Volva on stem Mushrooms identifications

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Total mushrooms fount: 58

Inedible
Phallus duplicatus syn. Phallus duplicatus syn. Phallus indusiatus Vent. & Pers. syn. Dictyophora indusiata. Long-net tinkhorn, Crinoline Stinkhorn, Bridal Veil Fungus or Veiled Lady. Stem up to 30cm, with a very large distinctive white 'Veil' hanging often to the ground. The cap is covered in a brownish-green slime that contains the spores, which is scented like rotten meat to attract flies, the flies alight on the sticky mass and thus disperse the spores on their feet. In China it is cultivated and dried for sale as an aphrodisiac. Found in Mexico and further south and quite common in China, india and Malasia. The habitat is usually on wood chips or remains of wood in forests including bamboo. Possible typo: dictyophota ( Dictyophora indusiata )
Edible
Phallus indusiatus is a fungus in the family Phallaceae, or stinkhorns. It has a cosmopolitan distribution in tropical areas, and is found in southern Asia, Africa, the Americas, and Australia, where it grows in woodlands and gardens in rich soil and well-rotted woody material. The fruit body of the fungus is characterised by a conical to bell-shaped cap on a stalk and a delicate lacy "skirt", or indusium, that hangs from beneath the cap and reaches nearly to the ground.
Edible
Volvariella bombycina (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Sing. syn. Volvaria bombycina (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Kummer. Wolliger Scheidling ?ri?s bocskorosgomba Volvaire soyeuse Silky Rosegill. Cap 5?20cm across, ovate then bell-shaped, whitish covered in long fine yellowish silky, almost hair-like fibres. Stem 70?150 x 10?20mm, often curved, tapering upwards from the bulbous base; volva membranous, large and persistant, somewhat viscid, white at first discolouring dingy brown. Flesh white becoming faintly yellowish. Taste slight, smell pleasant, like that of bean sprouts. Gills crowded, white at first then flesh-pink. Spore print pink. Spores elliptic, 8.5?10 x 5?6um. Habitat dead frondose trees, Maple, elm, and others, often in knot-holes or hollow trunks. Season early summer to autumn. Rare. Edible (Never eat any mushroom until you are certain it is edible as many are poisonous and some are deadly poisonous.) Distribution, America and Europe.
Inedible
Phallus impudicus Pers. syn. Ithyphallus impudicus (L.) Fr. Stinkhorn, Phallus Impudique, Satyre puant, Oeuf du diable, Gemeine Stinkmorchel, Erdei sz-m-rcs-g, Satirione, Grote Stinkzwam. Fruit body initially semi-submerged and covered by leaf-litter, egg-like, 3-6cm across, attached to substrate by a cord-like mycelial strand. The outer wall of the egg is white to pinkish but there is a thick gelatinous middle layer held between the membranous inner and outer layers. The egg is soon ruptured, as the white hollow stalk-like receptacle extends to 10-25cm high, the pendulous, bell-shaped head is covered by a meshwork of raised ribs covered in dark olive slime which contains the spores. This slime has a strong sickly offensive smell which attracts flies from large distances, the slime sticks to the legs of the flies and thus acts as a means of spore dispersal which takes place very rapidly, exposing the underlying mesh of the cap. Spores pale yellow, oblong, 3.5-4 x 1.5-2-. Habitat associated with rotting wood which may be buried in the soil, in gardens and woodland. Season summer to late autumn. Very common. The egg stage, which lacks the disgusting smell, is edible though not tasty; it is said to be an aphrodisiac presumably through association with its phallic shape. Distribution, America and Europe. The second picture was taken by Geoffrey Kibby. The latest one sent in from Australia does not look the same as the European species, mainly because of the scarlet colour, is there an Australian name for this fungus?
Inedible
Mutinus caninus (Pers.) Fr. Dog Stinkhorn, Phallus de Chien, Satyre des cheins, Hundsrute, K-z-ns-ges kutyasz-m-rcs-g, Fallo canino, mutino canino, Kliene Stinkzwam, Kutyasz-m-rcs-g. Fruit body initially a semi-submerged eggs as in Phallus impudicus but much smaller, 1-2cm across and more cylindric in shape, whitish-yellow, finally rupturing when the hollow pitted receptacle extends. Stem 10-12cm high, pale yellow-buff to bright orange, surmounted by the narrow conical orange-red head covered in dark olive slime which contains the spores and has a very slight sickly smell. Spores pale yellow, oblong, 4-5 x 1.5-2-. Habitat in leaf litter in woods. Season summer to late autumn. Occasional. Not edible. Distribution, America and Europe.
