Ring on stem Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
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Total mushrooms fount: 208

Poisonous/Suspect
Hypholoma fasciculare (Huds. ex Fr.) Kummer syn. Geophila fasciculari (Huds. ex Fr.) Qu?l. syn. Naematoloma fasciculare (Huds. ex Fr.) Karst. Sulphur Tuft, Hypholome en touffe, Gr?nbl?ttriger Schwefelkopf, S?rga k?nvir?ggomba, Falso chiodino, zolfino, Gewone zwavelkop. Cap 2?7cm across, convex or slightly umbonate, remains of the pale yellow veil often adhering to the margin, bright sulphur-yellow tinged orange-tan towards the centre. Stem 40?100 x 5?10mm, often curved, sulphur at the apex becoming dirty brownish towards the base with a faint ring zone often made more obvious by trapped purple-brown spores. Flesh sulphur-yellow, more brownish towards the stem base. Taste very bitter, smell mushroomy. Gills sulphur-yellow becoming olivaceous, finally dark brown. Spore print purplish-brown. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, cylindric, hair-like. Pleurocystidia broadly clavate with beak-like apex. Spores oval, with pore 6?7 x 4?4.5um. Habitat in dense clusters on stumps of deciduous and coniferous tress. Season all year. Very common. Not edible very bitter. -Now known to be poisonous, deaths have been recorded due to this fungus. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Hypholoma capnoides (Fr. ex Fr.) Kummer Syn Naemateloma capnoides (Fr.) Kar. Graubl?ttriger Schwefelkopf Hypholome capno?de Conifer Tuft Feny? k?nvir?ggomba. Cap 2?6cm across, convex with an indistinct umbo, pale ochraceous flushed tan in the centre, margin buff. Stem 40?100 x 5?10mm, ochraceous buff flushed tan from base up, with white cortinal zone. Flesh yellowish. Taste sweetish, smell not distinctive. Gills whitish at first then greyish-lilac. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, cylindric, hair-like. Pleurocystidia broadly clavate with beak-like apex. Spore print dark brown. Spores ellipsoid-ovate with a distinct pore, 7?8 x 4?5um. Habitat conifer stumps. Season spring to late autumn. Uncommon. Said to be edible -avoid. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Hygrophorus olivaceoalbus (Fr.) Fr. Cap 3-1Ocm across, convex or knobbed becoming flatter; brown to black at the disc, paler ash gray toward margin; slimy and sticky, streaked with distinct, fine dark gray fibers beneath the pellicle. Gills adnate to decurrent, subdistant, moderately broad; white to ashy. Stem 80-140 x 10-30mm; white and smooth at the top above the ring, below the ring a double sheath which is very sticky on the outside with black fibers underneath; in age this breaks up into patches. Veil all over the cap and stalk, making it very slimy; partial veil is fibrous and black, leaving sheath on stem. Flesh soft; white. Odor not distinctive. Taste not distinctive. Spores ellipsoid, nonamyloid, 9-12 x 5-6-. Deposit white. Habitat scattered or growing in dense tufts under conifers and redwood. Sometimes abundant. Found in Europe and widely distributed in northern North America. Season July-December. Edible with caution.
