Ring on stem Mushrooms identifications

Edibility:
Habitat:
Stem type:
Spore colour:
Cap type:
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Total mushrooms fount: 208

Deadly
Amanita pantherina (DC. ex Fr.) Secr. Panther Cap Amanite panth?re, Pantherpilz, Agarico panterino, Tignosa bigia, Tignosa bruna, Panteramaniet, P?rducgal?ca, P?rduc gal?ca. Cap 6?10cm across, ochraceous brown, covered with small pure-white warty fragments of the veil, finely striate at the margin. Stem 90?130?10?15mm, white with tattered, pendulous ring which is not striate or grooved, the stem base is bulbous and closely wrapped in the white volva which forms a distinct free rim around the base and one or two belt-like rings just above. Flesh white, becoming hollow in the stem. Taste and smell mild. Gills free, crowded white. Spore print white. Spores broadly ovate, nonamyloid, 8?12 x 6.7?7.5?. Habitat in coniferous or deciduous woodland especially beech. Season summer to autumn. Uncommon. Poisonous ? may be deadly. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita ovoidea (bull. Ex FR.) Qu?l. Nagy gal?ca. Cap 8?25cm across, it stays at the button stage for a long time and is hemispherical at first . Stem 100- 150 x 50mm, scaly with delicate mealy white scales and ending in a bulbous rooting base, the volval is sack like creamy white to ochraceous in age; the ring is white and of a delicate mealy texture, soon breaking up. Flesh white. Taste and smell slight. Gills free, crowded, white. Spore print white. Spores broadly elliptical, amyloid, 10?12 x 6.5?7.5m. Habitat near in or near mixed woodland, on calcareous soils. Season summer to autumn. Rare. Said to be Edible but easily confused with other deadly species, so we strongly advise never to eat it. Distribution Europe.
Deadly
Amanita muscaria (L. ex Fr.) Hooker, Fly Agaric, Amanite tue-mouches, Fausse Oronge, Roter Fliegenpilz, Agarico Moscario, Tignosa Dorata, Ovolaccio, Vliegenzwam, L?gy?l? gal?ca. Cap 8-20cm across, globose or hemispherical at first then flattening, bright scarlet covered with distinctive white pyramidal warts which may be washed off by rain leaving the cap almost smooth and the colour fades. Stem 80-180-10-20mm, white, often covered in shaggy volval remnants as is the bulbous base, the white membranous ring attached to the stem apex sometimes becoming flushed yellow from the pigment washed off the cap. Flesh white, tinged red or yellow below the cap cuticle, Taste pleasant, smell faint. Gills free, white. Spore print white. Spores broadly ovate, nonamyloid, 9.5-10.5-7-8. Habitat usually with birch trees, Season late summer to late autumn. Common. Deadly poisonous. It contains many different toxins see below. Distribution, America and Europe.This is one of the easiest species to recognize and describe, and consequently its properties have been well documented for centuries. The common name Fly Agaric comes from the practice of breaking the cap into platefuls of milk, used since medieval times to stupefy flies. It is a strong hallucinogen and intoxicant and was used as such by the Lapps. In such cases the cap is dried and swallowed without chewing. The symptoms begin twenty minutes to two hours after ingestion. The central nervous system is affected and the muscles of the intoxicated person start to pull and twitch convulsively, followed by dizzines and a death-like sleep. During this stage the mushrooms are often vomited but nevertheless the drunkenness and stupor continue. While in this state of stupor, the person experiences vivid visions and on waking is usually filled with elation and is physically very active. This is due to the nerves being highly stimulated, the slightest effort of will producing exaggerated physical effects, e.g. the intoxicated person will make a gigantic leap to clear the smallest obstacle. The Lapps may have picked up the habit of eating the Fly Agaric through observing the effects of the fungus on reindeer, which are similarly affected. Indeed, they like it so much that all one has to do to round up a wandering herd is to scatter pieces of Fly Agaric on the ground. Another observation the Lapps made from the reindeer was that the intoxicating compounds in the fungus can be recycled by consuming the urine of an intoxicated person. The effects of consuming this species are exceedingly unpredictable; some people remain unaffected while others have similar, or different, symptoms to those above, and at least one death is attributed to A. muscaria. This unpredictability is due to the fungus containing different amounts of the toxins ibotenic acid and muscimol according to season, method of cooking and ingestion, as well as the subject?s state of mind. Ibotenic acid is mostly concentrated in the coloured skin of the cap. This very unstable compound rapidly degrades on drying to form muscimol which is five to ten times more potent. Traditionally, where A. muscaria is used as an inebriant, it is the dried cap which is taken.