Deadly
Amanita virosa (Fr.) Bertillon in De Chambre. Destroying Angel, Amanite vireuse, Weisser Knollenbl?tterpilz, Hegyeskalap? (k?pkalap?) gal?ca, Kleverige knolamaniet. Cap 5-12cm across, convex-conical at first, then expanded with broad umbo; pure white; smooth, slightly viscid when moist. Gills free, crowded; white. Stem 90-120 x 10-15mm, usually swelling toward base; white with surface often disrupted into shaggy fibrils; base enclosed in a baglike, white, sheathing volva; apex of stem fragile, ring often torn or incomplete. Flesh firm; white. Odor sweet and sickly. Spores globose, amyloid, 8.5-10(11) x (7)7.5-9?. Deposit white. Habitat in mixed woodlands. Common. Found in many parts of North America. Season June-November. Deadly poisonous-many deaths are caused by this fungus in North America. Comment Flesh turns instantly golden yellow with KOH, differentiating this species from the very similar Amanita verna (Bull. per Fr.) Roques (found in the Pacific Northwest), which has a smooth stem. Symptoms of poisoning Amanita virosa and its relative Amanita bisporigera both contain the deadly amatoxin poisons, and since they are so common in North America they have been responsible for many cases of severe poisoning and death. The first symptoms of poisoning are vomiting, persistent diarrhea, and severe stomach pains; the onset of symptoms normally occurs some eight to ten hours or as long as twenty-four hours after eating a meal containing these amanitas. After this there may be a period of apparent improvement before the second effect of the poisoning occurs; this is a deterioration in function of both the liver (hepatic failure) and the kidneys (renal failure). These will show up in the patient as yellowing or discoloration of the whites of the eyes and skin, as in hepatitis, and also in discoloration of the urine. Thus, it is crucial not to leave the patient untreated during the first stages. The sufferer should be taken immediately to the nearest hospital and the doctors informed that mushrooms were eaten during the past few days so that there is no possibility the doctors will misidentify the cause of the poisoning.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita vaginata (Bull. ex Fr.) Vitt. syn. Amanitopsis vaginata (Bull. ex Fr.) Roze. Grisette, Coucoumelle grise, Grauer Scheidenstreifling, Sz?rke selyemgomba, Falso farfaraccio, Colombina, Grijze slanke amaniet, Cap 5?9cm across, ovoid at first expanding to almost flat with umbo, typically grey-brown, more rarely darker or lighter, or even white (var. alba), distinctly lined at margin. Stem 130?200 x 15?20mm, tapering towards the apex, whitish flushed with cap colour, base enclosed in large bag-like volva tinged grey, no ring. Flesh white, becoming hollow in stem. Taste and smell not distinctive. Gills crowded, adnexed, white. Spore print white. Spores globose, nonamyloid, 9?12? in diameter. Habitat in deciduous woods, or on heaths. Season summer to autumn. Frequent. Said to be edible but best avoided due to possible confusion with the deadly Amanitas. Distribution, America and Europe. The third picture is very pale and is probably Var. alba.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita spissa (Fr.) Kummer syn. Amanita excelsa new syn. Amanita excelsa var. spissa (Fr.) Kummer Grey Spotted Amanita, Amanite ?paisse, Grauer Wulstling, Sz?rke gal?ca. Cap 6?10cm across, greyish or brownish, variable, covered in whitish grey hoary patches of volva, eventually losing these to become bare and smooth. Stem 60?120 x 15?25mm, white, lined above the large white ring which also shows strong line marks on its upper surface, covered in small scales below in a concentric pattern towards the swollen base which is deeply buried in the ground; the volva is hardly perceivable on the swollen base. Flesh white, firm; turning purple when treated with sulphuric acid. Smell slight but unpleasant. Gills with a slight decurrent tooth, crowded, white. Spore print white. Spores broadly ellipsoid, amyloid, 9?10 x 8?9?. Habitat in deciduous or coniferous woodland. Season summer to autumn. Frequent. Said to be edible but best avoided since it can easily be confused with the poisonous A. pantherina. The two may be separated on the difference of the velar remnants, greyish in A. spissa, white in A. pantherina, and the presence of a distinct rim around the stem base of A. pantherina. Not edible -avoid many Amanitas contain toxins or deadly toxins. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita rubescens ([Pers.] Fr.) S. F. Gray, The Blusher, Amanite rougissante, Golmotte, Oronge vineuse, Perlpilz, Agarico rosseggiante, Tignosa vinata, Parelamaniet, Pirul? gal?ca. Cap 5?15cm across, rosy brown to flesh colour, sometimes with a yellowish flush covered with white or slightly reddish patches. Stem 60?140?10?25mm, white, strongly flushed with cap colour, white above the striate membranous ring, becoming reddish near the bulbous base which occasionally has scattered scaly patches of volva. Flesh white, gradually becoming pink when bruised or exposed to air, especially in the stem. Taste mild at first then faintly acrid, smell not distinctive. Gills free, white, becoming spotted with red where damaged. Spore print white. Spores ovate, amyloid, 8?9 x 5?5.5?. Habitat in coniferous and deciduous woodland. Season summer to autumn. Very common. Edible when cooked but poisonous if eaten raw; the water it is cooked in should be discarded, best to avoid it altogether as it does contain dangerous toxins. Distribution, America and Europe.