Inedible
Hygrophorus hypothejus (Fr. ex Fr.) Fr. syn. Limacium hypothejum (Fr. ex Fr.) Kummer. Hygrophore ? lames soufre, Gelbbl?ttriger Frostschneckling, Fagy?ll? csigagomba, Igroforo die pini, Dennelsijmkop, Herald of Winter. Hygrophorus hypothejus var. aureus, has now been sunk. Cap 3-6cm across, hemispherical then flattening, sometimes with depressed centre, olive-brown with paler margin, to bright orange, slimy. Stem 40?70 x 7?14mm, whitish tinged yellow or orange, slimy below the ring-like zone. Flesh whitish to pale yellow bruising orange-red. Gills decurrent, pale yellow. Spore print white. Spores ellipsoid to ovoid, 7?9 x 4?5m. Habitat in pinewoods. Season late autumn, often appearing after the first frosts. Common. Edible ? not recommended. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Hebeloma sinapizans (Paulet ex Fr.) Gillet Rettichf?lbling Retekszag? fak?gomba H?b?lome couleur moutarde Bitter Poisonpie. Cap 4?12(20)cm across, convex then flattened and often wavy or upturned at the margin, ochre-brown or tan paling to cream or buff at the margin, greasy at first. Stem 50?120 x 10?20mm, swollen at the base, white covered in brownish scales forming a pattern of bands around the stem. Flesh whitish, becoming hollow in the stem often with a piece of the cap flesh hanging down into the stem cavity. Smell of radish. Gills pale clay-buff later with a cinnamon flush. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, hyaline, with a slightly swollen body and a narrower neck. Spore print rust. Spores almond-shaped, warted, 10?14.5 x 6?8um. Habitat in deciduous and mixed woods. Season autumn. Uncommon. Poisonous. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Hebeloma radicosum (Bull. ex Fr.) Ricken syn. Pholiota radicosa (Bull. ex Fr.) Kummer Marzipanf?lbling Gy?keres fak?gomba H?b?lome radicant Rooting Poisonpie. Cap 6?9cm across, convex, cream to pale yellowish-brown, glutinous in wet weather. Stem 50?80 x 10?15mm, tapering into a long ?tap-root?, white and mealy above the ring, covered in brownish fibrous scales below. Flesh white. Taste sweet, smell of almonds. Gills pallid at first darkening slightly with age. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, hyaline, subcylindric to slightly clavate. Spore print dull brown. Spores almond-shaped, minutely warted, 9?10 x 5?6um. Habitat deciduous woods, usually with oak or beech. Season autumn. Rare. Not Edible -suspect. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Galerina paludosa (Fr.) Kuehn. L-pi turj-ngomba. Cap ochre brown to reddish-ochre, 1-3cm finely granular, conical to convex. Gills adnate. Stem when young fibrous and flaky, with a distinct ring.4-12x1.5-3mm. Spore print rusty-yellowish brown, spores 9.5-11x6-7umfinely warty. Growing on sphagnum moss.
Inedible
Cystoderma granulosum (Fr.) Fayod Cap 1-5cm across, convex; brick red to deep red-brown; surface granular-warty. Gills crowded, adnate; white. Stem 20-60 x 3-6mm; of same color as cap; sheathed up to ring with mealy granular coating, smooth above ring; ring slight, soon vanishing. Flesh white. Odor not distinctive. Taste not distinctive. Spores ellipsoid, smooth, nonamyloid, 3.5-5 x 2-3-. Deposit white. Habitat on soil or moss in mixed woods. Widely distributed throughout North America. Season August-October. Not edible.
Inedible
Cystoderma fallax Smith & Singer Cap 3-5cm across, convex-umbonate; dull rusty brown to tawny ochre; covered with granulose scales or finely powdery. Gills crowded, adnate; white. Stem 30-60 x 3-10mm; dark red-brown and granular below the ring, pallid above; ring large, flaring. Flesh white. Odor pleasant. Taste mild. Spores ellipsoid, smooth, amyloid, 3.5 - 5.5 x 2.8-3.6-. Deposit white. Habitat on moss or humus in conifer woods. Found in the Pacific Northwest across to the Great Lakes. Season August-October. Not edible. Comment Cap surface turns black with KOH.
Inedible
Cystoderma carcharias (Pers. Ex Secr.) Fay. Er?sszag? szemcs?s?zl?bgomba. Cap white with fine granules, eventually pinkish, flatly conical, often umbonate with a pinkish-brownish umbo. Gills white then pink then blackish. Stem white to tinged pinkish, with a distinct ring normally near the apex, above the ring smooth below covered in white granules. Smell musty, unpleasant. Spore print white. Found from summer to autumn in coniferous forests. Not edible.