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita franchetii (Bond.) Fayod syn. Amanita aspera (Fr.) Qu?l. ?rdes gal?ca. Cap 4.5-10cm across, convex becoming flat; straw-colored to yellowy brown or grayish brown; smooth, sticky when wet, then becoming dry, dotted with yellowish patches of volval remains. Gills tree or slightly adnexed, close, broad; whitish or tinged with yellow. Stem 60-140 x 10-20mm, stuffed, tapering slightly toward the top; white smooth or slightly woolly; white to pale yellow hanging ring on upper stem; ball-shaped basal bulb dotted with yellowish patches of volval remnants. Flesh white, but yellowish brown beneath cap cuticle and sometimes bruising reddish brown around insect holes at base. Odor faint, not distinctive. Spores ellipsoid, amyloid, 7.5-9.2 x 5.5-6.5?. Deposit white. Habitat scattered on the ground under conifers and in mixed deciduous woods. Fairly common in the West, occasional in the East. Found in west and east North America. Season August-October (November-February in California). Not edible -avoid many Amanitas contain toxins some deadly.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita eliae Qu?let. F?s?s gal?ca. Cap 4?8cm across, covered in veil remnants when just emerging from the volva later with white patches, the background colour is light yellowish beige . The stem is rather long 100- 120 x 10mm, white, the volva is fragile, white and soon breaks up; the ring is white or slightly coloured like the cap, delicate, soon breaking up. Flesh white. Taste and smell slight. Gills free, white. Spore print white. Spores elliptical, amyloid, (9)11?14 x 6.5?8.5m. Habitat deciduous woodland especially oak, on acid soils. Season summer to autumn. Rare. Not edible, easily confused with other deadly species. Distribution Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita echinocephala (Vitt.) Qu?l. Syn. Amanita solitaria (Bull. ex Fr.) Secr. syn. Aspidella echinocephala (Vitt.) Gilbert Solitary Amanita, Amanite ? verrues, Stachelkopfiger Wulstling, Amanita a cappello aculeato, Stekelkopmaniet, T?sk?s gal?ca. Cap 6?20cm across, colour white with a greenish flush or it can vary from ivory to pale brown, the surface covered with pointed cream warts, less so with age. Stem 80?160 x 20?30mm with ring, swollen towards the pointed, deeply buried base, the lower half of the stem covered in the remains of the volva, the upper part white. Flesh white sometimes with a greenish tinge, bruising yellowish in the stem. Smell unpleasant. Gills free or with a decurrent tooth, white or tinged yellow-green. Spore print white or tinged yellow-green. Spores ellipsoid, amyloid, 9.5?11.5 x 6.5?8?. Habitat on dry, calcareous soils. Season autumn. Rare. Suspect ? should not be eaten many Amanitas contain toxins or poisonous toxins. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita citrina (Schaeff.) S. F. syn. A. mappa (Batsch ex Lasch) Qu?l. Gray. False Death Cap, Amanite citrine, Oronge citrine, Gelber Knollenbl?tterpilz, Tignosa paglierina, Gele knolamaniet, Citromgal?ca (gal?ca). Cap 4?10cm across, ivory to pale lemon especially near the centre, covered in persistent coarse whitish patches which discolour ochre-brown. Stem 60?80?8?12mm, ivory white, tapering and longitudinally lined above the membranous ring, the large basal bulb encased in the remains of the volva which creates a trough around the stem. Flesh white, the stem becoming hollow in older specimens. Taste unpleasant, smelling strongly of raw potatoes. Gills adnexed, whitish. Spore print white. Spores almost spherical, amyloid, 9.5 x 7.5?. Habitat in deciduous or coniferous woods, especially with beech. Season summer to late autumn. Frequent. Inedible possibly poisonous, of no interest as the strong taste and smell make it unpleasant, and to be avoided due to possible confusion with the deadly A. phalloides. Distribution, America and Europe. The earlier start date for fungus names possibly means that Amanita citrina needs to be called A. bulbosa var. citrina, but it to be hoped that a name in such common usage may be left unchanged.Amanita citrina var. alba White False Deathcap Amanita citrina var. alba (Gillet) Gilbert This is a frequently occurring form of A. citrina which differs only in being white throughout. Less strongly smelling than A. citrina, but still disagreeable to taste, inedible to be avoided easily confused with the deadly Amanitas. Distribution, Europe and possibly America . Comment Amanita citrina vat. lavendula Coker (as A. mappa) differs in its flush of lavender, in the universal veil, and sometimes in the streaks on the cap and is probably a distinct species in its own right. (North America).