Deadly
Amanita phalloides (Fr.) Link in Willd. Death Cap, Amanite phalloide, Oronge ciqu? vert, Gr?ner Knollenbl?tterpilz, Tignosa verdognola, Groene knolamaniet, Gyilkos gal?ca. Cap 6-15cm across, convex then flattened; variable in color but usually greenish or yellowish with an olivaceous disc and paler margin; also, paler and almost white caps do occur occasionally; smooth, slightly sticky when wet, with faint, radiating fibers often giving it a streaked appearance; occasionally white patches of volval remnants can be seen on cap. Gills free, close, broad; white. Stem 60-140 x 10-20mm, solid, sometimes becoming hollow, tapering slightly toward the top; white, sometimes flushed with cap color; smooth to slightly scaly; the ball-shaped basal bulb is encased in a large, white, lobed, saclike volva. Veil partial veil leaves skirt-like ring hanging near the top of the stem. Flesh firm, thicker on disc; white to pale yellowish green beneath cap cuticle. Odor sickly sweet becoming disagreeable. Spores broadly ellipsoid to subglobose, amyloid, 8-10.5 x 7-9?. Deposit white. Habitat singly or in small groups on the ground in mixed coniferous and deciduous woods. Quite common in Europe, formerly rare in north America but seemingly spreading and becoming frequent, especially in northern California. Found in eastern North America, the Pacific Northwest, and California. Season August-November (November-January in California), Deadly poisonous. Comment This is the most deadly fungus known, and despite years of detailed research into the toxins it contains, no antidote exists against their effects on the human body. Poisoning by Amanita phalloides is characterized by a delay of between six and twenty-four hours from the time of ingestion to the onset of symptoms, during which time the cells of the liver and kidneys are attacked. However, if a gastroirritant has also been consumed-e.g., as the result of eating a mixed collection of mushrooms-gastric upset may occur without the characteristic delay, masking this vital diagnostic evidence. The next stage is one of prolonged and violent vomiting and diarrhea accompanied by severe abdominal pains, lasting for a day or more. Typically this is followed by an apparent recovery, when the victim may be released from the hospital or think his ordeal over. Yet within a few days death may result from kidney and liver failure. Although Amanita phalloides contains many poisonous compounds, it is believed that only the group known as amatoxins are responsible for human poisoning; the others (phallotoxins) are thought to be rendered harmless by being neutralized by other compounds or not being absorbed from the intestinal tract, by being present in very low concentrations, or by being so unstable as to be destroyed by cooking or digestive juices. The amatoxins, however, are fully active orally. The main constituent of this group is a-amanitin, which through its effect on nuclear RNA in liver cells causes the end of protein synthesis, leading to cell death. When filtered through the kidneys, it attacks the convoluted tubules and instead of entering the urine is reabsorbed into the bloodstream and recirculated, causing repeated liver and kidney damage. As with any hepatic disease, treatment relies on the monitoring of blood chemistries, urine output, and so on, and the maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance. In cases of amatoxin poisoning, mortality is 50 to 90 percent, and any chance of survival depends on early recognition. Amanita phalloides var. alba (Vitt.) Gilbert. differs from the type in being entirely white throughout; like Amanita phalloides, it is also deadly poisonous. ------ The large fruiting bodies appear in summer and autumn. ------ * All parts of the mushroom are poisonous; cooking or peeling does not make the mushroom safe to eat. * Ingesting one death cap mushroom is enough to kill a healthy adult. * The poisons are found throughout the cap, gills, stem and spores. ------ What are the symptoms of death cap poisoning? Symptoms of poisoning generally appear between six and 24 hours after ingesting the death cap and can begin with nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. Those who fall ill can improve after a day or two, giving a false impression of recovery. But by that stage the toxin can have caused serious liver damage which can be fatal. Death cap poisoning is considered a medical emergency. If you suspect you have eaten some go to hospital immediately. If possible, take a sample of the mushroom with you.
