Ring on stem Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
Stem type:
Spore colour:
Cap type:
Fungus colour:
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Location:
Flesh:
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Total mushrooms fount: 208

Inedible
Pholiota flammans (Fr.) Kummer Freuersch-ppling L-ngsz-n- t-kegomba (l-nggomba) Pholiote flamboyante Flaming Scalycap. Cap 2-8cm across, convex then expanded, tawny yellow covered in recurved lemon- to sulphur-yellow scales, margin incurved. Stem 40-80 x 4-10mm, bright yellow with concolorous cottony ring near the apex, densely covered in concolorous scales below. Flesh pale yellow. Gills pale yellow darkening to rusty yellow with age. Pleurocystidia lanceolate with pointed apex, staining deeply in cotton blue in lactic acid. Spore print rusty. Spores elliptic, 4-4.5 x 2-2.5um. Habitat singly or in tufts on conifer stumps or fallen trunks. Season late summer to autumn. Rare, more frequent in mountains. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Pholiota aurivella (Fr.) Kummer Rozsdas?rga (s?rga) t?kegomba. Cap 4-15cm across, bell-shaped to convex with a broad umbo; ochre-orange to tawny; sticky to slimy with large flattened spot-like scales, which may disappear or become somewhat sticky when wet. Gills adnate, close, moderately broad; pale yellowish becoming tawny brown. Stem 50-80 x 5-15mm, dry, solid, central or off-center; yellowish to yellow-brown; dry and cottony above the ring, hairy and with down-curving scales toward the base. Veil partial veil leaves evanescent ring or zone on upper stalk; white. Flesh firm; yellow. Odor sweet. Taste slight. Spores ellipsoid, smooth, with pore at apex, 7-9.5 x 4.5-6?. Deposit rusty brownish. Caulocystidia absent; pleurocystidia present. Habitat in clusters on living trunks and logs of hardwoods and conifers. Found Europe and in North America except the Southeast. Season June-November. Not edible.
Inedible
Pholiota alnicola (Fr.) Sing. syn. Flammula alnicola (Fr.) Kummer syn. Dryophila alnicola (Fr.) Qu?l. Erlen-Sch?ppling S?rga t?kegomba Alder Scalycap. Cap 2?6(11)cm across, convex to flattened, smooth and greasy, bright lemon-yellow at first becoming flushed olivaceous at the margin, remains of veil often adhering to the margin. Stem 20?80 x 5?10mm, pale lemon-yellow above the remains of the veil becoming rusty-brown towards the base, not viscid. Flesh yellow in cap, rusty towards the stem base. Taste mild to slightly bitter, smell pleasant and sweet. Gills pale yellow at first becoming cinnamon. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, hyaline, hair-like, clavate. Spore print rusty brown. Spores oval, smooth, 8.5?11.5 x 5?5.5um. Habitat solitary or in small clusters on deciduous wood, especially alder, willow and birch. Season autumn. Uncommon. Inedible. Distribution, America and Europe. Note the two forms that I have collected seem to differ in form and will need to be rechecked.
Poisonous/Suspect
Phaeolepiota aurea (Matt. ex Fr.) Maire ex Konrad & Maublanc Aranys-rga t-kegomba. Cap 2-15cm across, obtuse to convex, becoming flatter with a central umbo and the margin often hung with veil remnants; orange-tan to golden brown; dry, granular to powdery. Gills adnate to free, close, broad; pale yellow becoming tawny to orange-brown. Stem 40-150 x 10-40mm expanded toward the base; orange to buff or similar to cap; smooth above the ring, powdery or granular below. Veil partial veil sheathing stalk; same color as cap; granular underneath, smooth above; leaving persistent flaring to drooping ring. Flesh thick; pale or yellowish. Spores ellipsoid, smooth to minutely roughened, 10-14 x 5-6-. Deposit yellowish brown to orange-buff. Habitat in groups or clusters on compost, rich soil, humus, or leaf litter under coniferous or deciduous trees. Quite rare but sometimes abundant. Found in Alaska and the Pacific Northwest. Season September-October. Not edible because it is mildly poisonous to some people. The field photograph was taken by Geoffrey Kibby.