Choice
Amanita caesarea (Scop. ex Fr.) Qu?l. Caesar?s Mushroom, Amanite des C?sars, Oronge, Kaiserling, Fungo reale, Ovolo buono, Keizeramaniet, Ou de Reig, Cs?sz?rgomba (-gal?ca). Cap 6?18cm across, ovoid or hemispherical becoming expanded convex, clear orange-red, fading or ageing more yellowish, smooth and slightly viscid, finely lined at the margin. Stem 50?120 x 15?25mm, yellow with a large yellow pendulous ring which is often striate, the basal bulb is encased in a large, white bag-like volva. Flesh whitish, distinctly yellow below the cap cuticle. Taste pleasant, smell faint and delicate. Gills free and crowded, yellow. Spore print white to yellowish. Spores elliptical, nonamyloid, 10?14 x 6?11?. Habitat not yet found in Britain, this species favours open deciduous woodland, especially with oaks, in warm regions. Season summer to autumn. Edible ? excellent, this species has been a prized esculent since Roman times and due to its orange-red cap and yellow skin and gills it is not easily confused with others. The European and American form have differences In form and should be treated as different species.In October Spanish markets sell them in large quantities. Note the picture sent to me by Irene and John Palmer is in fact what was known as the American Caesar's Mushroom, but it has now been given specific rank, it is named Amanita jacksonii. [see on this site].
Poisonous/Suspect
Agrocybe semiorbicularis (Bull. ex St. Amans) Fayod syn. Naucoria semiorbicularis (Bull. ex St. Amans) Qu?l. Halbkugeliger Erdsch?ppling S?rga r?tgomba. Cap 1?2cm across, hemispherical to flattened convex, ochraceous to tan. Stem 25?40 x 2?3mm, pallid flushed with cap colour. Flesh ochraceous darkening to tan towards stem base. Smell mealy. Gills adnate, very broad, pale ochraceous at first gradually becoming dark cinnamon with age. Spore print cigar brown. Spores ovoid, 11?13 x 7.5?8?. Habitat amongst grass on lawns, roadsides and sand-dunes. Season late summer to autumn. Occasional. Edibility suspect -avoid. Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Agrocybe praecox (Pers. ex Fr.) Fayod syn. Pholiota praecox (Pers. ex Fr.) Kummer Fr?her Erdsch?ppling Tavaszi r?tgomba Pholiote pr?coce Spring Fieldcap Cap 3?6cm across, convex, ochraceous-cream or light tan, drying almost whitish with darker margin. Stem 40?60 x 4?8mm, cream, with ring. Flesh whitish cream becoming brown in stem with age. Smell mealy. Gills adnate, pale reddish-brown at first darkening with age. Spore print cigar brown. Spores ovoid-ellipsoid, 9?10 x 5?5.5?. Cap cuticle cellular. Habitat amongst grass, usually in shady places, e.g. copses. Season late spring to late autumn. Uncommon. Said to be edible but best avoided. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Agrocybe pediades (Fr.) Fayod S?rga r?tgomba. Cap 1-3cm across, convex; ochre-buff to darker brown when wet; smooth. Gills adnate, crowded; cream then rust-brown. Stem 20-50 X 2-3mm; pale buff; fibrillose. Odor not distinctive. Taste not distinctive. Spores truncate, 9-13 x 6.6-7.5?. Deposit dark brown. Habitat grasslands, pastures. Common. Found in Europe and throughout North America. Season May June. Not edible.