Deadly
Amanita pantherina (DC. ex Fr.) Secr. Panther Cap Amanite panth?re, Pantherpilz, Agarico panterino, Tignosa bigia, Tignosa bruna, Panteramaniet, P?rducgal?ca, P?rduc gal?ca. Cap 6?10cm across, ochraceous brown, covered with small pure-white warty fragments of the veil, finely striate at the margin. Stem 90?130?10?15mm, white with tattered, pendulous ring which is not striate or grooved, the stem base is bulbous and closely wrapped in the white volva which forms a distinct free rim around the base and one or two belt-like rings just above. Flesh white, becoming hollow in the stem. Taste and smell mild. Gills free, crowded white. Spore print white. Spores broadly ovate, nonamyloid, 8?12 x 6.7?7.5?. Habitat in coniferous or deciduous woodland especially beech. Season summer to autumn. Uncommon. Poisonous ? may be deadly. Distribution, America and Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita ovoidea (bull. Ex FR.) Qu?l. Nagy gal?ca. Cap 8?25cm across, it stays at the button stage for a long time and is hemispherical at first . Stem 100- 150 x 50mm, scaly with delicate mealy white scales and ending in a bulbous rooting base, the volval is sack like creamy white to ochraceous in age; the ring is white and of a delicate mealy texture, soon breaking up. Flesh white. Taste and smell slight. Gills free, crowded, white. Spore print white. Spores broadly elliptical, amyloid, 10?12 x 6.5?7.5m. Habitat near in or near mixed woodland, on calcareous soils. Season summer to autumn. Rare. Said to be Edible but easily confused with other deadly species, so we strongly advise never to eat it. Distribution Europe.
Deadly
Amanita muscaria (L. ex Fr.) Hooker, Fly Agaric, Amanite tue-mouches, Fausse Oronge, Roter Fliegenpilz, Agarico Moscario, Tignosa Dorata, Ovolaccio, Vliegenzwam, L?gy?l? gal?ca. Cap 8-20cm across, globose or hemispherical at first then flattening, bright scarlet covered with distinctive white pyramidal warts which may be washed off by rain leaving the cap almost smooth and the colour fades. Stem 80-180-10-20mm, white, often covered in shaggy volval remnants as is the bulbous base, the white membranous ring attached to the stem apex sometimes becoming flushed yellow from the pigment washed off the cap. Flesh white, tinged red or yellow below the cap cuticle, Taste pleasant, smell faint. Gills free, white. Spore print white. Spores broadly ovate, nonamyloid, 9.5-10.5-7-8. Habitat usually with birch trees, Season late summer to late autumn. Common. Deadly poisonous. It contains many different toxins see below. Distribution, America and Europe.This is one of the easiest species to recognize and describe, and consequently its properties have been well documented for centuries. The common name Fly Agaric comes from the practice of breaking the cap into platefuls of milk, used since medieval times to stupefy flies. It is a strong hallucinogen and intoxicant and was used as such by the Lapps. In such cases the cap is dried and swallowed without chewing. The symptoms begin twenty minutes to two hours after ingestion. The central nervous system is affected and the muscles of the intoxicated person start to pull and twitch convulsively, followed by dizzines and a death-like sleep. During this stage the mushrooms are often vomited but nevertheless the drunkenness and stupor continue. While in this state of stupor, the person experiences vivid visions and on waking is usually filled with elation and is physically very active. This is due to the nerves being highly stimulated, the slightest effort of will producing exaggerated physical effects, e.g. the intoxicated person will make a gigantic leap to clear the smallest obstacle. The Lapps may have picked up the habit of eating the Fly Agaric through observing the effects of the fungus on reindeer, which are similarly