Poisonous/Suspect
Cystoderma amianthinum ([Scop.] Fr.) Fayod syn. Lepiota amianthina ([Scop.] Fr.) Karst. Cystoderme Amiantac-, Amiant-K-rnchenschirmling, S-rga szemcs-s-zl-bgomba, Cistoderma amiantino, Okergele Korrelhoed, Earthy Powdercap. Cap 2-5cm across, bell-shaped at first expanding to flattened convex, bright ochre-yellow with mealy surface often becoming indistinctly radially wrinkled with age. Stem 30-50 x 4-8mm, concolorous with cap and mealy-granular below the short-lived ring. Flesh thin, yellowish. Gills crowded, white at first becoming creamy yellow. Spore print white. Spores elliptic, amyloid, 5-7 x 3-4um. Cap cuticle turns red-brown with KOH. Habitat on heaths, or in coniferous woodland. Season autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Cortinarius (Telamonia) torvus (Bull. ex Fr.) Fr. Wohlriechender G?rtelfuss Szagos p?kh?l?sgomba Cortinaire farouche Stocking Webcap Cap 3?10cm across, convex then flattened, clay-brown, covered in darker innate radiating fibrils. Stem 40?60 x 10?15mm, slightly swollen at base, clay-buff flushed violaceous above the membranous sheathing ring. Flesh buff flushed violaceous in upper stem. Taste slightly bitter or stinging, smell heavy and sweet. Gills lilac-clay at first later light brown to rust. Spore print rust. Spores elliptic, minutely rough, 8?10 x 5?6.5?. Habitat deciduous woods, especially beech. Season autumn. Uncommon. Edibility Suspect ? avoid as many Cortinarius contain toxins. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Coprinus domesticus (Bolt. ex Fr.) S. F. Gray New syn. Coprinellus domesticus Haus-Tintling H?zi tintagomba Firerug Inkcap. Cap 1?3cm high, ovoid at first expanding convex or bell-shaped, splitting at margin, pale buff with darker tawny centre powdered at first with whitish or buff remains of veil, later smooth and becoming grooved from the margin inwards. Stem 40?155 x 2?10mm, swollen at base, white tinged buff towards the ridged base, often arising from a rust-coloured mat of mycelium. Smell none. Gills white at first rapidly purplish date then black. Spore print dark brown. Spores cylindric ellipsoid, 7.5?10 x 4?5um. Remnants of veil on cap formed of chains of globose or ellipsoid cells which are hyaline or golden brown, thin- to thick-walled and often verrucose. Habitat on dead wood of broad-leaved trees. Season late spring to summer. Uncommon. Not edible. Found In Europe and in America. The picture showing the red mat was taken by Geoffrey Kibby.
Poisonous/Suspect
Coprinus atramentarius (Bull. ex Fr.) Fr. Common Inkcap, Tippler's Bane, Coprin noir d'encre, Grauer Faltentintling, Fungo dell'inchiostro, Kale inktzwam, R?ncos tintagomba. Cap 3-7cm high, ovoid at first, then broadly conical when expanded, with the margin irregularly puckered at first, then becoming split; gray to gray-brown; dry, smooth or silky with minute scales or veil remnants, especially near the center. Gills free, crowded, broad; white then lavender-gray then inky black and soon deliquescing. Stem 70-170 x 9-20mm, hollow; whitish; dry, silky-fibrous; fibrous white partial veil leaving ring zone near base. Odor faint and pleasant or none. Spores ellipsoid, smooth, with pore at tip, 7-11 x 4-6?. Deposit black. Habitat usually in clusters on the ground near rotting or buried wood or in grass. Found widely distributed throughout North America and Europe. Season May-September (November-April in California). Edible but dangerous because it causes alarming symptoms (nausea, palpitations) when taken in conjunction with alcohol; indeed, it has been given to alcoholics to cause these symptoms and eventually cure their habit. Comment Good black drawing ink used to be made from the deliquesced caps by boiling the black "ink" with a little water and cloves.
Inedible
Chamaemyces fracidus (Fr.) Donk Syn. Drosella fracida (Fr.) Sing. syn. Lepiota irrorata Qu?l. Schleimiger Schirmpilz Foltosod? ?zl?bgomba. Cap 2.5?10cm across, convex, pale yellowish at first then straw-coloured, covered in dew-like drops when fresh which on drying often leave dark brown or blackish spots. Stem 30?40 x 7?10mm, whitish and smooth above the membranaceous ring covered in small yellow or brownish scales below, often exuding yellowish or orange-brown droplets. Flesh white. Smell unpleasant. Gills white then yellowish cream. Cheilo- and Pleurocystidia abundant, thin-walled, hyaline, clavate or fusiform, and very conspicuous. Spore print white. Spores ovoid, 4?5 x 4?. Habitat pasture and open woodland. Season early summer to autumn. Rare. Edibility unknown. Found In Europe.