Inedible
Panaeolus semiovatus (Sow. ex Fr.) Lund. syn. Anellaria separata (L. ex Fr.) Karst. syn. P. separatus (L. ex Fr.) Gillet Ring-D?ngerling Gy?r?s tr?gyagomba Egghead Mottlegill. Cap 2?6cm across, ovate-bell-shaped, never expanding, clay white tinged yellowish towards centre, viscid, drying shiny, velar remnants often adhering to margin. Stem 50?100 x 4?8mm, slightly thickened at base, whitish; ring white and membranaceous, persistent. Flesh whitish, yellowish in stem. Gills broad, whitish, soon brown-black, often with a white edge. Pleurocystidia in form of broad lanceolate chrysocystidia with pointed apices. Spore print black. Spores pip-shaped, 16?20 x 10?12um. Habitat on dung. Season spring to early winter. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Oudemansiella mucida (Schrad. ex Fr.) K?hn. syn. Armillaria mucida (Schrad. ex Fr.) Kummer. Porcelain fungus, Poached Egg Fungus, Collybie mucide, Buchen-Schleimr?bling, Gy?r?s f?l?ke, Agarico viscoso, Porseleinzwam. Cap 2?8cm across, convex then flattening, pale greyish when young becoming more white often with an ochraceous flush at the centre, semi-translucent, slimy. Stem 30?100?3?10mm, white striate above the membranous ring, slightly scaly below. Flesh thin, white. Cystidia thin-walled cylindric or utriform. Spore print white. Spores subglobose 13?18?12?15m. Cap cuticle hymeniform, of erect club-shaped cells. Habitat on the trunks of beech, often high up and in large clusters. Season late summer to late autumn. Common. Edible after washing to remove gluten. Found In Europe. The last shot is from Ted Green, thanks Ted.
Choice
Macrolepiota rhacodes (Vitt.) Sing. Lepiota rhacodes (Vitt.) Qu?l. New syn. Chlorophyllum rhacdes, Shaggy Parasol, L?piote D?guenill?e, R?tender Schirmpilz, Safranschirmpilz, Pirul? ?zl?bgomba, Lepiota villosa, Knolparasolzwam. Cap 5?15cm across, ovate then expanding to almost flat, disrupting into broad, pallid, often slightly reflexed scales on a fibrous background, giving the cap a shaggy, torn appearance. Stem 100?150?10?15mm, thickened towards the bulb which is usually oblique, whitish tinged dirty pinkish-brown, bruising reddish brown when fresh; ring double, membranous, movable on the stem. Flesh white becoming orange to carmine red on cutting. Taste pleasant, smell strongly aromatic. Gills white, tinged reddish in older specimens, bruising reddish. Spore print white. Spores elliptic with germ-pore, dextrinoid, 10?12?6?7m. Habitat woods and shrubberies of all kinds, often with conifers. Season summer to late autumn. Frequent. Edible but may cause gastric upsets in some people. Distribution, America and Europe.
Choice
Macrolepiota procera (Scop. ex Fr.) Sing. syn. Lepiota procera (Scop. ex Fr.) S.F. Gray syn. Leucocoprinus procerus (Scop. ex Fr.) Pat. Parasol Mushroom, L?piote ?lev?e, Coulemelle, Nagy ?zl?bgomba, Parasol, Riesenschirmpilz, Parasol, Bubbola maggiore, Fungo parasole, Mazza da tamburo, Grote parasolzwam. Cap 10?25cm across, button spherical or egg-shaped expanding flattened with a prominent umbo, pale buff or grey-brown covered in darker shaggy scales. Stem 150?300 x 8?15mm, 40mm at the bulb, white, with a grey-brown felty covering which becomes split into snake-like markings as the stem expands; ring large, double, white on upper surface, brown below, movable on the stem. Flesh thin, soft, white. Taste sweet, smell slight, indistinctive. Gills free, white. Spore print white. Spores ovate with a germ-pore, dextrinoid, 15?20 x 10?13um. Habitat in open woods and pastures. Season summer and autumn. Uncommon. Edible ? excellent. Distribution, America and Europe. Note the American form of this fungus is rather more delicate in form than the more robust European variety. The third photograph was taken by Geoffrey Kibby.