affected. Indeed, they like it so much that all one has to do to round up a wandering herd is to scatter pieces of Fly Agaric on the ground. Another observation the Lapps made from the reindeer was that the intoxicating compounds in the fungus can be recycled by consuming the urine of an intoxicated person. The effects of consuming this species are exceedingly unpredictable; some people remain unaffected while others have similar, or different, symptoms to those above, and at least one death is attributed to A. muscaria. This unpredictability is due to the fungus containing different amounts of the toxins ibotenic acid and muscimol according to season, method of cooking and ingestion, as well as the subject?s state of mind. Ibotenic acid is mostly concentrated in the coloured skin of the cap. This very unstable compound rapidly degrades on drying to form muscimol which is five to ten times more potent. Traditionally, where A. muscaria is used as an inebriant, it is the dried cap which is taken.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita franchetii (Bond.) Fayod syn. Amanita aspera (Fr.) Qu?l. ?rdes gal?ca. Cap 4.5-10cm across, convex becoming flat; straw-colored to yellowy brown or grayish brown; smooth, sticky when wet, then becoming dry, dotted with yellowish patches of volval remains. Gills tree or slightly adnexed, close, broad; whitish or tinged with yellow. Stem 60-140 x 10-20mm, stuffed, tapering slightly toward the top; white smooth or slightly woolly; white to pale yellow hanging ring on upper stem; ball-shaped basal bulb dotted with yellowish patches of volval remnants. Flesh white, but yellowish brown beneath cap cuticle and sometimes bruising reddish brown around insect holes at base. Odor faint, not distinctive. Spores ellipsoid, amyloid, 7.5-9.2 x 5.5-6.5?. Deposit white. Habitat scattered on the ground under conifers and in mixed deciduous woods. Fairly common in the West, occasional in the East. Found in west and east North America. Season August-October (November-February in California). Not edible -avoid many Amanitas contain toxins some deadly.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita eliae Qu?let. F?s?s gal?ca. Cap 4?8cm across, covered in veil remnants when just emerging from the volva later with white patches, the background colour is light yellowish beige . The stem is rather long 100- 120 x 10mm, white, the volva is fragile, white and soon breaks up; the ring is white or slightly coloured like the cap, delicate, soon breaking up. Flesh white. Taste and smell slight. Gills free, white. Spore print white. Spores elliptical, amyloid, (9)11?14 x 6.5?8.5m. Habitat deciduous woodland especially oak, on acid soils. Season summer to autumn. Rare. Not edible, easily confused with other deadly species. Distribution Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita echinocephala (Vitt.) Qu?l. Syn. Amanita solitaria (Bull. ex Fr.) Secr. syn. Aspidella echinocephala (Vitt.) Gilbert Solitary Amanita, Amanite ? verrues, Stachelkopfiger Wulstling, Amanita a cappello aculeato, Stekelkopmaniet, T?sk?s gal?ca. Cap 6?20cm across, colour white with a greenish flush or it can vary from ivory to pale brown, the surface covered with pointed cream warts, less so with age. Stem 80?160 x 20?30mm with ring, swollen towards the pointed, deeply buried base, the lower half of the stem covered in the remains of the volva, the upper part white. Flesh white sometimes with a greenish tinge, bruising yellowish in the stem. Smell unpleasant. Gills free or with a decurrent tooth, white or tinged yellow-green. Spore print white or tinged yellow-green. Spores ellipsoid, amyloid, 9.5?11.5 x 6.5?8?. Habitat on dry, calcareous soils. Season autumn. Rare. Suspect ? should not be eaten many Amanitas contain toxins or poisonous toxins. Found In Europe.