Edible
Armillaria mellea (Vahl. ex Fr.) Kummer syn. Clitocybe mellea (Vahl. ex Fr.) Ricken Honey Fungus or Boot-lace Fungus, Armillaire couleur de miel, T?te de medusa, Hallimasch, Gy?r?s tusk?gomba, Famigliola buona, chiodino buono, Honingzwam Cap 3?12cm across, very variable, convex then flattened and centrally depressed or wavy, yellow ochre, tawny, to dark brown, often with an olivaceous tinge, covered in darker fibrillose scales especially at the centre. Stem 60?150?5?15mm, often tapering towards the base, yellowish becoming reddish-brown at the base, initially with a thick whitish to yellow cottony ring. Flesh white. Taste astringent, smell strong. Gills white at first then yellowish becoming pinkish-brown and often darker spotted with age. Spore print pale cream. Spores elliptic, 8?9 x 5?6?. Habitat in dense clusters on or around trunks or stumps of deciduous and coniferous trees and Hazel. Season summer to early winter. Very common. Edible when cooked but should only be eaten in small amounts as some forms are known to cause stomach upsets. Distribution, America and Europe. The fungus spreads by long black cords called rhizomorphs resembling bootlaces which can be found beneath the bark of infected trees, on roots or in the soil where they can travel large distances to infect other trees. This is one of the most dangerous parasites of trees, causing an intensive white rot and ultimately death; there is no cure and the fungus is responsible for large losses of timber each year. The last picture comes from Ted Green, thanks Ted.
Deadly
Amanita virosa (Fr.) Bertillon in De Chambre. Destroying Angel, Amanite vireuse, Weisser Knollenbl?tterpilz, Hegyeskalap? (k?pkalap?) gal?ca, Kleverige knolamaniet. Cap 5-12cm across, convex-conical at first, then expanded with broad umbo; pure white; smooth, slightly viscid when moist. Gills free, crowded; white. Stem 90-120 x 10-15mm, usually swelling toward base; white with surface often disrupted into shaggy fibrils; base enclosed in a baglike, white, sheathing volva; apex of stem fragile, ring often torn or incomplete. Flesh firm; white. Odor sweet and sickly. Spores globose, amyloid, 8.5-10(11) x (7)7.5-9?. Deposit white. Habitat in mixed woodlands. Common. Found in many parts of North America. Season June-November. Deadly poisonous-many deaths are caused by this fungus in North America. Comment Flesh turns instantly golden yellow with KOH, differentiating this species from the very similar Amanita verna (Bull. per Fr.) Roques (found in the Pacific Northwest), which has a smooth stem. Symptoms of poisoning Amanita virosa and its relative Amanita bisporigera both contain the deadly amatoxin poisons, and since they are so common in North America they have been responsible for many cases of severe poisoning and death. The first symptoms of poisoning are vomiting, persistent diarrhea, and severe stomach pains; the onset of symptoms normally occurs some eight to ten hours or as long as twenty-four hours after eating a meal containing these amanitas. After this there may be a period of apparent improvement before the second effect of the poisoning occurs; this is a deterioration in function of both the liver (hepatic failure) and the kidneys (renal failure). These will show up in the patient as yellowing or discoloration of the whites of the eyes and skin, as in hepatitis, and also in discoloration of the urine. Thus, it is crucial not to leave the patient untreated during the first stages. The sufferer should be taken immediately to the nearest hospital and the doctors informed that mushrooms were eaten during the past few days so that there is no possibility the doctors will misidentify the cause of the poisoning.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita spissa (Fr.) Kummer syn. Amanita excelsa new syn. Amanita excelsa var. spissa (Fr.) Kummer Grey Spotted Amanita, Amanite ?paisse, Grauer Wulstling, Sz?rke gal?ca. Cap 6?10cm across, greyish or brownish, variable, covered in whitish grey hoary patches of volva, eventually losing these to become bare and smooth. Stem 60?120 x 15?25mm, white, lined above the large white ring which also shows strong line marks on its upper surface, covered in small scales below in a concentric pattern towards the swollen base which is deeply buried in the ground; the volva is hardly perceivable on the swollen base. Flesh white, firm; turning purple when treated with sulphuric acid. Smell slight but unpleasant. Gills with a slight decurrent tooth, crowded, white. Spore print white. Spores broadly ellipsoid, amyloid, 9?10 x 8?9?. Habitat in deciduous or coniferous woodland. Season summer to autumn. Frequent. Said to be edible but best avoided since it can easily be confused with the poisonous A. pantherina. The two may be separated on the difference of the velar remnants, greyish in A. spissa, white in A. pantherina, and the presence of a distinct rim around the stem base of A. pantherina. Not edible -avoid many Amanitas contain toxins or deadly toxins. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita rubescens ([Pers.] Fr.) S. F. Gray, The Blusher, Amanite rougissante, Golmotte, Oronge vineuse, Perlpilz, Agarico rosseggiante, Tignosa vinata, Parelamaniet, Pirul? gal?ca. Cap 5?15cm across, rosy brown to flesh colour, sometimes with a yellowish flush covered with white or slightly reddish patches. Stem 60?140?10?25mm, white, strongly flushed with cap colour, white above the striate membranous ring, becoming reddish near the bulbous base which occasionally has scattered scaly patches of volva. Flesh white, gradually becoming pink when bruised or exposed to air, especially in the stem. Taste mild at first then faintly acrid, smell not distinctive. Gills free, white, becoming spotted with red where damaged. Spore print white. Spores ovate, amyloid, 8?9 x 5?5.5?. Habitat in coniferous and deciduous woodland. Season summer to autumn. Very common. Edible when cooked but poisonous if eaten raw; the water it is cooked in should be discarded, best to avoid it altogether as it does contain dangerous toxins. Distribution, America and Europe.