Edible
Macrolepiota mastoidea (Fr.) Sing. Syn. Macrolepiota gracilenta syn. Lepiota mastioidea (Fr.) Kummer, L. umbonata (Schum.) Schroet. L?piote Mamelonn?e, Spitzbuckliger Schirmpilz, Karcs? nagy?zl?bgomba (?zl?bgomba), Tepelparasolzwam, Slender Parasol. Cap 8?12cm across, subglobose at first expanding flattened convex with a distinct acute umbo, white to cream-ochre covered in minute pale ochraceous granular scales. Stem 80?100?8?15mm, white with small, densely crowded, yellowish-brown granular scales, slightly swollen at the base; ring white and thick. Flesh thin, white. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills white. Spore print white. Spores elliptic, 12?16 x 8?9.5um. Habitat in open woodland. Season autumn. Uncommon. Edible ? good. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Macrolepiota konradii (Huijsman ex. Orton) Moser syn. Lepiota konradii Huijsman ex. Orton syn. L. gracilenta (Krombh.) Qu?l. s. Rea syn. L. excoriata var. konradii Huijsman. L?piote gr?le, Feinschuppiger Schirmpilz, Barnagy?r?s nagy?zl?bgomba (?zl?bgomba), Lepiota di Konrad. Cap 7?12cm across, ovate then slightly umbonate becoming expanded and even depressed, the brownish cuticle breaking up into large adnate scales exposing the white flesh beneath. Stem 100?150 x 8?12mm, bulbous, tapering upwards, whitish covered in small brownish scales. Smell pleasant. Gills white. Spore print white. Spores ovoid with an apical germ-pore, 13?17 x 8?10um. Habitat pasture, heaths and open woodland. Season late summer to late autumn. Rare. Edible with caution as there are poisonous white mushrooms. Distribution, America and Europe.
Edible
Macrolepiota excoriata (Fr.) Wasser syn. Lepiota excoriata (Schaeff ex. Fr.) Kummer syn. Leucocoprinus excoriatus (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Pat. L?piote excori?e, Coulemelle excori?e, Ackerschirmpilz, Csipk?s ?zl?bgomba, Bubbola buona, Tubiet, Rafeligeparasolzwam. Cap 6?10cm across, ovate at first then convex and slightly umbonate, covered in fine adpressed ochre-buff scales on a white ground. Stem 40?60 x 8?10mm, slightly thickened at the base, smooth, white; ring narrow and persistent. Flesh white. Smell none. Gills white to cream. Spore print white to pale ochraceous. Spores oval, 12?15 x 8?9um. Habitat pastureland. Season late summer to late autumn. Rare. Edible with caution because of other white poisonous mushrooms. Distribution, America and Europe. Unfortunately a specimen of L. leucothites has crept into this collection (bottom right).
Edible
Leucoagaricus leucothites (Vitt.) Wasser syn. Lepiota leucothites (Vitt.) Orton syn. L. naucina (Fr.) Kummer L?piote pudique Rosabl?tteriger Schirmpilz Tarl?gomba. Cap 5?8cm across, convex expanding to almost flattened, smooth and silky, whitish becoming flushed flesh-colour or pale cream-ochre. Stem 60?80 x 8?20mm, concolorous with the cap; ring concolorous, narrow, free of the stem. Flesh thick and white in the cap, browning in the stem. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills white becoming pale flesh-colour with age. Spore print white. Spores ovoid, dextrinoid, 7?9 x 4.5?5um. Habitat in gardens or at roadsides. Season autumn. Uncommon. Edible but best avoided due to possible confusion with poisonous species. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Lepiota pseudohelveola K?hn. ex Hora. Brauner Shirmpilz, R?zs?st?nk? (barnagall?r?) ?zl?bgomba. Cap 1?2cm across, slightly umbonate, grey-brown to dirty brown breaking up into fine scales. Stem 25?40 x 2?5mm, white flushed pink-brown; upper surface of ring pinkish, lower brown and flaky. Flesh brownish. Gills white. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, fusoid-ventricose, hyaline. Spore print white. Spores ellipsoid, dextrinoid, 7?10 x 4?5um. Habitat in deciduous woodland. Season autumn. Rare. Edibility unknown -avoid. Found In Europe.