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita citrina (Schaeff.) S. F. syn. A. mappa (Batsch ex Lasch) Qu?l. Gray. False Death Cap, Amanite citrine, Oronge citrine, Gelber Knollenbl?tterpilz, Tignosa paglierina, Gele knolamaniet, Citromgal?ca (gal?ca). Cap 4?10cm across, ivory to pale lemon especially near the centre, covered in persistent coarse whitish patches which discolour ochre-brown. Stem 60?80?8?12mm, ivory white, tapering and longitudinally lined above the membranous ring, the large basal bulb encased in the remains of the volva which creates a trough around the stem. Flesh white, the stem becoming hollow in older specimens. Taste unpleasant, smelling strongly of raw potatoes. Gills adnexed, whitish. Spore print white. Spores almost spherical, amyloid, 9.5 x 7.5?. Habitat in deciduous or coniferous woods, especially with beech. Season summer to late autumn. Frequent. Inedible possibly poisonous, of no interest as the strong taste and smell make it unpleasant, and to be avoided due to possible confusion with the deadly A. phalloides. Distribution, America and Europe. The earlier start date for fungus names possibly means that Amanita citrina needs to be called A. bulbosa var. citrina, but it to be hoped that a name in such common usage may be left unchanged.Amanita citrina var. alba White False Deathcap Amanita citrina var. alba (Gillet) Gilbert This is a frequently occurring form of A. citrina which differs only in being white throughout. Less strongly smelling than A. citrina, but still disagreeable to taste, inedible to be avoided easily confused with the deadly Amanitas. Distribution, Europe and possibly America . Comment Amanita citrina vat. lavendula Coker (as A. mappa) differs in its flush of lavender, in the universal veil, and sometimes in the streaks on the cap and is probably a distinct species in its own right. (North America).
Poisonous/Suspect
Amanita ceciliae (Berk. & Br.) Bas sensu lato syns. A. inaurata (Gillet) Fayod, A. strangulata of many authors. ?ri?s selyemgomba. Cap 5-12cm across, convex to flat with an upturned, deeply lined margin and a low umbo; brownish black to brownish gray, darker at the disc, paler toward the margin; smooth, slightly sticky when moist, with loose, charcoal-gray patches of volval remnants dotted around the cap. Gills free, close; white. Stem 50-160 x 7-15mm, hollow or lightly stuffed, tapering slightly toward the top; dingy white with flattened grayish hairs; no ring; no basal bulb, but loose, cottony, brownish or charcoal-colored patches of volval remnants dotted around stem base and lower stem. Flesh thin, soft, white. Odor faint or none. Taste slight. Spores globose, nonamyloid, 10.2-11.7x 10.2-11.7?. Deposit white. Habitat singly or scattered on the ground in mixed coniferous and deciduous forests and also in open woods. Infrequent. Found widely distributed throughout North America. Season July-October (November-March in California). Not edible ? best avoided since it is possibly poisonous. Comment Formerly known as Amanita inaurata Secr.
Choice
Amanita caesarea (Scop. ex Fr.) Qu?l. Caesar?s Mushroom, Amanite des C?sars, Oronge, Kaiserling, Fungo reale, Ovolo buono, Keizeramaniet, Ou de Reig, Cs?sz?rgomba (-gal?ca). Cap 6?18cm across, ovoid or hemispherical becoming expanded convex, clear orange-red, fading or ageing more yellowish, smooth and slightly viscid, finely lined at the margin. Stem 50?120 x 15?25mm, yellow with a large yellow pendulous ring which is often striate, the basal bulb is encased in a large, white bag-like volva. Flesh whitish, distinctly yellow below the cap cuticle. Taste pleasant, smell faint and delicate. Gills free and crowded, yellow. Spore print white to yellowish. Spores elliptical, nonamyloid, 10?14 x 6?11?. Habitat not yet found in Britain, this species favours open deciduous woodland, especially with oaks, in warm regions. Season summer to autumn. Edible ? excellent, this species has been a prized esculent since Roman times and due to its orange-red cap and yellow skin and gills it is not easily confused with others. The European and American form have differences In form and should be treated as different species.In October Spanish markets sell them in large quantities. Note the picture sent to me by Irene and John Palmer is in fact what was known as the American Caesar's Mushroom, but it has now been given specific rank, it is named Amanita jacksonii. [see on this site].
Edible
Volvariella speciosa (Fr. ex Fr.) Sing. syn. Volvaria speciosa (Fr. ex Fr.) Kummer. Grosser Scheidling Ragad?s bocskorosgomba Volvaire gluante Common Rosegill. Cap 5?10cm across, ovoid then convex to expanded, whitish with greyish-brown centre, viscid when moist. Stem 50?90 x 10?15mm, white, tapering upwards from the base which is enclosed in a whitish or somewhat greyish bag-like volva. Flesh white. Taste mild, smell earthy. Gills broad, crowded, white finally dark pink. Spore print pink. Spores print pink. Spores broadly elliptic, 13?18 x 8?10um. Habitat on well-manured groud, compost heaps and rotting straw. Season summer to autumn. Occasional. Edible but care should be taken in identification to avoid confusion with the deadly white-spored Amanitas; although the latter have rings, these may become detached. Distribution, America and Europe.
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