Edible
Agaricus sylvaticus Schaeff. ex Secr., Agaricus silvaticus, Echter Waldchampignon, Agaric des for?ts, Psalliote des for?ts, Erdei csiperke, feny?erdei csiperke, Blushing Wood Mushroom Cap 5?10cm across, convex, covered in ochre to brown fibrils breaking up into small adpressed scales. Stem 50?80 x 10?12mm, whitish sometimes with brownish fibrous scales below the dirty brown ring. Flesh white, reddening on cutting when fresh, later turning brownish. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills pale at first then reddish, later dark brown. Cheilocystidia thin-walled, clavate. Spore print brown. Spores ovoid, 4.5?6 x 3?3.5?. Habitat coniferous woods. Season summer to autumn. Rare. Edible ? good. Distribution, America and Europe. A. haemorrhoidarius (formerly a subspecies of A. silvaticus) is distinguished by its different habitat; it grows in deciduous woods. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Agaricus semotus Fr. syn. A. comtulus var. amethystinus (Qu?l.) Konrad & Maubl. syn. Psalliota amethystina (Qu?l.) Lange Apr? csiperke Weinr?tlicher Zwergegerling Rosy Wood Mushroom Cap 2?5cm across, obtusely ovoid expanding flattened-convex, white at first soon covered in small lilaceous scales at the centre with vinaceous fibres radiating out towards the white margin, finally yellowing to a dirty brownish. Stem 30?60 x 4?8mm, white but yellowing at the bulbous base; ring double, pendulous. Flesh white, staining yellow in stem base. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills very pale at first then pinkish, finally grey-brown. Cheilocystidia numerous, thin-walled, ovate to broadly clavate, hyaline or brownish, 12?26 x 4?14?. Spore print brown. Spores elliptic, 4.5?5 x 2.5?3?. Habitat in clearings and on the edges of deciduous and coniferous woods. Season summer to autumn. Rare. Poisonous to some people; best avoided. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Agaricus praeclaresquamosus Freeman syn. Agaricus meleagris of many American authors Cap 5-20cm across, convex with flattened disc; with gray to gray-brown or blackish flattened scales on a white background; dry. Gills free, crowded; white to grayish then deep brown. Stem 80-150 x 10-30mm, equal to clavate; white, often discoloring reddish brown; smooth; ring white, thick, felt-like, membranous, very persistent. Flesh firm; white, bruising bright yellow in the extreme base of the stem, finally reddish brown. Odor unpleasant, phenolic, ink-like, especially when flesh is crushed or cooked. Taste similar. Spores ovoid, 4-6.5 x 3-3.5(4)?. Deposit deep brown. Habitat under mixed woods, along roads and paths. Frequent. Found throughout western North America. Season September-December. Not edible- poisonous to many. Comment The name meleagris cannot be used for this since another fungus-formerly placed in Agaricus- was given this name earlier.
Edible
Agaricus macrosporus (M?ller & Schaeff.) Pil?t syn. Psalliota subsp. macrospora M?ller & Schaeff. Grosssporiger Egerling Agaric ? grande spores Nagysp?r?s csiperke. Cap 8?25(50)cm across, convex, whitish splitting into large ochraceous scales or patches and the margin becoming toothed with age. Stem 50?100 x 25?35mm, frequently with a fusiform rooting base, whitish cream covered in easily removable floccules; ring thick and scaly on the underside. Flesh firm and whitish, sometimes reddening in the stem on cutting. Taste mushroomy, smell faint of crushed almonds when young, rapidly smelling more ammoniacal. Gills whitish-grey at first, finally dark brown. Cheilocystidia numerous, ovate, 8?31 x 6?16?. Spore print brown. Spores ellipsoid, 8?12 x 5.5?6.5?. Habitat in rings in pastureland. Season summer to autumn. Occasional. Edible ? good. Found In Europe.
