pleurocystidia; cheilocystidia versiform and caulocystidia similar. Habitat in large clusters on logs and stumps and at the base of coniferous and hardwood trees. Found in Europe Maine and the Pacific Northwest of America. Season August-November. Not edible.
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