Deadly
Amanita phalloides (Fr.) Link in Willd. Death Cap, Amanite phalloide, Oronge ciqu? vert, Gr?ner Knollenbl?tterpilz, Tignosa verdognola, Groene knolamaniet, Gyilkos gal?ca. Cap 6-15cm across, convex then flattened; variable in color but usually greenish or yellowish with an olivaceous disc and paler margin; also, paler and almost white caps do occur occasionally; smooth, slightly sticky when wet, with faint, radiating fibers often giving it a streaked appearance; occasionally white patches of volval remnants can be seen on cap. Gills free, close, broad; white. Stem 60-140 x 10-20mm, solid, sometimes becoming hollow, tapering slightly toward the top; white, sometimes flushed with cap color; smooth to slightly scaly; the ball-shaped basal bulb is encased in a large, white, lobed, saclike volva. Veil partial veil leaves skirt-like ring hanging near the top of the stem. Flesh firm, thicker on disc; white to pale yellowish green beneath cap cuticle. Odor sickly sweet becoming disagreeable. Spores broadly ellipsoid to subglobose, amyloid, 8-10.5 x 7-9?. Deposit white. Habitat singly or in small groups on the ground in mixed coniferous and deciduous woods. Quite common in Europe, formerly rare in north America but seemingly spreading and becoming frequent, especially in northern California. Found in eastern North America, the Pacific Northwest, and California. Season August-November (November-January in California), Deadly poisonous. Comment This is the most deadly fungus known, and despite years of detailed research into the toxins it contains, no antidote exists against their effects on the human body. Poisoning by Amanita phalloides is characterized by a delay of between six and twenty-four hours from the time of ingestion to the onset of symptoms, during which time the cells of the liver and kidneys are attacked. However, if a gastroirritant has also been consumed-e.g., as the result of eating a mixed collection of mushrooms-gastric upset may occur without the characteristic delay, masking this vital diagnostic evidence. The next stage is one of prolonged and violent vomiting and diarrhea accompanied by severe abdominal pains, lasting for a day or more. Typically this is followed by an apparent recovery, when the victim may be released from the hospital or think his ordeal over. Yet within a few days death may result from kidney and liver failure. Although Amanita phalloides contains many poisonous compounds, it is believed that only the group known as amatoxins are responsible for human poisoning; the others (phallotoxins) are thought to be rendered harmless by being neutralized by other compounds or not being absorbed from the intestinal tract, by being present in very low concentrations, or by being so unstable as to be destroyed by cooking or digestive juices. The amatoxins, however, are fully active orally. The main constituent of this group is a-amanitin, which through its effect on nuclear RNA in liver cells causes the end of protein synthesis, leading to cell death. When filtered through the kidneys, it attacks the convoluted tubules and instead of entering the urine is reabsorbed into the bloodstream and recirculated, causing repeated liver and kidney damage. As with any hepatic disease, treatment relies on the monitoring of blood chemistries, urine output, and so on, and the maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance. In cases of amatoxin poisoning, mortality is 50 to 90 percent, and any chance of survival depends on early recognition. Amanita phalloides var. alba (Vitt.) Gilbert. differs from the type in being entirely white throughout; like Amanita phalloides, it is also deadly poisonous. ------ The large fruiting bodies appear in summer and autumn. ------ * All parts of the mushroom are poisonous; cooking or peeling does not make the mushroom safe to eat. * Ingesting one death cap mushroom is enough to kill a healthy adult. * The poisons are found throughout the cap, gills, stem and spores. ------ What are the symptoms of death cap poisoning? Symptoms of poisoning generally appear between six and 24 hours after ingesting the death cap and can begin with nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. Those who fall ill can improve after a day or two, giving a false impression of recovery. But by that stage the toxin can have caused serious liver damage which can be fatal. Death cap poisoning is considered a medical emergency. If you suspect you have eaten some go to hospital immediately. If possible, take a sample of the mushroom with you.
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