Edible
Agaricus leucotrichus M?ller Cap 8-13cm across, ovate-campanulate, flattened at disc; white to pale straw yellow with age; silky, densely fibrillose-hairy with tiny erect, pointed scales. Gills free, crowded; white to pink then dark brown. Stem 80-120 x 15-25(30)mm, equal to clavate-swollen; white to buff; smooth above the ring, floccose tomentose below; ring white, thin, pendant, undersurface with small veil remnants. Flesh white, pinkish buff when old or bruised. Odor pleasant, almond-like. Taste pleasant, almond-like. Spores ellipsoid-ovoid, 6.5-7.5(8) x 4.5-5?. Deposit deep brown. Habitat in spruce woods. Found in Colorado. Season September. Edible. Comment This group of specimens agrees very well with the European description, except that the gills are rather more pink than recorded. Pending a better American name being found for this fungus, the European name is applied here.
Edible
Tricholoma cingulatum (Fr.) Jacobasch syn. T. ramentacea (Bull. ex Fr.) Kummer. Tricolome ceintur?, Beringter Ritterling, ?ves (f?zfa) pereszke, Geringde ridderzwam, Girdled Knight. Cap 3.5?6cm across, expanded convex with a slight umbo, pale grey covered in fine grey-brown felt. Stem 50?80 x 8?12mm, whitish with a somewhat woolly ring. Flesh white. Taste and smell mealy. Gills emarginate, whitish. Spore print white. Spores 4?5.5 x 2.5?3.5um. Habitat usually with willows. Season late summer to late autumn. Occasional. Edible -caution. (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Found In Europe.
Inedible
Tricholoma aurantium (Fr.) Ricken Narancsv?r?s pereszke. Cap 4-10cm across, convex becoming flatter with an obtuse umbo and an inrolled margin at first; color varies from yellow-orange to tawny to rusty orange or orange-brown or orange-red sometimes splashed with green; sticky when moist, smooth then breaking into small scales; sometimes orange droplets on the margin when moist. Gills adnate or notched, close, narrow; white staining rusty brown. Stem 30-80 x 8-20mm solid, firm; white background densely covered with rusty--orange scales below the ring zone; scaly or scurfy; small, cobweb-like partial veil leaves a line on the stem. Flesh thick; white. Odor strongly of rancid meal. Taste disagreeable, of meal or rancid oil. Spores ellipsoid to subglobose, smooth, 4-6x3-5um. Deposit white. Habitat singly, scattered, or in groups on the ground in mixed woods, under conifers, aspen, and madrone. Sometimes common and abundant. Found in Europe and widely distributed in North America. Season July-October (November February in California). Not edible.
Inedible
Suillus umbonatus Dick & Snell Cap 3-6cm across, broadly convex with an acute umbo; olive tan, sometimes paler toward margin and darker on the umbo; slimy and sticky, streaked with rusty-brown gluten. Tubes adnate to subdecurrent, separating clearly; buff-colored. Pores subangular; pale yellow to greenish yellow, staining dirty pink when bruised. Stem 25-40 x 3-8mm, solid; pale yellow above the ring, whitish but streaked and blotched with brownish dots from below the ring to the base. Veil gelatinous becoming dirty pink; leaving a gelatinous ring. Flesh very soft; pale yellow, becoming tinged with pinkish buff when cut. Odor not distinctive. Taste slightly sour. Spores ellipsoid, 7-10 x 3-4.5-. Deposit dull cinnamon. Habitat gregarious and sometimes growing in dense tufts among moss under pine. Often common. Found in the Rocky Mountains and Pacific Northwest. Season July-November. Probably edible but not recommended.
Inedible
Suillus tridentinus (Bres.) Sing. syn. Boletus tridentinus Bres. Rostroter L?rchenr?hrling Rozsdav?r?s feny?tin?ru, Rozsdav?r?s gy?r?stin?ru (-tin?ru). Cap 5?12cm across, orange or reddish-brown with darker adpressed indistinct scales, covered in apricot gluten. Stem 40?75 x 12?20mm, white to yellow at apex, dotted brownish to vinaceous below, with a rust-coloured net and a white to yellowish ring. Flesh pale lemon-yellow with faint pinkish tinge in cap which gradually deepens on exposure to air. Taste and smell pleasant. Tubes 1?5mm long, subdecurrent, yellow to orange, finally rust. Pores often compound, angular, yellow-orange becoming deep orange to rust-coloured with age. Spore print dark straw-yellow with a sienna tint. Spores elliptic, 10?13 x 4?5um. Habitat with larch. Season autumn. Rare, more frequent in Southern England. Edibility unknown. Found In Europe.
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