Inedible
Lepiota ignivolvata Bousset-Joss. L-piote - base couleur de feu, Braunbuckliger Schirmpilz, Cs-kosgall-r- (v-r-sl-b-) -zl-gbomba. Cap 4-10cm across, convex then expanded and umbonate, centre reddish-brown, disrupting into tiny crowded ochraceous cream scales which become more dispersed towards the margin. Stem 60-120 x 6-15mm, slightly bulbous, with bright orange zone on the edge of the bulb which often becomes more obvious after collection; there is often a similar orange colour on the underside of the ring. Flesh white. Taste foul, smell strong and rank. Gills white to cream. Spore print white. Spores fusoid, 11-13 x 6um. Habitat deciduous and coniferous woods. Season autumn. Rare. Not edible -avoid. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Lepiota crostata Kummer. L?piote cr?t?e, L?piote cr?pe, Kleiner Stinkschirmling, B?d?s ?zl?bgomba, Lepiota crestata, Stinkparasolzwam, Stinking Dapperling. Cap 2?5cm across, irregularly bell-shaped and umbonate, cuticle reddish-brown and soon broken up, except at centre, into small scales on a white silky background. Stem 20?35 x 3?4mm, white tinged flesh-colour; ring membranous and deciduous. Flesh thin, white. Taste pleasant, smell unpleasant, strongly fungusy. Gills white, becoming brownish with age. Spore print white. Spores bullet-shaped, dextrinoid, 6?7.5 x 3?3.5um. Habitat in woods, garden refuse or in leaf litter. Season summer to autumn. Frequent. Edibility suspect ? avoid. Distribution, America and Europe. The collection on the blue background was made in America, but differs from European material in the much longer stem.
Inedible
Lepiota castanea Qu-l. syn. L. ignites Locquin. L-piote Ch-taine, Kastanienbrauner Schirmpilz, Gesztenye (t-zsz-n-) -zl-bgomba, Lepiota color castagno, Kastanjeparasolzwam, Chestnut Dapperling. Cap 2-4cm across, umbonate, bay to chestnut brown, soon breaking into small granular scales which are formed of minute tufts of hairs. Stem 25-35 x 2-4mm, concolorous with cap and finely brown scaly below; ring zone inconspicuous. Flesh white in cap, brownish in stem. Smell strong and fungusy. Gills whitish, browning with age. Cheilocystidia numerous, thin-walled, subcylindric or clavate, hyaline, 30-47 x 5-8um. Spore print white. Spores bullet-shaped, dextrinoid, 9-13 x 3.5-5um. Hairs of cap scales thin-walled, elongated, obtuse, septate, brown. Habitat in deciduous and coniferous woods. Season autumn. Uncommon. Edibility unknown -avoid. Found In Europe. Note Lepiota ignipes syn. L. rufidula has larger spores and is usually brighter coloured, often in coniferous plantations.
Inedible
Lepiota friesii L?piote ? ?cailles aigu?s Spitzschuppiger Schirmpilz Lepiota aspera Pers. Syn. Cystoplepiota aspera (Pers.) Bon syn. Lepiota friesii (Lasch) Qu?l. syn. L. acutesquamosa var. furcata K?hn. T?sk?s ?zl?bgomba. Cap 5?10cm across, ovoid at first then obtusely conical or bell-shaped, dark brown at the centre elsewhere the surface breaking up into dark brown scales. Stem 30?50 x 5?10mm, pallid often with a few dark brown scales at the extreme base; ring whitish, cottony, often adhering to the cap margin. Flesh white. Gills free, crowded and forked near the stem, white. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, subglobose, hyaline, 8?23m in diameter. Spore print white. Spores narrowly fusoid, dextrinoid, 6?8 x 3?4um. Tips of the scales on the cap surface formed of brownish spherical cells. Habitat in deciduous woods. Season autumn. Occasional. Edibility unknown -avoid. A confused species, Europe and almost certainly America .
Inedible
Lentinus tigrinus (Fr.) Fr. Ny?r- fagomba. Cap 1.5-10cm across, convex to convex-depressed to funnel-shaped, with a somewhat wavy, ragged margin; at first grayish brown to black, with white to buff only showing in maturity; dry, covered in a dense coating of dark brown or blackish hairs or scales, which become sparser in age. Gills decurrent, crowded, narrow; white to yellowish white with ragged edges. Stem 20-60 x 4-l0mm, central to eccentric, tapering downward and often bent; grayish yellowy fawn, lighter at the top, darker at the base; hairy to scaly; creamy partial veil leaves a slight ring or zone toward the top of the stem which may disappear in age, or veil may remain intact, covering the gills. Flesh thin, tough, fibrous; white. Odor mild or none. Taste not distinctive. Spores narrowly cylindric, smooth, nonamyloid, 6-9.5 x 2.5-3.5?. Deposit white. Habitat singly or more commonly in groups or clusters on water-soaked hardwood logs or stumps. Sometimes common. Found in Europe and widely distributed in North America east of the Rockies, but more abundant southward. Season May-September. Edibility not known.
Edible
Lentinus lepideus (Fr. ex Fr.) Fr. New syn. Neolentinus lepideus Pikkelyes fagomba The Train Wrecker. Cap 5-12cm across, convex to nearly flat, with an incurved margin that becomes straight in age; whitish to buff with cinnamon-brown scales; shiny, dry and scaly. Gills adnexed, close, broad, with toothed edges; whitish to buff bruising brownish. Stem 30-100 x 10-15mm, solid, either narrow at the base or bulbous; white, to reddish brown in age; minutely hairy above ring, scaly below; partial veil forms membranous whitish ring on the upper stalk. Flesh white, aging or bruising dirty yellowish. Odor fragrant, like anise. Taste rather disagreeable. Spores almost cylindrical, smooth, nonamyloid, 9-12 x 4-5?. Deposit white. Habitat growing singly, scattered, or in clusters on logs, stumps, fence posts, railroad ties, decaying coniferous wood, and occasionally hardwoods. Common. Found in Europe and widely distributed throughout much of North America. Season May-September (later in California). Edible-good. Comment The stem of this mushroom is extremely tough and woody. Even larger forms of this mushroom can be found in the Southwest; I found a specimen 28cm across in northern Arizona
Edible
Kuehneromyces mutabilis (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Sing. & Smith syn. Galerina mutabilis (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Orton syn. Pholiota mutabilis (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Kummer Stockschw?mmchen ?zletes t?kegomba Pholiote changeante Sheathed Woodtuft. Cap 3?6cm across, convex then expanded and usually umbonate, bright orange-cinnamon when moist drying pale ochraceous from the centre and often appearing distinctly two-coloured. Stem 30?80 x 5?10mm, whitish above becoming darker tan to blackish towards the base, scaly below the ring. Flesh white tinged brownish. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills pallid at first later cinnamon. Spore print deep ochre. Spores ovoid to slightly almond-shaped with germ-pore, 6?7.5 x 4?5um. Habitat in dense clusters on stumps or trunks of deciduous trees. Season spring to early winter. Common. Edible ? good. Take great care not to confuse this species with other smallish brown poisonous fungi. Distribution, America and Europe.
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